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Summary Natural law theories are mostly based on the philosophical teachings of Thomas Aquinas which is a Christian philosopher. His interpretation distinguishes divine law and natural law which is the law that human beings can understand to the opposite of divine law which is understood by God only. Natural law teaches us how the behavior of humans is dictated by nature but with a closely connection to God. For example, procreation is the goal of every successful marriage to be established and should not exist otherwise. Suicide is considered as unnatural and against human nature which cannot agree with it. Natural law is the behavior of mankind in its pure and righteous way.
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  1. Including Transgender Identities in Natural Law.Kurt Blankschaen - forthcoming - Ergo.
    There is an emerging consensus within Natural Law that explains transgender identity as an “embodied misunderstanding.” The basic line of argument is that our sexual identity as male or female refers to our possible reproductive roles of begetting or conceiving. Since these two possibilities are determined early on by the presence or absence of a Y chromosome, our sexual identity cannot be changed or reassigned. I develop an argument from analogy, comparing gender and language, to show that this consensus is (...)
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  2. Public Reason Naturalism.James Dominic Rooney - forthcoming - American Journal of Jurisprudence.
    I will argue that the natural law theory of morality, when extended into a political theory of justice, results in a picture of political justice much like that of public reason liberalism. However, natural law political theory, I argue, need not entail a natural law theory of morality. While facts about what societies ought to do supervene upon facts about what is good for human beings, there are distinct goods involved and distinct reasons for action. Rather, considerations taken from the (...)
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  3. Conscientious Utilitarianism; or, the Utilitarians Who Walk Away from Omelas.Andrew Dennis Bassford - 2022 - Journal of Science Fiction and Philosophy 5.
    This essay offers a revisionist defense of classical utilitarianism from an infamous objection to it, which is derived from American science fiction writer, Ursula Le Guin’s, short story, “The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas.” To that effect, the reply takes inspiration from Le Guin and John Stuart Mill in appealing to the natural law theoretical concept of conscience. I argue that a conscientious utilitarian ethic can escape Le Guin’s objection more satisfactorily than other popular utilitarian ethics. Along the way, (...)
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  4. Le inclinazioni naturali: un confine metafisico nel dibattito contemporaneo sulla legge naturale.Giulia Codognato - 2022 - In I. Candelieri & C. Daffonchio (eds.), Confini e sconfinamenti. Trieste: EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste. pp. 355-368.
    This paper aims to consider the boundary role of metaphysics in the realm of ethics within the contemporary debate of analytic Thomism in regard to the naturalistic fallacy. Two interpretations of Aquinas's natural law and natural inclinations will be critically analysed. On the one hand, John Finnis's interpretation – New Natural Law Theory –, which excludes the metaphysical realm in the consideration of Aquinas's natural law; on the other hand, Ralph McInerny and Anthony Lisska's approach, which acknowledges the unavoidability of (...)
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  5. Three concepts of natural law.Miroslav Vacura - 2022 - Filozofija I Društvo 33 (3):601-620.
    The concept of natural law is fundamental to political philosophy, ethics, and legal thought. The present article shows that as early as the ancient Greek philosophical tradition, three main ideas of natural law existed, which run in parallel through the philosophical works of many authors in the course of history. The first two approaches are based on the understanding that although equipped with reason, humans are nevertheless still essentially animals subject to biological instincts. The first approach defines natural law as (...)
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  6. The Strict Definition of Intended Effects and Two Questions for Critics.Lawrence Masek - 2021 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 95 (4):651-678.
    I present the strict definition of intended effects and pose two questions for its critics: Apart from rationalizing moral intuitions about the craniotomy and other controversial cases, why classify an effect as intended if it does not explain the action? What definition of intended effects can people use to guide their actions? These questions show that broad definitions of intended effects have no basis in action theory and are too vague to guide people’s actions. I suggest that broad definitions seem (...)
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  7. Natural law as early social thought: The recovery of natural law for sociology.Angela Leahy - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (2):72-90.
    Natural law contains much social thought that predates sociology and related disciplines, and can be seen as part of the prehistory of the human sciences. Key concerns of natural law thinkers include the achievement of social life and society, and the individual’s place therein. However, there is an enduring tendency within sociology to dismiss the ahistoricism and universalism of natural law, and therefore to reject natural law thought in its entirety. This article proposes an approach that rescues the sociological relevance (...)
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  8. Kant and Aquinas on Suicide and Assisted Reproductive Technologies.Claudia Meadows - 2020 - Dissertation, University of Houston-Downtown
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  9. The Place of the Natural Law.Tamás Paár - 2020 - Prometeica - Revista De Filosofía Y Ciencias 20:68-79.
