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  1. added 2020-04-16
    Реформа интернета.Andrej Poleev - 2020 - Enzymes 18.
    Частным аспектом предлагаемой реформы интернета является метаномические правила референцирования и адресации виртуальных объектов с целью приближения их к естественным языкам, и создания их логической системы. Однако реформа интернета и преобразование его в средство общения и служения обществу требует также других мер. К этим мерам относится передача определённых имён в неотчуждаемое владение, чтобы их собственники безусловно и беспрепятственно могли осуществлять их право публикации, т.е. публичного высказывания и выражения их мыслей, что также важно для документографии. Другой мерой должно стать упразднение всей сложившейся (...)
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  2. added 2020-03-15
    A Puzzle concerning Compositionality in Machines.Ryan M. Nefdt - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (1):47-75.
    This paper attempts to describe and address a specific puzzle related to compositionality in artificial networks such as Deep Neural Networks and machine learning in general. The puzzle identified here touches on a larger debate in Artificial Intelligence related to epistemic opacity but specifically focuses on computational applications of human level linguistic abilities or properties and a special difficulty with relation to these. Thus, the resulting issue is both general and unique. A partial solution is suggested.
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  3. added 2020-03-15
    Recursion: A Computational Investigation Into the Representation and Processing of Language. [REVIEW]Ryan M. Nefdt - 2019 - Philosophical Quarterly 69 (274):206-209.
    Recursion: A Computational Investigation into the Representation and Processing of Language. By Lobina David.
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  4. added 2020-03-06
    Universal Metadata Standard.Andrej Poleev - 2011 - Scientific and Technical Information Processing 38 (2):119-122.
    Consciousness is based on the association of notions or a neural network. Similarly, the creation of the next generation Internet (semantic web) is impossible without attributes that allow the semantic association of documents and their integration into an information context. To achieve these goals, the Universal Metadata Standard (UMS) may serve as a basis for documentography and is functionally required for interpretation of documents by automatic operating systems.
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  5. added 2020-03-06
    Универсальный стандарт метаданных.Andrej Poleev - 2011 - Enzymes 9.
    Основой сознания является ассоциативная связь понятий, согласованная работа элементов нейрональной сети. Аналогично этому, создание интернета нового поколения (semantic web) невозможно без атрибутов, позволяющих осуществлять семантическую связь документов и интеграцию их в информационный контекст. Для реализации этих целей предлагается ввести Универсальный Стандарт Метаданных (universal metadata standard, ums), который мог бы служить основой документографии (documentography), функционально необходимой для интерпретации документов в автоматических операционных системах.
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  6. added 2019-06-28
    Slurs.Adam M. Croom - 2011 - Language Sciences 33:343-358.
    Slurs possess interesting linguistic properties and so have recently attracted the attention of linguists and philosophers of language. For instance the racial slur "nigger" is explosively derogatory, enough so that just hearing it mentioned can leave one feeling as if they have been made complicit in a morally atrocious act.. Indeed, the very taboo nature of these words makes discussion of them typically prohibited or frowned upon. Although it is true that the utterance of slurs is illegitimate and derogatory in (...)
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  7. added 2019-06-14
    There is No General AI: Why Turing Machines Cannot Pass the Turing Test.Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2020 - arXiv.
    Since 1950, when Alan Turing proposed what has since come to be called the Turing test, the ability of a machine to pass this test has established itself as the primary hallmark of general AI. To pass the test, a machine would have to be able to engage in dialogue in such a way that a human interrogator could not distinguish its behaviour from that of a human being. AI researchers have attempted to build machines that could meet this requirement, (...)
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  8. added 2019-06-13
    Biomedical Ontology Alignment: An Approach Based on Representation Learning.Prodromos Kolyvakis, Alexandros Kalousis, Barry Smith & Dimitris Kiritsis - 2018 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 9 (21).
