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  1. What is Scientific Understanding and How Can It Be Achieved?Henk de Regt & Christoph Baumberger - 2019 - In Kevin McKain & Kostas Kampourakis (eds.), What Is Scientific Knowledge? An Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology of Science. New York, NY, USA: pp. 66-81.
    Science has not only produced a vast amount of knowledge about a wide range of phenomena, it has also enhanced our understanding of these phenomena. Indeed, understanding can be regarded as one of the central aims of science. But what exactly is it to understand phenomena scientifically, and how can scientific understanding be achieved? What is the difference between scientific knowledge and scientific understanding? These questions are hotly debated in contemporary epistemology and philosophy of science. While philosophers have long regarded (...)
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  2. Review of the book: E.D. Bakulina, A.V. Yablokov. Magical bracelet. Moscow, Detskaya Literatura, 1971. [REVIEW]Andrej Poleev - 2019 - Enzymes 17.
    Рецензия на книгу: Э.Д. Бакулина, А.В. Яблоков. Волшебный браслет. Москва, Детская литература, 1971 г.
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  3. Policy Advice Policy Advice for Public Participation in British Columbia Forest Management.C. Tyler DesRoches - 2007 - Forestry Chronicle 5 (83):672-681.
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  4. A Code of Conduct for Peer Reviewers and Editors.Steven James Bartlett - 2019 - Willamette University Faculty Research Website.
    In the past few decades, peer review has come to dominate virtually all professionally respectable academic and scientific publications. However, despite its near-universal acceptance, no code of conduct has been developed to which peer reviewers and their editors are encouraged to adhere. This paper proposes such a code of conduct.
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  5. The Case Against the Conventional Publication of Academic and Scientific Books.Steven James Bartlett - 2019 - Willamette University Faculty Research Website.
    An essay that weighs the main factors that lead authors of academic and scientific books to consider conventional publication of their work, with realistic and practical recommendations for these authors so they may avoid the contractual “imprisonment” of their books after the period of initial active sales has passed.
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  6. Nine Colour Articles in Encyclopedia Britannica.PhD Tanya Kelley - 2019 - Encyclopedia Britannica.
    Nine colour articles in Encyclopedia Britannica.
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  7. The life cycle of social and economic systems.Sergii Sardak - 2016 - Marketing and Management of Innovations 1:157-169.
    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to identify the components of social and economic systems life cycle. To achieve this aim, the article describes the traits and characteristics of the system, determines the features of social and economic systems functioning and is applied a systematic approach in the study of their life cycle. The results of the analysis. It is determined that the development of social and economic systems has signs of cyclicity and is explained (...)
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  8. Substantivalism and Relationism as Bad Cartography: Why Spatial Ontology Needs a Better Map.Edward Slowik - 2018 - In S. Wuppuluri & F. A. Doria (eds.), The Map and the Territory: Exploring the Foundations of Science, Thought and Reality. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 185-198.
    While there are numerous difficulties with the standard spacetime ontological dichotomy, namely, substantivalism versus relationism, this investigation will focus on two specific issues as a means of examining and developing alternative ontological conceptions of space that go beyond the limitations imposed by the standard dichotomy. First, while Newton and Leibniz are often upheld as the progenitors of, respectively, substantivalism and relationism, their own work in the natural philosophy of space often contradicts the central tenets of that dichotomy. Second, while the (...)
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  9. Sentence-in-Noise Perception in Monolinguals and Multilinguals: The Effect of Contextual Meaning, and Linguistic and Cognitive Load.Charles Massingham - 2018 - Dissertation, Durham University
    This study proposes a framework by which grammatically and syntactically sound sentences are classified through the perceptual measurement in noise of multilinguals and monolinguals, using an objective measure called SPERI and an interpretivist measure called SPIn, with results evaluated using Shortlist models and the BLINCS model. Hereby filling a knowledge gap on the perception of sentences that combine in varying levels of contextual meaning, linguistic load and cognitive load, this study used sentence clustering methods to find limitations of the proposed (...)
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  10. Origin of Quantum Mechanical Results and Life: A Clue From Quantum Biology.Biswaranjan Dikshit - 2018 - Neuroquantology 16 (4):26-33.
