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Summary The Nature and Nurture debate is focused on the heritability of behavioural or psychological traits. Foreshadowed by Locke’s discussion on the mind as a tabula rasa and Hobbes’ view on human nature, the current discussion begins with Galton’s application of evolutionary theory to human behaviour in the form of socio-biology later maturing into the more contemporary evolutionary psychology. Developmental biology is directly relevant to the nature/nurture debate as an examination of the independent role ecology has in determining an organism’s behavioural responses, with specific focus on the role of environmental influences in effecting changes in psychological and neurobiology development.
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  1. The Nature of Nurturant Niches in Ontogeny.Jeffrey R. Alberts - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):295 – 303.
    The concept of ontogenetic niche is used here to interpret how species-typical behaviors develop through active, context-dependent processes. Ontogenetic niches typically include social stimuli, such as those arising from parents, siblings, and others that provide 'nurturing' in the form of resources, stimulation, and affordances for development. This approach is a useful alternative to wrestling with artificial dichotomies such as nature-nurture.
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  2. The Processual Form of Thinking. A New Perspective From Developmental Philosophy.Javier Y. Álvarez-Vázquez - unknown
    Many contemporary theories of human cognition focus on the biochemical mechanisms that lie beneath the mind’s operations, while neglecting the historical and developmental aspects of the human mind. This article argues (1) that a processual form of thinking has been developing since the Modern Era. Furthermore, it maintains (2) that this particular form of thinking is intrinsically connected with the historical phenomenon of the scientific revolution. The paper studies Günter Dux’s innovative historico-genetic approach to the development of thought in historical (...)
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  3. Innateness is Canalization: In Defense of a Developmental Account of Innateness.Andre Ariew - 1999 - In Philosophy of Science. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. pp. S19-S27.
    Lorenz proposed in his (1935) articulation of a theory of behavioral instincts that the objective of ethology is to distinguish behaviors that are “innate” from behaviors that are “learned” (or “acquired”). Lorenz’s motive was to open the investigation of certain “adaptive” behaviors to evolutionary theorizing. Accordingly, since innate behaviors are “genetic”, they are open to such investigation. By Lorenz’s light an innate/acquired or learned dichotomy rested on a familiar Darwinian distinction between genes and environments. Ever since Lorenz, ascriptions of innateness (...)
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  4. Physics - Politics - Skeptics, Critical Metaphors of Nature - Culture - Nurture.P. Arnopoulos - 1996 - Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 7.
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  5. Darwin's Causal Pluralism.Stephen T. Asma - 1996 - Biology and Philosophy 11 (1):1-20.
    Historians of Biology have divided nineteenth century naturalists into two basic camps, Functionalists and Structuralists. This division is supposed to demarcate the alternative causal presuppositions working beneath research programs. If one is functionally oriented, then organic form will be contingent upon the causal powers of the environment. If structurally oriented, one argues for nonfunctional mechanisms (e.g., internal laws of growth) to account for organic form.Traditionally, Darwin has been grouped with the functionalists because natural selection (an adaptational mechanism) plays the prominent (...)
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  6. Is the Concept of Nature Dispensable?Robin Attfield - 2007 - The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 5 (25):59-63.
    In response to the arguments of Bill McKibben and of Stephen Vogel that nature is at an end and that the very concept of nature should be discarded, I argue that, far from this being the case, the concept of nature is indispensable. A third sense of 'nature' besides the two distinguished by Vogel, that of the nature of an organism, is brought to attention and shown, through five arguments, to be indispensable for environmental philosophy and ethics, and for ethics (...)
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  7. Adaptation and Information in Ontogenesis and Phylogenesis. Increase of Complexity and Efficiency.Giovanni Felice Azzone - 1997 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (2):163-180.
    Adaptations during phylogenesis or ontogenesis can occur either by maintaning constant or by increasing the informational content of the organism. In the former case the increasing adaptations to external perturbation are achieved by increasing the rate of genome replication; the increased amount of DNA reflects an increase of total but not of law informational content. In the latter case the adaptations are achieved by either istructionist or evolutionary mechanism or a combination of both. Evolutionary adaptations occur during ontogenesis mainly in (...)