    The purpose of this paper is to scrutinize the precepts of the natural law and, in particular, their metaphysical and epistemic relationship to human nature, rationality, theology, tradition and practices. My account of the natural law is based on Alasdair MacIntyre’s approach, however, since his claims regarding the dependence or independence of the natural law from the notions listed above might often seem ambiguous, I engage in a reconstruction both of how it is most plausible to read MacIntyre’s claims concerning (...)
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  10. Technological Innovation and Natural Law.Philip Woodward - 2020 - Philosophia Reformata 85 (2):138-156.
    I discuss three tiers of technological innovation: mild innovation, or the acceleration by technology of a human activity aimed at a good; moderate innovation, or the obviation by technology of an activity aimed at a good; and radical innovation, or the altering by technology of the human condition so as to change what counts as a good. I argue that it is impossible to morally assess proposed innovations within any of these three tiers unless we rehabilitate a natural-law ethical framework. (...)
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  11. Rethinking Same‐Sex Sex in Natural Law Theory.Kurt Blankschaen - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (3):428-445.
    Many prominent proponents of Old and New Natural Law morally condemn sexual acts between people of the same sex because those acts are incapable of reproduction; they each offer a distinct set of supporting reasons. While some New Natural Law philosophers have begun to distance themselves from this moral condemnation, there are not many similarly ameliorative efforts within Old Natural Law. I argue for the bold conclusion that Old Natural Law philosophers can accept the basic premises of Old Natural Law (...)
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  12. Inclinazioni naturali, razionalità e normatività.Giulia Codognato - 2019 - Esercizi Filosofici 14 (1):13-31.
    This paper aims to consider the relevance of Thomas Aquinas's doctrine of natural inclinations within the contemporary debate on practical reason. Through a critical analysis of Candace Vogler's Reasonably Vicious (2002) and on the basis of Dario Composta’s analysis of Thomas Aquinas' theory of action (1971), it is intended to show that natural inclinations are metaphysical realities, which define the motivational framework of individual agents, offering them normative constraints regarding what is to be considered good and desirable as an end. (...)
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  13. On the Law of Nature: A Demonstrative Method.Niels Hemmingsen - 2018 - Grand Rapids: CLP Academic. Edited by E. J. Hutchinson & Korey Maas.
    On the Law of Nature is at once a traditional and eclectic treatise of moral philosophy by one of the sixteenth century's most widely read Protestant authors. Niels Hemmingsen, the "Teacher of Denmark," was a Danish humanist and theologian who studied with the "Teacher of Germany," Philip Melanchthon, at the University of Wittenberg. Hemmingsen went on to serve as a professor at the University of Copenhagen--first of Greek, then of dialectic, and finally of theology. He wrote voluminously on method, theology, (...)
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  14. 7. The aftermath: The Cartesian heritage in ’s Gravesande’s foundation of Newtonian physics.Andrea Strazzoni - 2018 - In Dutch Cartesianism and the Birth of Philosophy of Science: From Regius to ‘s Gravesande. Berlin-Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 171-197.
    The seventh chapter focuses on the aftermath of the decline of Cartesianism as a leading force in the Dutch academic context. After De Volder and De Raey, indeed, only Ruardus Andala in Franeker carried on the teaching of Cartesian physics (which he taught by commenting upon Descartes’s Principia) and metaphysics, mainly for the sake of contrasting Spinozism and other forms of radical Cartesianism. Thus, Descartes’s philosophy came a dead end on the eve of the eighteenth century. Yet, Leiden Cartesianism and (...)
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  15. Natural Law: A Brief Introduction and Biblical Defense.David Haines & Andrew Fulford - 2017 - Landrum, SC: Davenant Press.
    As Christians, we affirm that Scripture is our supreme guide to truth and righteousness. Some wish to go further and assert that it is our only guide. But how then can we account for the remarkable insight and moral integrity that many unbelievers seem to display? Indeed, how to account for the myriad ways in which believers themselves navigate the world based on knowledge and intuition not always derived from Scripture? Enter the doctrine of natural law. Frequently misrepresented as an (...)
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  16. The Theological Origins of Liberalism.İsmail Kurun - 2016 - Lanham, USA: Lexington Books.
    This book offers a critical survey of the origins of liberalism. It challenges the widely-held belief among philosophers that liberalism developed in opposition to religion. Beginning with the Protestant Reformation, it illustrates how Christian thinkers reinterpreted Christianity and used a set of biblical presuppositions from their reinterpretations to develop the first liberal ideas, starting a process that culminates in the birth of the first systematic liberal political philosophy in the writings of a Christian philosopher, John Locke. -/- Foreworded by Michael (...)