    While representation learning techniques have shown great promise in application to a number of different NLP tasks, they have had little impact on the problem of ontology matching. Unlike past work that has focused on feature engineering, we present a novel representation learning approach that is tailored to the ontology matching task. Our approach is based on embedding ontological terms in a high-dimensional Euclidean space. This embedding is derived on the basis of a novel phrase retrofitting strategy through which semantic (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-05
    Causality and the Ontology of Disease.Robert J. Rovetto & Riichiro Mizoguchi - 2015 - Applied Ontology 10 (2):79-105.
    The goal of this paper is two-fold: first, to emphasize causality in disease ontology and knowledge representation, presenting a general and cursory discussion of causality and causal chains; and second, to clarify and develop the River Flow Model of Diseases (RFM). The RFM is an ontological account of disease, representing the causal structure of pathology. It applies general knowledge of causality using the concept of causal chains. The river analogy of disease is explained, formal descriptions are offered, and the RFM (...)
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  10. added 2019-01-14
    Computational Models (of Narrative) for Literary Studies.Antonio Lieto - 2015 - Semicerchio, Rivista di Poesia Comparata 2 (LIII):38-44.
    In the last decades a growing body of literature in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Cognitive Science (CS) has approached the problem of narrative understanding by means of computational systems. Narrative, in fact, is an ubiquitous element in our everyday activity and the ability to generate and understand stories, and their structures, is a crucial cue of our intelligence. However, despite the fact that - from an historical standpoint - narrative (and narrative structures) have been an important topic of investigation in (...)
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  11. added 2019-01-11
    Making AI Meaningful Again.Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2019 - Synthese:arXiv:1901.02918v1.
    Artificial intelligence (AI) research enjoyed an initial period of enthusiasm in the 1970s and 80s. But this enthusiasm was tempered by a long interlude of frustration when genuinely useful AI applications failed to be forthcoming. Today, we are experiencing once again a period of enthusiasm, fired above all by the successes of the technology of deep neural networks or deep machine learning. In this paper we draw attention to what we take to be serious problems underlying current views of artificial (...)
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  12. added 2018-11-10
    Reference Ontologies for Biomedical Ontology Integration and Natural Language Processing.Jonathan Simon, James Fielding, Mariana Dos Santos & Barry Smith - 2004 - In Proceedings of the International Joint Meeting EuroMISE 2004. pp. 62-72.
    The central hypothesis of the collaboration between Language and Computing (L&C) and the Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science (IFOMIS) is that the methodology and conceptual rigor of a philosophically inspired formal ontology greatly benefits application ontologies.[1] To this end LinKBase®, L&C’s ontology, which is designed to integrate and reason across various external databases simultaneously, has been submitted to the conceptual demands of IFOMIS’s Basic Formal Ontology (BFO).[2] With this project we aim to move beyond the level of (...)
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  13. added 2018-09-23
    What an Entangled Web We Weave: An Information-Centric Approach to Time-Evolving Socio-Technical Systems.Markus Luczak-Roesch, Kieron O’Hara, Jesse David Dinneen & Ramine Tinati - 2018 - Minds and Machines 28 (4):709-733.
    A new layer of complexity, constituted of networks of information token recurrence, has been identified in socio-technical systems such as the Wikipedia online community and the Zooniverse citizen science platform. The identification of this complexity reveals that our current understanding of the actual structure of those systems, and consequently the structure of the entire World Wide Web, is incomplete, which raises novel questions for data science research but also from the perspective of social epistemology. Here we establish the principled foundations (...)
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  14. added 2018-08-27
    In Pursuit of the Functional Definition of a Mind: The Pivotal Role of a Discourse.Vitalii Shymko - 2018 - Psycholinguistics 24 (1):403-424.
    This article is devoted to describing results of conceptualization of the idea of mind at the stage of maturity. Delineated the acquisition by the energy system (mind) of stable morphological characteristics, which associated with such a pivotal formation as the discourse. A qualitative structural and ontological sign of the system transition to this stage is the transformation of the verbal morphology of the mind into a discursive one. The analysis of the poststructuralist understanding of discourse in the context of the (...)