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  8. The Medical Symptom: Phylogeny and Ontogeny.Eugen Baer - 1982 - American Journal of Semiotics 1 (3):17-34.
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  9. The End of Development.Sergio Balari & Guillermo Lorenzo - 2015 - Biological Theory 10 (1):60-72.
    Recently, there has been a growing interest, both within theoretical biology and the philosophy of biology, in the possibility and desirability of a theory of development. Among the many issues raised within this debate, the questions of the spatial and temporal boundaries of development have received particular attention. In this article, noting that so far the discussion has mostly centered on the processes of morphogenesis and organogenesis, we argue that an important missing element in the equation, namely the development of (...)
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  10. Developmental Processes in Empathy.Kim A. Bard - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):25-26.
    In recent years, explanations of primate cognition highlighted clever arguments, rather than different ability. In the target article, definitions unify, explanations rely on basic nervous system functioning, theory is built on data that fit, and the emphasis is on evolutionary continuities. This commentary describes complexities inherent in the development of empathy that are not accounted for in Preston & de Waal's theory.
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  11. En Kropslig Kultur Historie - om omverdens relationen".Maria Brincker - 2012 - In E. O. Pedersen & A.-M. S. Christensen (eds.), Mennesket - En Introduktion Til Filosofisk Antropologi. Systime. pp. 197-216.
    This chapter deals with the way our psychology and actions a scaffolded by their environment but also the tensions that can appear between individual and environment, both at the level of biology and culture. The chapter is grounded in an analysis of the early 20th century theoretical biologist Jacob von Uexkull and his notion of "Umwelt" or "surround world". But also raises the question of whether organisms fit their environment as neatly as Uexkull and many later thinkers have proposed or (...)
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  12. Developmental Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Ecology and Evolution Meet Molecular Biology.Hilary Callahan, Massimo Pigliucci & Carl Schlichting - 1997 - Bioessays 19 (6):519-525.
    An exploration of the nexus between ecology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology, via the concept of phenotypic plasticity.
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  13. Human Longevity: Nature Vs. Nurture--Fact or Fiction.Bruce A. Carnes, S. Jay Olshansky, Leonid Gavrilov, Natalia Gavrilova & Douglas Grahn - 1998 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 42 (3):422-441.
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  14. Behavior Genetics and Postgenomics.Evan Charney - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):331-358.
    The science of genetics is undergoing a paradigm shift. Recent discoveries, including the activity of retrotransposons, the extent of copy number variations, somatic and chromosomal mosaicism, and the nature of the epigenome as a regulator of DNA expressivity, are challenging a series of dogmas concerning the nature of the genome and the relationship between genotype and phenotype. According to three widely held dogmas, DNA is the unchanging template of heredity, is identical in all the cells and tissues of the body, (...)
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  15. Nature and Nurture in Mental Development.T. Clouston - 1915 - The Eugenics Review 6 (4):323.
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  16. The Nature and Nurture of Morality.Philip Costanzo - 2011 - In Ruth Weissbourd Grant (ed.), In Search of Goodness. University of Chicago Press.
    This chapter, which deals with the psychological origins of goodness in childhood, and the developmental origins of human morality, argues that the socialization model and cognitive maturation model give short shrift to the role of emotions as one of the multiple natural prerequisites for nurturing morality. The primary models of moral development in the field of developmental psychology considered moral acquisition as a derived and “nurtured” consequence of inborn tendencies to either seek knowledge or gain social connection. Morality could not (...)
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  17. Nature and Nurture in Mental Hygiene.H. Crichton-Miller - 1942 - The Eugenics Review 33 (4):121.
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  18. The Developmental Roots of Consciousness and Emotional Experience.Thomas C. Dalton - 2000 - Consciousness and Emotion 1 (1):55-89.