    Although quantum mechanics can accurately predict the probability distribution of outcomes in an ensemble of identical systems, it cannot predict the result of an individual system. All the local and global hidden variable theories attempting to explain individual behavior have been proved invalid by experiments (violation of Bell’s inequality) and theory. As an alternative, Schrodinger and others have hypothesized existence of free will in every particle which causes randomness in individual results. However, these free will theories have failed to quantitatively (...)
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  11. Short Note on Unification of Field Equations and Probability.Mesut Kavak - manuscript
    Is math in harmony with existence? Is it possible to calculate any property of existence over math? Is exact proof of something possible without pre-acceptance of some physical properties? This work is realized to analysis these arguments somehow as simple as possible over short cuts, and it came up with some compatible results finally. It seems that both free space and moving bodies in this space are dependent on the same rule as there is no alternative, and the rule is (...)
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  12. Теоретичне підґрунтя радикального салафізму.Mykola Nesprava - 2017 - Українське Релігієзнавство 83 (5):148-157.
    In M.Nesprava’s article "Theoretical Foundations of Radical Salafism", the presence of a conceptual core in the radical Salafism doctrine is shown and the main formation stages of this core are analyzed. Also, the role of the ideas by such authors as Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al- Wahhab, Syed Abul A'la Maududi and Sayyid Qutb in the formation of the conceptual core is argued. The characteristic aspects of the interpretation by radical Salafists of such concepts as tawhid, takfir and (...)
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  13. Karl Marx’s Ecosocialism: Capital, Nature. And the Unfinished Critique of Political Economy, by Kohei Saito. [REVIEW]Kaan Kangal - 2019 - Science and Society 83:130-132.
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  14. 17 Beta-Estradiol Synthesis Modulates Cerebellar Dependent Motor Memory Formation in Adult Male Rats.Roberto Panichi Cristina V. Dieni, Jacqueline A. Sullivan, Mario Faralli, Samuele Contemori, Andrea Biscarini, Vito E. Pettorossi & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - 2018 - Neurobiology of Learning and Memory 155:276-286.
    Neurosteroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) is a steroid synthesized de novo in the nervous system that might influence neuronal activity and behavior. Nevertheless, the impact of E2 on the functioning of those neural systems in which it is slightly synthesized is less questioned. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation, may provide an ideal arena for investigating this issue. Indeed, E2 modulates cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synaptic plasticity that underlies encoding of VOR adaptation. Moreover, aromatase expression in the cerebellum of adult rodents is (...)
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  15. Acute Inhibition of Estradiol Synthesis Impacts Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Adaptation and Cerebellar Long-Term Potentiation in Male Rats.Jacqueline Anne Sullivan & Roberto Panichi Cristina V. Dieni, Aldo Ferraresi, Jacqueline A. Sullivan, Sivarosa Grassi, Vito E. Pettorossi - 2018 - Brain Structure and Function 223 (2):837-850.
    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) adaptation is an ideal model for investigating how the neurosteroid 17 beta-estradiol (E2) contributes to the modification of behavior by regulating synaptic activities. We hypothesized that E2 impacts VOR adaptation by affecting cerebellar synaptic plasticity at the parallel fiber–Purkinje cell (PF) synapse. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the acute effect of blocking E2 synthesis on gain increases and decreases in adaptation of the VOR in male rats using an oral dose (2.5 mg/kg) of the aromatase (...)
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  16. How Landmark Suitability Shapes Recognition Memory Signals for Objects in the Medial Temporal Lobes.S. Kohler C. Martin, J. Wright & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan - 2018 - NeuroImage 166:425-436.
    A role of perirhinal cortex (PrC) in recognition memory for objects has been well established. Contributions of parahippocampal cortex (PhC) to this function, while documented, remain less well understood. Here, we used fMRI to examine whether the organization of item-based recognition memory signals across these two structures is shaped by object category, independent of any difference in representing episodic context. Guided by research suggesting that PhC plays a critical role in processing landmarks, we focused on three categories of objects that (...)
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  17. Quantum Read-Out and Fast Initialization of Nuclear Spin Qubits with Electric Currents.Noah Stemeroff - 2011 - Physical Review Letters 19 (107).
    Nuclear spin qubits have the longest coherence times in the solid state, but their quantum readout and initialization is a great challenge. We present a theory for the interaction of an electric current with the nuclear spins of donor impurities in semiconductors. The theory yields a sensitivity criterion for quantum detection of nuclear spin states using electrically detected magnetic resonance, as well as an all-electrical method for fast nuclear spin qubit initialization.