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  17. Health Care, Natural Law, and the American Commons: Locke and Libertarianism.Darrin Snyder Belousek - 2013 - Journal of Markets and Morality 16 (2):463-486.
    This article makes a moral argument for universal access to health care and for the legitimate function of government to guarantee that access. Constructed as a reply to the libertarian argument against universal access, this article utilizes the moral and political theory of John Locke, favored by libertarianism, to develop a Lockean argument for a view contrary to the libertarian philosophy. In particular, the argument here shows how libertarianism’s neglect of a crucial element of the natural-law tradition, to which Locke (...)
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  18. Adam Smith, theology, and natural law ethics.John Haldane - 2011 - In Paul Oslington (ed.), Adam Smith as theologian. New York: Routledge.
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  19. Review of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: A Natural Law Ethics Approach. [REVIEW]Craig Paterson - 2010 - Ethics and Medicine 26 (1):23-4.
    As medical technology advances and severely injured or ill people can be kept alive and functioning long beyond what was previously medically possible, the debate surrounding the ethics of end-of-life care and quality-of-life issues has grown more urgent. In this lucid and vigorous book, Craig Paterson discusses assisted suicide and euthanasia from a fully fledged but non-dogmatic secular natural law perspective. He rehabilitates and revitalises the natural law approach to moral reasoning by developing a pluralistic account of just why we (...)
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  20. Paterson, Craig: Assisted suicide and euthanasia: A natural law ethics approach. [REVIEW]Susanna Maria Taraschi - 2010 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (3):245-247.
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  21. Craig Paterson - Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: A Natural Law Ethics Approach. [REVIEW]Glenys Williams - 2009 - King's Law Journal 20 (3):553-8.
    Extended review of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: A Natural Law Ethics Approach by Craig Paterson. Ashgate, 2008.
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  22. Emerson on Creativity in Thought and Action.H. G. Callaway - 2006 - In R.W. Emerson, The Conduct of Life: A Philosophical Reading.
    The opening essay of Emerson’s 1860 book, The Conduct of Life, posed, in that fateful year of threatening Civil War and disunion, the philosophical problem of human freedom and fate. The essay “Fate” is followed in the present book by a series of essays on related themes, including: “Power,” “Wealth,” “Culture,” “Worship,” “Beauty” and “Illusions.” The central question of the volume is, “How shall I live?” Appreciating both our freedom and its limits, we understand the vitality of power to acquire (...)
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  23. Virtues, divine commands, and the debt of creation: towards a Kierkegaardian Christian ethic.R. Zachary Manis - 2006 - Dissertation, Baylor University
    Though Kierkegaard's ethic in "Works of Love" frequently has been a target of harsh — and often uncharitable — criticism, a number of recent treatments have sought to defend both its viability and its relevance to the contemporary discussion. Increasingly, the literature is replete with interpretations that situate it within the traditions of virtue ethics and/or divine command theory. I evaluate these readings, focusing primarily on the issue of moral obligation in Kierkegaard's writings. I argue that both the virtue and (...)
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  24. Euthanasia, ethics, and public policy: an argument against legalisation.John Keown - 2002 - New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
    Whether the law should permit voluntary euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide is one of the most vital questions facing all modern societies. Internationally, the main obstacle to legalisation has proved to be the objection that, even if they were morally acceptable in certain 'hard cases', voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide could not be effectively controlled; society would slide down a 'slippery slope' to the killing of patients who did not make a free and informed request, or for whom palliative care would (...)
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  25. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.Christopher Kaczor - 2001 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 26 (1):61 – 74.
    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain ones moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with (...)
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  26. Essays on the Law of Nature: The Latin Text with a Translation, Introduction and Notes, together with Transcripts of Locke's Shorthand in His Journal for 1676 by John Locke; W. von Leyden. [REVIEW]P. Wood - 1991 - Isis 82:138-139.
  27. Aristotle, Feminism and Natural Law Theory.Peter Tumulty - 1981 - New Scholasticism 55 (4):450-464.
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  28. Zur Wirkungsgeschichte des Naturrechts in Deutschland: Friedrich Julius Stahl Julius Hermann v. Kirchmann Wilhelm Dilthey als Grotius-Interpreten.Günter Hoffmann-Loerzer - 1975 - Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 27 (4):305-329.
  29. Essays on the law of nature.John Locke - 1954 - Oxford,: Clarendon Press.