    Charles Darwin is generally credited with having formulated the first systematic attempt to explain the evolutionary origins and function of the expression of emotions in animals and humans. His ingenious theory, however, was burdened with popular misconceptions about human phylogenetic heritage and bore the philosophical and theoretical deficiencies of the brain science of his era that his successors strove to overcome. In their attempts to rectify Darwin?s errors, William James, James Mark Baldwin and John Dewey each made important contributions to (...)
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  19. The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture.L. Daston - 2014 - Common Knowledge 20 (2):365-366.
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  20. Knowledge of Number and Knowledge of Language: Number as a Test Case for the Role of Language in Cognition.Helen De Cruz & Pierre Pica - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (4):437 – 441.
    The relationship between language and conceptual thought is an unresolved problem in both philosophy and psychology. It remains unclear whether linguistic structure plays a role in our cognitive processes. This special issue brings together cognitive scientists and philosophers to focus on the role of language in numerical cognition: because of their universality and variability across languages, number words can serve as a fruitful test case to investigate claims of linguistic relativism.
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  21. Quels Sont les Liens Entre Arithmétique Et Langage ? Une Étude En Amazonie.Stanislas Dehaene, Véronique Izard, Cathy Lemer & Pierre Pica - 2007 - In Jean Bricmont & Julie Franck (eds.), Cahier Chomsky. L'Herne.
  22. Response to Comment on "Log or Linear? Distinct Intuitions on the Number Scale in Western and Amazonian Indigene Cultures".Stanislas Dehaene, Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica & Elizabeth Spelke - 2009 - Science 323 (5910):38.
    The performance of the Mundurucu on the number-space task may exemplify a general competence for drawing analogies between space and other linear dimensions, but Mundurucu participants spontaneously chose number when other dimensions were available. Response placement may not reflect the subjective scale for numbers, but Cantlon et al.'s proposal of a linear scale with scalar variability requires additional hypotheses that are problematic.
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  23. Core Knowledge of Geometry in an Amazonian Indigene Group.Stanislas Dehaene, Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica & Elizabeth Spelke - 2006 - Science 311 (5759)::381-4.
    Does geometry constitues a core set of intuitions present in all humans, regarless of their language or schooling ? We used two non verbal tests to probe the conceptual primitives of geometry in the Munduruku, an isolated Amazonian indigene group. Our results provide evidence for geometrical intuitions in the absence of schooling, experience with graphic symbols or maps, or a rich language of geometrical terms.
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  24. Examining Knowledge of Geometry : Response to Wulf and Delson.Stanislas Dehaene, Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica & Elizabeth Spelke - 2006 - Science 312 (5778):1309-1310.
    La connaissances noyau de la géométrie euclidienne est liée au raisonnement déductif et non à la reconnaissance de motifs perceptuels.
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  25. Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences.Barker Desjardins & Pearce (eds.) - forthcoming - Springer.
  26. English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture. [REVIEW]R. G. A. Dolby - 1973 - British Journal for the History of Science 6 (3):315-315.
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  27. Grammar as a Developmental Phenomenon.Guy Dove - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):615-637.
    More and more researchers are examining grammar acquisition from theoretical perspectives that treat it as an emergent phenomenon. In this essay, I argue that a robustly developmental perspective provides a potential explanation for some of the well-known crosslinguistic features of early child language: the process of acquisition is shaped in part by the developmental constraints embodied in von Baer’s law of development. An established model of development, the Developmental Lock, captures and elucidates the probabilistic generalizations at the heart of von (...)
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  28. Ontogeny, Phylogeny, and Scientific Development.S. M. Downes - 1999 - In V. Harcastle (ed.), Where Biology Meets Psychology. pp. 273--285.
  29. Review of Studying Human Behavior. [REVIEW]Catherine Driscoll - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (4):676-680,.
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  30. Developmental Prosopagnosia: Cognitive, Neural, and Developmental Investigations.B. Duchaine - 2011 - In Andy Calder, Gillian Rhodes, Mark Johnson & Jim Haxby (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford University Press. pp. 821--838.