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  18. Speaking of My Life: The Art of Living in the Cultural Revolution.Jacob Needleman (ed.) - 1979 - New York, USA: Harper & Row.
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  19. Современные проблемы физики. В поисках новых принципов (The Problems of Modern Physics. Searching For New Principles).Sergey G. Fedosin - 2007
    ISBN 978-5-86007-556-6. (in Russian). -/- In the book we can find the analysis of some closely related problems – of the origin and essence of life, the universal world process and the global evolution. Examination of fractal nature of carriers through the distribution of terrestrial and space objects on the steps of scale staircase, depending on the masses and sizes, shows an appropriate relationship with the masses and sizes of live organisms. One of the conclusions is the complementarity of living (...)
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  20. The Physical Theories and Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, Volume 2.Sergey G. Fedosin - 2015 - LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
    With the help of syncretiсs as a new philosophical logic, the philosophy of carriers, the theory of similarity and the theory of Infinite Hierarchical Nesting of Matter, the problems of modern physics are analyzed. We consider the classical and relativistic mechanics, the special and general theories of relativity, the theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields, of weak and strong interactions. The goal is axiomatization of these theories, building models of elementary particles and of their interactions with each other. The main (...)
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  21. Electromagnetic and Gravitational Pictures of the World.Sergey G. Fedosin - 2007 - Apeiron 14 (4):385-413.
    The review of the theory of electromagnetic field together with the special and general theories of relativity has been made. The similar theory of gravitation has been presented which has the property of Lorentz-invariancy in its own representation in which the information is transferred at the speed of propagation of the gravitational field. Generalization of the specified gravitation theory on noninertial reference systems has been made with the help of the mathematical apparatus of the general relativity. It allows to avoid (...)
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  22. Les « marques d'envie » : métaphysique et embryologie chez Descartes.Lynda Gaudemard - 2012 - Early Science and Medicine 17 (3):309-338.
    This paper explores the interaction between medicine and metaphysics in modern natural philosophy and especially in Descartes ' philosophy. I argue that Descartes ' hypothetical account of birthmarks in connection with his embryology provides an argumentative proof of the metaphysical necessity of a substantial union between mind and body, which however does not threaten his doctrine of the real distinction between these two substances. It would appear that his argument relies on a temporal conception of alethic modalities and provides a (...)
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  23. Modelling in Applied Physics: The Case of Polymers.Towfic Shomar - 2006 - Dirasat, Pure Science 33 (2):241-250.
    Until recently philosophy of physics has been overshadowed by the idea that the important philosophical issues that can be derived from physics are related only to fundamental theories, such as quantum mechanics and relativity. Applied fields of physics were deemed as unimportant. The argument for such a position lays in thinking that these applied fields of physics depend in their theoretical representations on fundamental theories and hence are reducible to these fundamental theories. It would be hard to defend such a (...)
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  24. Wie Epigenetik unser Weltbild ins Lot bringen kann.Paul Gottlob Layer - 2016 - BRIEFE Zur Orientierung Im Konflikt Mensch - Erde, Evangelische Akademie Sachsen-Anhalt E.V 121 (4):25-33.
    Seit der Aufklärung versucht der Mensch, Gott abzuschaffen. Dabei fällt der Zufälligkeit, und damit auch der Ziellosigkeit in der darwinistischen Sicht der Evolution besonderes Gewicht zu. Diese weithin akzeptierten Dogmen stehen diametral gegen jahrtausendealte Vorstellungen, die letztlich in allen Kulturen und Religionen hervorgebracht wurden, daß die Natur eine Schöpfung Gottes sei, in der der Mensch das höchste, Gott-ebenbildliche Wesen sei. Nach Erkenntnissen der klassischen Genetik schienen Gene an die Stelle von Gott getreten zu sein: sie haben absolute Gewalt und beherrschen (...)
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  25. Self-Locating Belief in Big Worlds: Cosmology’s Missing Link to Observation.Nick Bostrom - 2002 - Journal of Philosophy 99 (12):607-623.
    Current cosmological theories say that the world is so big that all possible observations are in fact made. But then, how can such theories be tested? What could count as negative evidence? To answer that, we need to consider observation selection effects.
