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132 found
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  1. added 2020-05-21
    Children of Choice: Freedom and the New Reproductive Technologies.Laura M. Purdy - 1996 - Ethics 106 (2):474-476.
  2. added 2020-05-18
    One Child: Do We Have a Right to More? [REVIEW]Erik Magnusson - 2016 - Contemporary Political Theory 15 (4):477-480.
  3. added 2020-05-03
    F Amerini, Tommaso d’Aquino. Origine e fine della vita umana. [REVIEW]Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2010 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 102 (4):716-718.
    Amerini declares that by this book he did not want to make any contribution to the contemporary bioethical debate, or in another way, he wanted to give a preliminary contribution of great importance. His opinion on the implications of Aquinas's embryological theory for today's bioethical debate is in fact that it "certainly has some bioethical consequences, but it does not give rise to one particular bioethical theory rather than another. It is, as said, a philosophical explanation, traced in terms of (...)
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  4. added 2020-04-22
    GEM Anscombe, Faith in a Hard Ground: Essays on Religion, Philosophy and Ethics. [REVIEW]Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2009 - Rivista di Filosofia Neo-Scolastica 101 (4):587-590.
    I discuss this collection of published and unpublished essays on religion and ethics by GEM Anscombe edited by Mary Geach and Luke Gormally. My main doubt concerns the criteria on which papers have been included in this volume. I argue that, while part of the material included typically belongs to a discussion between believers, some of these are good examples of applied ethics with no direct link with the Christian faith and addressed to a universal audience of reasonable partners of (...)
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  5. added 2020-03-27
    Transhumanism, in vitro fertilization and woman dignity.Carlos Alberto Rosas Jimenez - 2020 - In Diana Stephania Muñoz-Gomez (ed.), La persona: on-off Desafíos de la familia en la cuarta revolución industrial. Bogotá, Colombia: pp. 304-317.
    Transhumanism is a movement that seeks to transcend certain limits inherent in the human condition as we know it. However, does it justify leaving aside the dignity of current human beings to fulfill the desire to increase human potential and improve the human being as such to obtain other human beings? Does it justify passing over the dignity of women in order to obtain new human beings through fertilization? To answer these questions we have made a sweep over the ideas (...)
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  6. added 2020-03-17
    Better No Longer to Be.R. Mcgregor & E. Sullivan-Bissett - 2012 - South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):55-68.
    David Benatar argues that coming into existence is always a harm, and that – for all of us unfortunate enough to have come into existence – it would be better had we never come to be. We contend that if one accepts Benatar’s arguments for the asymmetry between the presence and absence of pleasure and pain, and the poor quality of life, one must also accept that suicide is preferable to continued existence, and that his view therefore implies both anti-natalism (...)
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  7. added 2020-02-24
    What Is the Question to Which Anti-Natalism Is the Answer?Nicholas Smyth - 2020 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 23 (1):1-17.
    The ethics of biological procreation has received a great deal of attention in recent years. Yet, as I show in this paper, much of what has come to be called procreative ethics is conducted in a strangely abstract, impersonal mode, one which stands little chance of speaking to the practical perspectives of any prospective parent. In short, the field appears to be flirting with a strange sort of practical irrelevance, wherein its verdicts are answers to questions that no-one is asking. (...)
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  8. added 2020-01-21
    Review of Julio Cabrera’s “Discomfort and Moral Impediment: The Human Situation, Radical Bioethics and Procreation”. [REVIEW]Paul Prescott - forthcoming - Bioethics.
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  9. added 2020-01-09
    The Challenge for Medical Ethicists: Weighing Pros and Cons of Advanced Reproductive Technologies to Screen Human Embryos During IVF.Inmaculada de Melo-Martin - 2019 - In E. Scott Sills & Gianpiero D. Palermo (eds.), Human Embryos and Preimplantation Genetic Technologies. San Diego, CA, USA: Elsevier. pp. 1-10.
    Embryo screening technologies offer important benefits to individuals who use them and society. These techniques can expand the reproductive options of many prospective parents and can contribute to reducing the burdens of disease and disability. Nonetheless, embryo screening techniques present individuals and societies with important ethical challenges. Here, I explore some of them. In particular, I discuss the costs for prospective parents of increased reproductive choices, as well as concerns about sanctioning problematic social norms, increasing social injustice, limiting the ways (...)