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  15. added 2018-06-28
    Is Language Processing Different in Dialogue?Dale J. Barr & Boaz Keysar - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):190-191.
    Pickering & Garrod (P&G) claim that the automatic mechanisms that underlie language processing in dialogue are absent in monologue. We disagree with this claim, and argue that dialogue simply provides a different context in which the same basic processes operate.
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  16. added 2018-06-28
    Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: Partner-Specific Effects in a Psychology of Dialogue.Susan E. Brennan & Charles A. Metzing - 2004 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):192-193.
    Pickering & Garrod's (P&G's) call to study language processing in dialogue context is an appealing one. Their interactive alignment model is ambitious, aiming to explain the converging behavior of dialogue partners via both intra- and interpersonal priming. However, they ignore the flexible, partner-specific processing demonstrated by some recent dialogue studies. We discuss implications of these data.
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  17. added 2018-06-28
    Sentence Processing in the Face of Semantic Loss: A Case Study.Sarah D. Breedin & Eleanor M. Saffran - 1999 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 128 (4):547.
  18. added 2018-06-21
    Locality.Enoch Oladé Aboh, Maria Teresa Guasti & Ian Roberts (eds.) - 2014 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Locality is a key concept not only in linguistic theorizing, but in explaining pattern of acquisition and patterns of recovery in garden path sentences, as well. If syntax relates sound and meaning over an infinite domain, syntactic dependencies and operations must be restricted in such a way to apply over limited, finite domains in order to be detectable at all. The theory of what these finite domains are and how they relate to the fundamentally unbounded nature of syntax is the (...)
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  19. added 2018-01-09
    Personal Relevance in Story Reading: A Research Review.Anezka Kuzmicova & Katalin Balint - forthcoming - Poetics Today 39.
    Although personal relevance is key to sustaining an audience’s interest in any given narrative, it has received little systematic attention in scholarship to date. Across centuries and media, adaptations have been used extensively to bring temporally or geographically distant narratives “closer” to the recipient under the assumption that their impact will increase. In this review article, we review experimental and other empirical evidence on narrative processing in order to unravel which types of personal relevance are more likely to be impactful (...)
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  20. added 2017-12-11
    Towards New Information Resources for Public Health: From WordNet to MedicalWordNet.Christane Fellbaum, Udo Hahn & Barry Smith - 2006 - Journal of Biomedical Informatics 39 (3):321-332.
    In the last two decades, WORDNET has evolved as the most comprehensive computational lexicon of general English. In this article, we discuss its potential for supporting the creation of an entirely new kind of information resource for public health, viz. MEDICAL WORDNET. This resource is not to be conceived merely as a lexical extension of the original WORDNET to medical terminology; indeed, there is already a considerable degree of overlap between WORDNET and the vocabulary of medicine. Instead, we propose a (...)
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  21. added 2017-12-07
    New Discoveries Should Reopen the Discussion of Signs.Michael Joseph Winkler - 2015 - Alternative Theoretics 2015:12.
    Some recent scientific discoveries regarding the signs of language, which impact my own ongoing project as a visual/conceptual artist, also dramatically impact the Saussurian foundation of the prevalent cultural theories which underlie the curatorial priorities of many major art institutions.
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  22. added 2017-11-22
    Using Ontology in Query Answering Systems: Scenarios, Requirements and Challenges.Werner Ceusters, Barry Smith & Maarten Van Mol - 2003 - In R. Bernardi & M. Moortgat (eds.), Questions and Answers: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives, Proceedings of the 2nd CoLogNET-Elsnet Symposium, December 2003. Amsterdam: pp. 5-15.
    Equipped with the ultimate query answering system, computers would finally be in a position to address all our information needs in a natural way. In this paper, we describe how Language and Computing nv (L&C), a developer of ontology-based natural language understanding systems for the healthcare domain, is working towards the ultimate Question Answering (QA) System for healthcare workers. L&C’s company strategy in this area is to design in a step-by-step fashion the essential components of such a system, each component (...)