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  26. Dim and Dimmer: An Exploration of the Production and Diffusion of Scientific Knowledge in Australia Between the 1770s and the 2010s. [REVIEW]Lynnette Hicks - 2016 - Dissertation, Macquarie University
    Despite growing public concerns around socio-scientific problems and the significance of these problems to everyday life, there is a dearth of sociological literature addressing the production and diffusion of the natural sciences in Australia. In particular, critical analyses of scientific knowledge production and diffusion relative to the actions of the state, the market and civil society are largely absent. This thesis sets out to mitigate this situation by contributing a critical historiography of scientific knowledge production and diffusion as it relates (...)
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  27. «DANGEROUS KNOWLEDGE» IN «THE RISK SOCIETY» (Age of Genetics and Biotec.Cheshko Valentin Glazko Valery I. (ed.) - 2007 - Publ.House "INGEK".
    At the heart of the book - two views (naturalist and humanist) on the dangers of and Prospects of "scientific and technological progress," that defining the face of modern civilization. Its leaders are now the information, genetic cal and biological technology.
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  28. Ecological Innovation: Biomimicry as a New Way of Thinking and Acting Ecologically.Vincent Blok & Bart Gremmen - 2016 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 29 (2):203-217.
    In this article, we critically reflect on the concept of biomimicry. On the basis of an analysis of the concept of biomimicry in the literature and its philosophical origin, we distinguish between a strong and a weaker concept of biomimicry. The strength of the strong concept of biomimicry is that nature is seen as a measure by which to judge the ethical rightness of our technological innovations, but its weakness is found in questionable presuppositions. These presuppositions are addressed by the (...)
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  29. Los conocimientos tradicionales y sus escenarios de articulación con el comercio y el ambiente.Iván Vargas-Chaves - 2014 - In Alejandra Sáenz, Andrés Gómez & Gloria Amparo Rodríguez (eds.), Conflictos entre Propiedad, Comercio y Ambiente. Universidad del Rosario. pp. 315-335.
    Traditional Knowledge as the axis of public policies, are aimed at comprehensive protection of ancestral practices of indigenous peoples. This knowledge has been linked to intense debates, usually unsolvable in the current intellectual property system. The reason is that traditional knowledge have not been addressed according to the needs of indigenous peoples. In fact, until today the only concrete measure in public policy is the Swakopmund Protocol, a successful case study. This is the so-called "milestone" of a triangulation between intellectual (...)
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  30. La facultad a prevención.Andrés Gómez, Gloria Amparo Rodríguez & Iván Vargas-Chaves - 2015 - In Gloria Amparo Rodríguez & Iván Vargas-Chaves (eds.), Perspectivas de responsabilidad por daños ambientales en Colombia. Universidad del Rosario. pp. 143-162.
    In this book chapter, we study the preventive rule, raised in Ley 1333 de 2009, and the way that environmental law has been building its own rules; escaping from the administrative law and creating their own dogmatic, necessary to achieve its independence as a legal autonomous area. We also see that is possible to see how the preventive rule was designed out of the general theory of administrative act, because it has characteristics that make it unique in the Colombian legal (...)
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  31. Ist die Philosophie eine Wissenschaft?Geert Keil - 1996 - In Simone Dietz, Heiner Hastedt, Geert Keil & Anke Thyen (eds.), Sich im Denken orientieren. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. pp. 32-51.
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  32. O sporcie i kulturze fizycznej, poezji i medycynie czyli o etosie ciała ludzkiego.Ireneusz Bittner & Adam Bryk - 2003 - Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.
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  33. Ethics, Science, Technology and Engineering: A Global Resource, 2nd Edition.J. Britt Holbrook (ed.) - 2014 - Macmillan Reference USA.
    Described by Catholic World (2006) as "a treasure trove for beginning literacy" in the disciplines of science, technology, and ethics, the 2005 edition of Encyclopedia Of Science, Technology, and Ethics (ESTE) is being revised to include new analytical and interpretive essays on the events, scholarship, people, and legal decisions that have marked the period since the first edition was researched and published. In addition, to help make ESTE more global and interdisciplinary in scope and reach, the second edition will engage (...)
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  34. Naturerkenntnis Und Natursein (Für Gernot Böhme).Gregor Schiemann, Michael Hauskeller & Christoph Rehmann-Sutter (eds.) - 1998 - Suhrkamp.