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  10. added 2020-01-05
    “Ethical Minefields” and the Voice of Common Sense: A Discussion with Julian Savulescu.Evangelos D. Protopapadakis - 2019 - Conatus - Journal of Philosophy 4 (1):125-133.
    Theoretical ethics includes both metaethics (the meaning of moral terms) and normative ethics (ethical theories and principles). Practical ethics involves making decisions about every day real ethical problems, like decisions about euthanasia, what we should eat, climate change, treatment of animals, and how we should live. It utilizes ethical theories, like utilitarianism and Kantianism, and principles, but more broadly a process of reflective equilibrium and consistency to decide how to act and be.
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  11. added 2019-10-04
    Are Lives Worth Creating?Thaddeus Metz - 2019 - Gendai-Shiso 47 (14):94-113.
    Translation of an article about Benatar's anti-natalism into Japanese by Sho Yamaguchi. Originally appeared in Philosophical Papers (2011).
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  12. added 2019-09-26
    The Problem of Spontaneous Abortion: Is the Pro-Life Position Morally Monstrous?Bruce P. Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - The New Bioethics 25 (2):103-120.
    A substantial proportion of human embryos spontaneously abort soon after conception, and ethicists have argued this is problematic for the pro-life view that a human embryo has the same moral status as an adult from conception. Firstly, if human embryos are our moral equals, this entails spontaneous abortion is one of humanity’s most important problems, and it is claimed this is absurd, and a reductio of the moral status claim. Secondly, it is claimed that pro-life advocates do not act as (...)
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  13. added 2019-06-21
    Wronging Future Children.K. Lindsey Chambers - 2019 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 6.
    The dominant framework for addressing procreative ethics has revolved around the notion of harm, largely due to Derek Parfit’s famous non-identity problem. Focusing exclusively on the question of harm treats what procreators owe their offspring as akin to what they would owe strangers (if they owe them anything at all). Procreators, however, usually expect (and are expected) to parent the persons they create, so we cannot understand what procreators owe their offspring without also appealing to their role as prospective parents. (...)
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  14. added 2019-06-21
    The Duty to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions and the Limits of Permissible Procreation.Trevor Hedberg - 2019 - Essays in Philosophy 20 (1):42-65.
    Many environmental philosophers have argued that there is an obligation for individuals to reduce their individual carbon footprints. However, few of them have addressed whether this obligation would entail a corresponding duty to limit one’s family size. In this paper, I examine several reasons that one might view procreative acts as an exception to a more general duty to reduce one’s individual greenhouse gas emissions. I conclude that none of these reasons are convincing. Thus, if there is an obligation to (...)
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  15. added 2019-06-21
    Toward a Small Family Ethic: How Overpopulation and Climate Change Are Affecting the Morality of Procreation by Travis Rieder.Trevor Hedberg - 2019 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 28 (4):8-13.
    Travis Rieder's Toward a Small Family Ethic confronts the effects of population growth and addresses what individual procreative obligations might follow from it. In this review, I summarize the main arguments that Rieder deploys to defend his position that those with large ecological footprints morally ought to follow a small family ethic. I express sympathy with some of his claims and praise the book's accessibility, but its short length inevitably means that some important issues are omitted or given only superficial (...)
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  16. added 2019-06-20
    Ethical Issues in Pre-Cancer Testing: The Parallel with Huntington's Disease.Donna L. Dickenson - 2002 - In Bill Fulford, Donna Dickenson & Thomas Murray Murray (eds.), Healthcare Ethics and Human Values: An Introductory Text with Readings and Case Studies. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 97-100.
    This chapter considers ethical issues involved in genetic testing and screening for susceptibility to various forms of cancer.
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  17. added 2019-06-18
    Selecting Barrenness - A Response From Donna Dickenson.Donna Dickenson - 2010 - Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 16 (1):25-28.
    A response to Kavita Shah's article Selecting Barrenness.
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  18. added 2019-06-06
    On the Cutting Edge: Ethical Responsiveness to Cesarean Rates.Sylvia Burrow - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (7):44-52.