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  23. added 2017-11-08
    Medical WordNet: A New Methodology for the Construction and Validation of Information Resources for Consumer Health.Barry Smith & Christiane Fellbaum - 2004 - In Proceedings of Coling: The 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Geneva: pp. 371-382.
    A consumer health information system must be able to comprehend both expert and non-expert medical vocabulary and to map between the two. We describe an ongoing project to create a new lexical database called Medical WordNet (MWN), consisting of medically relevant terms used by and intelligible to non-expert subjects and supplemented by a corpus of natural-language sentences that is designed to provide medically validated contexts for MWN terms. The corpus derives primarily from online health information sources targeted to consumers, and (...)
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  24. added 2017-08-05
    Using Cross-Lingual Information to Cope with Underspecification in Formal Ontologies.Werner Ceusters, Ignace Desimpel, Barry Smith & Stefan Schulz - 2003 - Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 95:391-396.
    Description logics and other formal devices are frequently used as means for preventing or detecting mistakes in ontologies. Some of these devices are also capable of inferring the existence of inter-concept relationships that have not been explicitly entered into an ontology. A prerequisite, however, is that this information can be derived from those formal definitions of concepts and relationships which are included within the ontology. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm that is able to suggest relationships among existing (...)
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  25. added 2017-04-17
    Political Footprints: Political Discourse Analysis Using Pre-Trained Word Vectors.Christophe Bruchansky - manuscript
    How political opinions are spread on social media has been the subject of many academic researches recently, and rightly so. Social platforms give researchers a unique opportunity to understand how public discourses are perceived, owned and instrumentalized by the general public. This paper is instead focussing on the political discourses themselves, and how a specific machine learning technique - vector space models (VSMs) -, can be used to make systematic and more objective discourse analysis. Political footprints are vector-based representation of (...)
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  26. added 2017-03-14
    Formal Ontology for Natural Language Processing and the Integration of Biomedical Databases.Jonathan Simon, James M. Fielding, Mariana C. Dos Santos & Barry Smith - 2005 - International Journal of Medical Informatics 75 (3-4):224-231.
    The central hypothesis of the collaboration between Language and Computing (L&C) and the Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science (IFOMIS) is that the methodology and conceptual rigor of a philosophically inspired formal ontology greatly benefits application ontologies. To this end r®, L&C’s ontology, which is designed to integrate and reason across various external databases simultaneously, has been submitted to the conceptual demands of IFOMIS’s Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). With this project we aim to move beyond the level of (...)
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  27. added 2017-01-27
    Interdisciplinary Ontology, Vol. 3: Proceedings of the Third Interdisciplinary Ontology Meeting.Barry Smith, Riichiro Mizoguchi & Sumio Nakagawa - manuscript
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  28. added 2017-01-27
    The Relevance of Philosophical Ontology to Information and Computer Science.Barry Smith - 2014 - In Ruth Hagengruber & Uwe Riss (eds.), Philosophy, Computing and Information Science. Chatto & Pickering. pp. 75-83.
    The discipline of ontology has enjoyed a checkered history since 1606, with a significant expansion in recent years. We focus here on those developments in the recent history of philosophy which are most relevant to the understanding of the increased acceptance of ontology, and especially of realist ontology, as a valuable method also outside the discipline of philosophy.
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  29. added 2017-01-17
    CEUR Workshop Proceedings of The Joint Ontology Workshops, with the 9th International Conference of Formal Ontology for Information Systems (FOIS), Early Career Symposium.Adrien Barton, Stefano Borgo & Jean-Rémi Bourguet (eds.) - 2016 - CEUR Scientific Workshops.
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  30. added 2017-01-16
    Formal Representations of Orbits.Robert J. Rovetto - manuscript
  31. added 2017-01-16
    The Space Object Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 - 2016 1.