    Indem dieser Band sich auf das Verhältnis von Naturerkennen und Natursein konzentriert, thematisiert er einen wesentlichen Ausschnitt aus dem weiten Spektrum von Böhmes philosophischer Arbeit. Um die Naturthematik möglichst breit zu entfalten und für Querverbindungen offenzuhalten, ist der vorliegende Band in drei Abschnitte gegliedert. Im ersten Abschnitt stehen Charakter und Reichweite der wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnis von Natur im Mittelpunkt. Der zweite Teil des Bandes stellt alternative Perspektiven auf Natur vor. Im dritten Teil schließlich stehen der Mensch und sein Verhältnis zu sich (...)
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  35. Arker's The Elementary Nervous System. [REVIEW]Helen Huss Parkhurst - 1919 - Journal of Philosophy 16 (26):719.
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  36. Florence and Baghdad: Renaissance Art and Arab Science (Hans Belting). [REVIEW]Dominique Raynaud - 2012 - Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 103:570-572.
    A (critical) review of Hans Belting's essay.
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  37. Reptile Lighting: A Current Perspective.W. H. Gehrmann - 1997 - Vivarium 8:44-45.
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  38. Ecobiological Aspects of Mating Systems of Primates Including Man.A. S. Camperio Ciani & B. Chiarelli - 1993 - Global Bioethics 6 (1):61-74.
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  39. Hydrophobic Matching of Short Gramicidins with Phospholipids.Elizabeth Dunn - 2001 - Inquiry: The University of Arkansas Undergraduate Research Journal 2.
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  40. Introduction.Gregor Schiemann & M. Heidelberger - 2009 - In G. Schiemann & M. Heidelberger (eds.), The Significance of the Hypothetical in the Natural Sciences. de Gruyter.
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  41. Experimental Knowledge and the Theory of Producing It: Hermann von Helmholtz.Gregor Schiemann - 2008 - In U. Feest & G. Hon (eds.), Generating Experimental Knowledge. Max Planck Institute for the History of Science.
    Helmholtz's public reflection about the nature of the experiment and its role in the sciences is a historically important description, which also helps to analyze his own works. It is a part of his conception of science and nature, which can be seen as an ideal type of science and its goals. But its historical reach seems to be limited in an important respect. Helmholtz's understanding of experiments is based on the idea that their planning, realization and evaluation lies in (...)
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  42. Überschätzte Phänomenologie - unterschätzte Naturwissenschaft.Gregor Schiemann - 2004 - Erwägen, Wissen, Ethik 15:196-198.
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  43. Natur: Kultur Und Ihr Anderes.Gregor Schiemann - 2004 - In Jäger F. (ed.), Handbuch der Kulturwissenschaften. Eine interdisziplinäre Bestandsaufnahme. Metzler.
    Die Darstellung konzentriert sich auf den Naturbegriff in seinem Verhältnis zu Kultur, die folglich nur reduzierte Charakterisierung erfährt. Herausgearbeitet werden vor allem die Umfänge, Eigenschaften und Grenzen der auf Kultur bezogenen Naturbegriffe. Das Feld dieser Bedeutungen ist in einer Pluralität von sich teils überschneidenden, teils wechselseitig ergänzenden Naturbegriffen eingebettet. Weil erst vor diesem Hintergrund die Spezifität der Beziehung von Natur und Kultur sowie ihrer Natur - Kultur und ihr Anderes Bestimmungselemente deutlich wird, beginne ich mit einer Vorbemerkung zum Naturdiskurs (1). (...)
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  44. Geschichte und Natur zwischen Differenz und Konvergenz.Gregor Schiemann - 1997 - In W. Küttler & J. Rüsen (eds.), Geschichtsdiskurs IV: Krisenbewußtsein, Katastrophenerfahrungen und Innovationen 1880 - 1945. Fischer.
    Das Verhältnis von Geschichts- und Naturwissenschaft ist zwischen 1880 und 1945 - dem hier zu betrachtenden Zeitraum - durch einen Differenzierungsprozeß bestimmt, in dem sich die Geschichtswissenschaft gegenüber dem verstärkten Einfuß der naturwissenschaflichen Methode auf die Erfahrungswissenschaften abzugrenzen versucht und die Naturwissenschaft von der Historizität ihrer eigenen Erkennmisse zunehmend absieht. Diese allgemeine Tendenz setzt sich jedoch bei weitem nicht ungebrochen durch. Sie ist in eine komplexe Struktur von thematischen und interdisziplinären Beziehungen eingelassen, in der zahlreiche gegenläufige, kaum einheitlich zu charakterisierende (...)