    This article reviews recent research findings investigating developmental prosopagnosia. Studies involving DP address the cognitive and neural basis of face processing. The relatively rich cognitive, neural, and developmental theories of face recognition provide a framework that should allow for rapid progress. Cognitive studies of DP provide support for the existence of face-specific processes, and dissociations between different types of face processing in DPs are consistent with leading models of face processing that propose separable mechanisms for various aspects of face processing. (...)
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  31. Causes of Variability: Disentangling Nature and Nurture.Arthur Fine - 1990 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 15 (1):94-113.
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  32. Dynamics and Indeterminism in Developmental and Social Processes.Alan Fogel, Maria C. D. P. Lyra & Jaan Valsiner (eds.) - 1997 - L. Erlbaum.
    One of the most profound insights of the dynamic systems perspective is that new structures resulting from the developmental process do not need to be planned in advance, nor is it necessary to have these structures represented in genetic or neurological templates prior to their emergence. Rather, new structures can emerge as components of the individual and the environment self-organize; that is, as they mutually constrain each other's actions, new patterns and structures may arise. This theoretical possibility brings into developmental (...)
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  33. A Methodological Contribution to the Nature-Nurture Dilemma in Tested Intelligence.G. L. Freeman - 1940 - Psychological Review 47 (3):267-270.
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  34. Animal Cognition Meets Evo-Devo.R. Allen Gardner - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):699-700.
    Sound comparative psychology and modern evolutionary and developmental biology (often called evo-devo) emphasize powerful effects of developmental conditions on the expression of genetic endowment. Both demand that evolutionary theorists recognize these effects. Instead, Tomasello et al. compares studies of normal human children with studies of chimpanzees reared and maintained in cognitively deprived conditions, while ignoring studies of chimpanzees in cognitively appropriate environments.
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  35. Good Work: Its Nature, its Nurture.Susan Verducci & Gardner & Howard - 2005 - In Felicia A. Huppert, Nick Baylis & Barry Keverne (eds.), The Science of Well-Being. Oxford University Press.
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  36. Nature, Nurture and Why the Pendulum Still Swings.Brian Garvey - 2005 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 35 (2):309-330.
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  37. Human Longevity: Nature Vs. Nurture-Fact or Fiction.Natalia Gavrilova & Grahn T. Douglas - 1999 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 42:3.
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  38. High Hume (Bio-power and Bio-policy in Society of Risk).Cheshko Valentin Glazko Valery I. (ed.) - 2009 - Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy.
    Human simultaneously is the acting person of a few autonomous and interdepending forms of evolutional process. Accordingly, it is possible to select three forms of adaptation and three constituents of evolutional strategy of survival of humanity – biological, sociocultural and technological adaptations. The actual and potential consequences of development of so-called High Hume technologies (technologies of the guided evolution)  most essential from major technological adaptations of humanity  are analyzed. The phenomenon of bio-power within the framework of global coevolutional (...)
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  39. Philosophy of Biology, Psychology, and Neuroscience-The Developmental Systems Perspective in the Philosophy of Biology-Development, Culture, and the Units of Inheritance.Peter Godfrey-Smith & James Griesemer - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3).
  40. The Nature-Nurture Debates: Bridging the Gap.Dale Goldhaber - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    How is it possible that in more than one hundred years, the nature-nurture debate has not come to a satisfactory resolution? The problem, Dale Goldhaber argues, lies not with the proposed answers, but with the question itself. In The Nature-Nurture Debate, Goldhaber reviews the four major perspectives on the issue - behavior genetics, environment, evolutionary psychology and developmental systems theory - and shows that the classic, reductionist strategies are incapable of resolving the issue because they each offer a false perspective (...)
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  41. How the Mind Grows: A Developmental Perspective on the Biology of Cognition.E. Griffiths Paul & Stotz Karola - 2000 - Synthese 122 (1-2):29-51.