    This paper develops the ontology of space objects for theoretical and computational ontology applied to the space (astronautical/astronomical) domain. It follows “An ontological architecture for Orbital Debris Data” (Rovetto, 2015) and “Preliminaries of a Space Situational Awareness Ontology” (Rovetto, Kelso, 2016). Important considerations for developing a space object ontology, or more broadly, a space domain ontology are presented. The main category term ‘Space Object’ is analyzed from a philosophical perspective. The ontological commitments of legal definitions for artificial space objects are (...)
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  32. added 2016-12-02
    The Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology – Towards an International Information System for Space Data.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 Sept - In Proceedings of The Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies (AMOS) Conference.
    The orbital space environment is home to natural and artificial satellites, debris, and space weather phenomena. As the population of orbital objects grows so do the potential hazards to astronauts, space infrastructure and spaceflight capability. Orbital debris, in particular, is a universal concern. This and other hazards can be minimized by improving global space situational awareness (SSA). By sharing more data and increasing observational coverage of the space environment we stand to achieve that goal, thereby making spaceflight safer and expanding (...)
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  33. added 2016-12-02
    Preliminaries of a Space Situational Awareness Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto & T. S. Kelso - 2016 Feb - In Renato Zanetti, Ryan P. Russell, Martin T. Oximek & Angela L. Bowes (eds.), Proceedings of AAS/AIAA Spaceflight Mechanics Meeting, in Advances in the Astronautical Sciences. Univelt Inc.. pp. 4177-4192.
    Space situational awareness (SSA) is vital for international safety and security, and for the future of space travel. The sharing of SSA data and information should improve the state of global SSA for planetary defense and spaceflight safety. I take steps toward a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Ontology, and outline some central objectives, requirements and desiderata in the ontology development process for this domain. The purpose of this ontological system is to explore the potential for the ontology research topic to (...)
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  34. added 2016-12-02
    Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain Ontology.Robert J. Rovetto - 2016 - In Stefano Borgo, Jean-Rémi Bourguet & Adrien Barton (eds.), CEUR workshop proceedings of The Joint Ontology Workshops, with the 9th International Conference of Formal Ontology for Information Systems (FOIS), Early Career Symposium. CEUR Scientific Workshops.
    A short summary paper of my Orbital Space Domain Ontology project (purl.org/space-ontology), originally conceived in 2011. Since then I've sought (without success) opportunities to realize it (either as a PhD or other degree thesis; or in an employment position) toward my original passion of entering the space sector and gaining further space education. Since then persons in the relevant space disciplines have seen the potential in it, and unfortunately some have taken advantage of my ideas yet excluded me from work. (...)
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  35. added 2016-12-02
    Ontology Archtecures for the Orbital Space Environment and Space Situational Awareness Domain.Robert John Rovetto - 2016 - In Stefano Borgo, Loris Bozzato, Chiara Del Vescovo & Martin Homola (eds.), Proceedings of the Joint Ontology Workshops with the 9th International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems. CEUR.
    This paper applies some ontology architectures to the space domain, specifically the orbital and near-earth space environment and the space situational awareness domain. I briefly summarize local, single and hybrid ontology architectures, and offer potential space ontology architectures for each by showing how actual space data sources and space organizations would be involved.
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  36. added 2016-12-02
    An Ontological Architecture for Orbital Debris Data.Robert J. Rovetto - 2015 - Earth Science Informatics 9 (1):67-82.
    The orbital debris problem presents an opportunity for inter-agency and international cooperation toward the mutually beneficial goals of debris prevention, mitigation, remediation, and improved space situational awareness (SSA). Achieving these goals requires sharing orbital debris and other SSA data. Toward this, I present an ontological architecture for the orbital debris and broader SSA domain, taking steps in the creation of an orbital debris ontology (ODO). The purpose of this ontological system is to (I) represent general orbital debris and SSA domain (...)
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