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  45. Am Ende der Endgültigkeit. Friedrich Engels' Kritik des Geltungsanspruches der Naturwissenschaftlichen Erkenntnis.Gregor Schiemann - 1995 - System Und Struktur 3 (1):83-98.
    Soweit Engels' Position zum Geltungsanspruch der Naturwissenschaften seiner Zeit aus diesen Texten hervorgeht, kann man sie kaum als konsistent bezeichnen. Erkenntnisse, an deren Gewissheit in der Naturforschung der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts nicht ernsthaft gezweifelt wurde, werden von ihm teils umstandslos übernommen, teils aber auch einer geltungskrltischen Analyse unterzogen. In weitgehender Unahängigkeit von seinen weltanschaulichen Ambitionen kommt Engels über die Untersuchung der Struktur naturwissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisprozesse zu einer bisher erst wenig beachteten und seiner Zeit vorauseilenden Einsicht in die relativen Geltungsbedingungen (...)
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  46. Die Hypothetisierung des Mechanismus Bei Hermann von Helmholtz. Ein Beitrag Zum Wandel der Wissenschafts- Und Naturauffassung Im 19. Jahrhundert.Gregor Schiemann - 1994 - In Lorenz Krüger (ed.), Universalgenie Helmholtz. Rückblick nach 100 Jahren. Akademie Verlag.
    Die Entwicklung von HeImholtz' Mechanismus ist durch einen Wandel im Geltungsanspruch gekennzeichnet und läßt sich in einer noch sehr groben Übersicht in zwei Perioden einteilen. Auf die erste Periode bis etwa zum Ende der 60er Jahre werde ich im ersten Teil meines Beitrages eingehen. Hier rekonstruiere ich umrißhaft die empiristische Begründung, die Helmholtz für den Wahrheitsanspruch seiner Naturauffassung gegeben hat. Im zweiten Teil werde ich dann die wichtigsten Merkmale der im Verlauf der 70er Jahre hervortretenden Hypothetisierungstendenz charakterisieren. Abschliessend will ich (...)
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  47. Phänomenologie der Natur.Gregor Schiemann & Gernot Böhme (eds.) - 1997 - Suhrkamp.
    Die Natur ist als Thema in der Phänomenologie von Husserl bis zu Schmitz wenig bearbeitet worden. Der Grund ist teilweise in der respektvollen oder auch kritischen Distanz vieler Phänomenologen zur Naturwissenschaft zu suchen, teils darin, dass es auf dem Feld der Selbstgegebenheit - Leib, Gefühl, zwischenmenschliche Beziehungen - zunächst die eigentlichen Entdeckungen zu machen galt. Selbst die Leibphilosophie wurde nicht als ein Teil einer Phänomenologie der Natur entwickelt. Doch ist der Leib nicht die Natur, die wir selbst sind? Im vorliegenden (...)
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  48. Paleontology: A Philosophical Introduction. [REVIEW]Keynyn Brysse - 2012 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 26 (1):111 - 114.
    International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Volume 26, Issue 1, Page 111-114, March 2012.
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  49. Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection. [REVIEW]Massimo Pigliucci - 2009 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (8).
    Ever since the publication of Richard Dawkins' The Selfish Gene, a book for the lay reader that popularized the ideas of influential evolutionary biologists like William Hamilton and George Williams, there has been much discussion of so-called "universal Darwinism". Dawkins' dual aim was to reduce evolutionary phenomena to the level of the gene, while at the same time abstracting the Darwinian process of natural selection of "replicators" and making it into something that would apply beyond the domain of biology.
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  50. Uniqueness, Self Belonging and Intercourse in Nature.Marvin E. kirsh - 2010 - Lambert Academic Publishing.
    This manuscript has ensued from my past studies in biochemistry (PhD, CUNY 1986) and my current endeavors in graduate study in philosophy and anthropology. The current research project began during my period as a graduate student in biochemistry with a professor of classical genetics comment that DNA was unique in the physical world. The paradox presented to relate this notion to existing natural law lead me to evolve and communicate a view that the world itself is a special case of (...)
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