    Cesarean delivery rates have been steadily increasing worldwide. In response, many countries have introduced target goals to reduce rates. But a focus on target goals fails to address practices embedded in standards of care that encourage, rather than discourage, cesarean sections. Obstetrical standards of care normalize use of technology, creating an imperative to use technology during labor and birth. A technological imperative is implicated in rising cesarean rates if physicians or patients fear refusing use of technology. Reproductive autonomy is at (...)
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  19. added 2019-06-05
    Procreation, Parenthood, and Educational Rights: Ethical and Philosophical Issues.Jaime Ahlberg - 2016 - Routledge.
    _Procreation, Parenthood, and Educational Rights_ explores important issues at the nexus of two burgeoning areas within moral and social philosophy: procreative ethics and parental rights. Surprisingly, there has been comparatively little scholarly engagement across these subdisciplinary boundaries, despite the fact that parental rights are paradigmatically ascribed to individuals responsible for procreating particular children. This collection thus aims to bring expert practitioners from these literatures into fruitful and innovative dialogue around questions at the intersection of procreation and parenthood. Among these questions (...)
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  20. added 2019-05-31
    Still Better Never to Have Been: A Reply to My Critics.David Benatar - 2013 - Journal of Ethics 17 (1-2):121-151.
    In Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence, I argued that coming into existence is always a harm and that procreation is wrong. In this paper, I respond to those of my critics to whom I have not previously responded. More specifically, I engage the objections of Tim Bayne, Ben Bradley, Campbell Brown, David DeGrazia, Elizabeth Harman, Chris Kaposy, Joseph Packer and Saul Smilansky.
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  21. added 2019-05-30
    Retter-Kinder, Instrumentalisierung Und Kants ZweckformelSaviour Siblings, Instrumentalization, and Kant’s Formula of Humanity.Tim Henning - 2014 - Ethik in der Medizin 26 (3):195-209.
    Definition of the problem The creation and selection of children as tissue donors is ethically controversial. Critics often appeal to Kant’s Formula of Humanity, i.e. the requirement that people be treated not merely as means but as ends in themselves. As many defenders of the procedure point out, these appeals usually do not explain the sense of the requirement and hence remain obscure. Arguments This article proposes an interpretation of Kant’s principle, and it proposes that two different instrumental stances be (...)
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  22. added 2019-05-20
    Adding Happy People.Theron Pummer - 2016 - In David Edmonds (ed.), Philosophers Take on the World. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press. pp. 236-239.
    I very briefly sketch two arguments for the claim that we have significant moral reason to ‘add happy people’ (that is, bring into existence people with lives that are well worth living), independently of any effects on those already existing.
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  23. added 2019-03-20
    Una popolazione sana, virtuosa e felice. Malthus dalla morale sessuale all’etica della procreazione.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2012 - In M. Loi & Roberto Mordacci (eds.), Etica e genetica. Storia, concetti e pratiche. Milano: Bruno Mondadori. pp. 3-22.
    I argue that Malthus’s Essay on Population is more a treatise in applied ethics than the first treatise in demography. I argue also that, as an ethical work, it is a highly innovative one. The substitution of procreation for sex as the focus makes for a drastic change in the agenda. what had been basically lacking in the discussion up to Malthus’s time was a consideration of human beings’ own responsibility in the decision of procreating. This makes for a remarkable (...)
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  24. added 2019-03-07
    Review of Françoise Baylis and Carolyn McLeod, Eds.: Family-Making: Contemporary Ethical Challenges: Oxford University Press, New York, 2014. [REVIEW]Inmaculada de Melo-Martín - 2017 - Monash Bioethics Review 34 (3-4):239-242.
  25. added 2019-02-11
    No Life is Good.David Benatar - 2011 - The Philosophers' Magazine 53 (53):62-66.
    The worst pains seem to be worse than the best pleasures are good. Anybody who doubts this should consider what choice they would make if they wereoffered the option of securing an hour of the most sublime pleasures possible in exchange for suffering an hour of the worst pain possible.
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  26. added 2019-02-11
    Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming Into Existence.David Benatar - 2009 - Human Studies 32 (1):101-108.