    The 'developmental systems' perspective in biology is intended to replace the idea of a genetic program. This new perspective is strongly convergent with recent work in psychology on situated/embodied cognition and on the role of external 'scaffolding' in cognitive development. Cognitive processes, including those which can be explained in evolutionary terms, are not 'inherited' or produced in accordance with an inherited program. Instead, they are constructed in each generation through the interaction of a range of developmental resources. The attractors which (...)
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  42. The Distinction Between Innate and Acquired Characteristics.Paul Griffiths - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The idea that some characteristics of an organism are explained by the organism's intrinsic nature, whilst others reflect the influence of the environment is an ancient one. It has even been argued that this distinction is itself part of the evolved psychology of the human species. The distinction played an important role in the history of philosophy as the locus of the dispute between Rationalism and Empiricism discussed in another entry in this encyclopedia. This entry, however, focuses on twentieth-century accounts (...)
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  43. Evo-Devo Meets the Mind: Toward a Developmental Evolutionary Psychology.Paul Griffiths - manuscript
    _The emerging discipline of evolutionary developmental biology has opened up many new _ _lines of investigation into morphological evolution. Here I explore how two of the core _ _theoretical concepts in ‘evo-devo’ – modularity and homology – apply to evolutionary _ _psychology. I distinguish three sorts of module - developmental, functional and mental _ _modules and argue that mental modules need only be ‘virtual’ functional modules. _ _Evolutionary psychologists have argued that separate mental modules are solutions to _ _separate evolutionary (...)
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  44. Developmental Systems Theory.Paul Griffiths & Adam Hochman - 2015 - eLS:1-7.
    Developmental systems theory (DST) is a wholeheartedly epigenetic approach to development, inheritance and evolution. The developmental system of an organism is the entire matrix of resources that are needed to reproduce the life cycle. The range of developmental resources that are properly described as being inherited, and which are subject to natural selection, is far wider than has traditionally been allowed. Evolution acts on this extended set of developmental resources. From a developmental systems perspective, development does not proceed according to (...)
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  45. Beyond the Nature-Culture Dualism.Yrjö Haila - 2000 - Biology and Philosophy 15 (2):155-175.
    It is commonly accepted that thewestern view of humanity's place in nature isdominated by a dualistic opposition between nature andculture. Historically this has arisen fromexternalization of nature in both productive andcognitive practices; instances of such externalizationhave become generalized. I think the dualism can bedecomposed by identifying dominant elements in eachparticular instantiation and showing that their strictseparation evaporates under close scrutiny. The philosophical challenge this perspective presents isto substitute concrete socioecological analysis forfoundational metaphysics. A review of majorinterpretations of the history of (...)
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  46. Lessons From an Optical Illusion: On Nature and Nurture, Knowledge and Values.Edward M. Hundert - 1995 - Harvard University Press.
    As Edward Hundert--a philosopher, psychiatrist, and award-winning educator--makes clear in this eloquent interdisciplinary work, the newly emerging model for ...
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  47. Response to Nunez.Véronique Izard, Stanislas Dehaene, Pierre Pica & Elizabeth Spelke - 2008 - Science 312 (5803):1310.
    We agree with Nuñez that the Mundurucu do not master the formal propreties of number lines and logarithms, but as the term "intuition" implies, they spontaneously experience a logarithmic mapping of number to space as natural and "feeling right.".
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  48. The Mapping of Numbers on Space : Evidence for a Logarithmic Intuition.Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica, Elizabeth Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene - 2008 - Médecine/Science 24 (12):1014-1016.
  49. Nature and Nurture in the Development of Social Smiling.Susan Jones - 2008 - Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):349 – 357.
    Research on the origins of human social smiling is presented as a case study of how a species-specific, species-typical behavior may emerge from thousands of momentary events in which a continuously changing biological organism acts to make, respond to, and learn from its experience.
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  50. The Nature-Nurture Problem Revisited. Some Epistemological Topics in Contemporary Human Sciences.Arnulf Kolstad - 2013 - Open Journal of Philosophy 3 (4):517.
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