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  27. added 2019-02-11
    Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming Into Existence.David Benatar - 2006 - New York ;Oxford University Press.
    Better Never to Have Been argues for a number of related, highly provocative, views: (1) Coming into existence is always a serious harm. (2) It is always wrong to have children. (3) It is wrong not to abort fetuses at the earlier stages of gestation. (4) It would be better if, as a result of there being no new people, humanity became extinct. These views may sound unbelievable--but anyone who reads Benatar will be obliged to take them seriously.
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  28. added 2018-11-09
    Furthering the Case for Anti-Natalism: Seana Shiffrin and the Limits of Permissible Harm.Asheel Singh - 2012 - South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):104-116.
    Anti-natalism is the view that it is (almost) always wrong to bring people (and perhaps all sentient beings) into existence. This view is most famously defended by David Benatar (1997, 2006). There are, however, other routes to an anti-natal conclusion. In this respect, Seana Shiffrin’s paper, “Wrongful Life, Procreative Responsibility, and the Significance of Harm” (1999), has been rather neglected in the natal debate. Though she appears unwilling to conclude that procreation is always wrong, I believe that she in fact (...)
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  29. added 2018-11-05
    Ethical Sex: Sexual Choices and Their Nature and Meaning.Anthony McCarthy - 2016 - South Bend, USA: Fidelity Press.
    Ethical Sex: Sexual Choices and Their Nature and Meaning is a book-length exploration of the philosophy of sex. It engages with various approaches to the subject, covering natural law approaches and phenomenology as well as virtue ethics.
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  30. added 2018-10-30
    Debating Procreation: Is It Wrong to Reproduce. [REVIEW]Asha Lancaster-Thomas - 2017 - Metapsychology Online Reviews 21.
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  31. added 2018-07-30
    Debating Procreation: Is It Wrong to Reproduce?, by David Benatar and David Wasserman. [REVIEW]Nancy J. Matchett - 2016 - Teaching Philosophy 39 (2):243-247.
  32. added 2018-06-04
    Human Dignity and Reproductive Technology.Patrick Guinan, Francis Cardinal George, Jean Bethke Elshtain, John M. Haas, Steven Bozza, Daniel P. Toma, Patrick Lee, William E. May, Richard M. Doerflinger & Gerard V. Bradley - 2003 - Upa.
    The March 2002 symposium Human Dignity and Reproductive Technology brought together philosophers, theologians, scientists, lawyers, and scholars from across the United States. The essays of this book are the contributions of the symposium's participants.
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  33. added 2018-03-23
    Procreative Altruism: Beyond Individualism in Reproductive Selection.Thomas Douglas & Katrien Devolder - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (4):400-419.
    Existing debate on procreative selection focuses on the well-being of the future child. However, selection decisions can also have significant effects on the well-being of others. Moreover, these effects may run in opposing directions; some traits conducive to the well-being of the selected child may be harmful to others, whereas other traits that limit the child’s well-being may preserve or increase that of others. Prominent selection principles defended to date instruct parents to select a child, of the possible children they (...)
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  34. added 2017-10-23
    Genetic Affinity and the Right to ‘Three-Parent IVF’.G. Owen Schaefer & Markus Labude - 2017 - Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 34 (12):1577-1580.
    With the recent report of a live birth after use of Mitochondrial replacement therapy, sometimes called ‘Three-parent IVF’, the clinical application of the technique is fast becoming a reality. While the United Kingdom allows the procedure under regulatory scrutiny, it remains effectively outlawed in many other countries. We argue that such prohibitions may violate individuals’ procreative rights, grounded in individuals’ interest in genetic affinity. The interest in genetic affinity was recently endorsed by Singapore’s highest court, reflecting an emphasis on the (...)
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  35. added 2017-09-10
    The Medical Nonnecessity of In Vitro Fertilization.Carolyn McLeod - 2017 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 10 (1):78-102.
    Whether in vitro fertilization is medically necessary determines, in many jurisdictions, whether it ought to be funded through public health insurance. This is certainly the case in Canada, where the Canada Health Act requires that provinces pay for all medically necessary health care services. Debate raged recently in Ontario, my own province, over whether IVF should be deemed medically necessary and therefore covered under Ontario’s Health Insurance Plan. Advocates for public funding insisted that Ontario, along with most other provinces in (...)
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  36. added 2017-09-04
    Concerns About Eroding the Ethical Barrier to in Vitro Eugenics: Lessons From the hESC Debate.Jonathan Pugh - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (11):737-738.
    In his discussion of in vitrogametogenesis, Rob Sparrow claims that an ethical barrier to development of this technology is that many jurisdictions currently prohibit the practice of creating embryos solely for the purpose of research. However, he suggests that this ethical barrier will soon be eroded, in view of the fact that in vitro gametogenesis could serve as a powerful new technology to overcome infertility. In this commentary, I argue that Sparrow is being overly optimistic in his analysis here. I (...)
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  37. added 2017-08-30
    One Child: Do We Have a Right to Have More? By Sarah Conly. [REVIEW]Trevor Hedberg - 2017 - Philosophy East and West 67 (3):934-938.
    Sarah Conly's One Child is a substantive treatment of the extent to which procreative freedom is curtailed by rising global population and the environmental problems to which it contributes. This review provides an overview of the book's content and closes with a few critical remarks. The book is highly recommended for those interested in the intersection between environmental ethics and the ethics of procreation.
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  38. added 2017-08-08
    The Saving/Creating Distinction and the Axiology of the Cost–Benefit Approach to Neonatal Medicine.Tomasz Żuradzki - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (8):29-31.
    The aim of this commentary is to discuss the axiology of the cost–benefit approach assumed by Travis Rieder (2017) to analyze medical decision making in the case of extremely preterm infants.
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  39. added 2017-07-08
    Designing Babies: Morally Permissible Ways to Modify the Human Genome1.Nicholas Agar - 1995 - Bioethics 9 (1):1-15.
    My focus in this paper is the question of the moral acceptability of attempts to modify the human genome. Much of the debate in this area has revolved around the distinction between supposedly therapeutic modification on the one hand, and eugenic modification on the other. In the first part of the paper I reject some recent arguments against genetic engineering. In the second part I seek to distinguish between permissible and impermissible forms of intervention in such a way that does (...)
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  40. added 2017-07-08
    The Moral Significance of the Genetic Relation.Edmund Abegg - 1984 - Journal of Medical Humanities 5 (2):127-144.
    Our ordinary moral attitudes give a prominent place to the principle that each person ought specially to care for any child who is his or her genetic offspring. From this principle of genetic-parental responsibility and other plausible premises, we can derive the principle that each person has the right to control the genetic use of his or her own genes. But there are competing principles of parental responsibility that require consideration. Principles of nurture are among the important competitors. Also, the (...)
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  41. added 2017-02-23
    Procreative-Parenting, Love's Reasons and the Demands of Morality.Luara Ferracioli - 2018 - Philosophical Quarterly 68 (270):77-97.
    Many philosophers believe that the relationship between a parent and a child is objectively valuable, but few believe that there is any objective value in first creating a child in order to parent her. But if it is indeed true that all of the objective value of procreative-parenting comes from parenting, then it is hard to see how procreative-parenting can overcome two particularly pressing philosophical challenges. A first challenge is to show that it is morally permissible for prospective parents to (...)
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  42. added 2017-02-20
    A Portable Defense of the Procreation Asymmetry.Jake Earl - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):178-199.
    The Procreation Asymmetry holds that we have strong moral reasons not to create miserable people for their own sakes, but no moral reasons to create happy people for their own sakes. To defend this conjunction against an argument that it leads to inconsistency, I show how recognizing ‘creation’ as a temporally extended process allows us to revise the conjuncts in a way that preserves their intuitive force. This defense of the Procreation Asymmetry is preferable to others because it does not (...)
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  43. added 2017-02-12
    Asistirana humana reprodukcija.Jovan Babić - 2012 - In Ž. Radinković R. Drezgć (ed.), Horizont bioetike: moral u doba tehničke reprodukcije života. Belgrade, Serbia: Institut za filozofiju i društvenu teoriju. pp. 15-67.
    Nove tehnologije omogućavaju nove postupke i prakse koji moraju da se moralno i pravno opravdaju. IVF i surogat materinstvo, pored ostalih, spadaju u takve nove prakse. Stara pravila o tome šta je dopušteno a šta mora da se zabrani ponekad nisu dovoljna, a ni analogije obično nisu dovoljne. Da bi se došlo do prihvatljive linije razdvajanja izmedju opravdanog i neopravdanog postupanja treba izvršiti adekvatnu etičku analizu tih fenomena. IVF, tehnologija oplodnje „in vitro“, iako na prvi pogled izaziva sumnjičavost, ne sadrži (...)
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  44. added 2017-01-25
    Well-Being and the Non-Identity Problem.Molly Gardner - 2016 - In Guy Fletcher (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge. pp. 429-438.
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  45. added 2016-12-08
    Inter-Species Embryos and Human Clones: Issues of Free Movement and Gestation.Jacqueline A. Laing - 2008 - European Journal of Health Law 15: 421-431.
    The United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill, introduced into Parliament on the 8th of November 2007 contains a number of controversial proposals inter alia expressly permitting the creation of inter-species embryos for research and destruction and increasing the scope for human cloning also for destructive research. It is supposed that there ought not to be a blanket ban on the creation of human clones, hybrids, cybrids and chimeras because these embryos are valuable for research purposes. The prohibition on the (...)
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  46. added 2016-12-06
    Transformative Choice: Discussion and Replies.L. A. Paul - 2015 - Res Philosophica 92 (2):473-545.
    In “What you can’t expect when you’re expecting,” I argue that, if you don’t know what it’s like to be a parent, you cannot make this decision rationally—at least, not if your decision is based on what you think it would be like for you to become a parent. My argument hinges on the idea that becoming a parent is a transformative experience. This unique type of experience often transforms people in a deep and personal sense, and in the process, (...)
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  47. added 2016-12-01
    Will to Power.Joseph Tham - 2012 - The New Bioethics 18 (2):115-132.
    This paper analyzes the underlying tendencies and attitudes toward reproductive medicine borrowing the Nietzschean concepts of nihilism: “death of God” with secularization; “will to power” with reproductive liberty and technological power; and the race of “supermen” with transhumanism. Medical science has advanced in leaps and bounds. In some way, technical innovations have given us unprecedented power to manipulate the way we reproduce. The indiscriminant use of medical technology is backed by a warped notion of human freedom. With secularization in the (...)
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  48. added 2016-11-18
    Wrongful Life, Wrongful Disability, and the Argument Against Cloning.David K. Chan - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Research 32 (Supplement):257-272.
    Philosophical problems with the concept of wronging someone in bringing the person into existence, especially the non-identity problem, have been much discussed in connection with forms of assisted reproduction that carry risks of harms either greater than or not otherwise present in natural reproduction. In this essay, I discuss the meaning of claims of wrongful life, distinguishing them from claims of wrongful disability. Attempts to conceptualize wrongful disability in terms of either the harmed existence of the offspring, or the possibility (...)
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  49. added 2016-08-17
    Unraveling the Asymmetry in Procreative Ethics.Trevor Hedberg - 2016 - APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Medicine 15 (2):18-21.
    The Asymmetry in procreative ethics consists of two claims. The first is that it is morally wrong to bring into existence a child who will have an abjectly miserable life; the second is that it is permissible not to bring into existence a child who will enjoy a very happy life. In this paper, I distinguish between two variations of the Asymmetry. The first is the Abstract Asymmetry, the idealized variation of the Asymmetry that many philosophers have been trying to (...)
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  50. added 2016-08-10
    The Normative Importance of Pregnancy Challenges Surrogacy Contracts.Anca Gheaus - 2016 - Analize. Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies 6 (20):20-31.
    Birth mothers usually have a moral right to parent their newborns in virtue of a mutual attachment formed, during gestation, between the gestational mother and the fetus. The attachment is formed, in part, thanks to the burdens of pregnancy, and it serves the interest of the newborn; the gestational mother, too, has a powerful interest in the protection of this attachment. Given its justification, the right to parent one's gestated baby cannot be transferred at will to other people who would (...)
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