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Summary The Nature and Nurture debate is focused on the heritability of behavioural or psychological traits. Foreshadowed by Locke’s discussion on the mind as a tabula rasa and Hobbes’ view on human nature, the current discussion begins with Galton’s application of evolutionary theory to human behaviour in the form of socio-biology later maturing into the more contemporary evolutionary psychology. Developmental biology is directly relevant to the nature/nurture debate as an examination of the independent role ecology has in determining an organism’s behavioural responses, with specific focus on the role of environmental influences in effecting changes in psychological and neurobiology development.
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  1. Is Nativism in Psychology Reconcilable with the Parity Thesis in Biology?Slobodan Perovic & Ljiljana Radenovic - 2008
    The Modern Synthesis of Darwinism and genetics regards non-genetic factors as merely constraints on the genetic variations that result in the characteristics of organisms. Even though the environment (including social interactions and culture) is as necessary as genes in terms of selection and inheritance, it does not contain the information that controls the development of the traits. S. Oyama’s account of the Parity Thesis, however, states that one cannot conceivably distinguish in a meaningful way between nature-based (i.e., gene-based) and nurture-based (...)
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  2. Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences.Barker Desjardins & Pearce (eds.) - forthcoming - Springer.
  3. Towards an Ethics of Sexual Differences.Damiano Migliorini - 2020 - Ricerca Psicoanalitica 31 (2):161-175.
    the author analyzes the origin and meaning of the expression ‘Ethics of Sexual Difference’ (ESD), contextualising it in the paradigm ‘thought of Sexual Difference’, in which the potentiality and aporias arising from the debate within the feminist movement are highlighted. Possible interpretations of these ethics, developed in the Italian philosophical context, are illustrated and evaluated. the author proposes a critical comparison with other models, for example, the queer theories, and attempts to show how the ‘thought of Sexual Difference’ (TSD) opens (...)
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  4. A Theory of Evolution as a Process of Unfolding.Agustin Ostachuk - 2020 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 16 (1):347-379.
    In this work I propose a theory of evolution as a process of unfolding. This theory is based on four logically concatenated principles. The principle of evolutionary order establishes that the more complex cannot be generated from the simpler. The principle of origin establishes that there must be a maximum complexity that originates the others by logical deduction. Finally, the principle of unfolding and the principle of actualization guarantee the development of the evolutionary process from the simplest to the most (...)
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  5. The Unfolding of a New Vision of Life, Cosmos and Evolution.Agustin Ostachuk - 2020 - Ludus Vitalis 28 (53):81-83.
    Has science already answered the fundamental questions about the concepts of Life, Cosmos and Evolution? Has science not relegated these fundamental questions by following up on more immediate, “useful” and practical endeavors that ultimately ensure that the wheel of capitalism keeps spinning in its frantic search for material and economic progress? There is something terribly wrong with the current theory of evolution, understood as the Darwinian theory with its successive versions and extensions. The concept of natural selection, the cornerstone of (...)
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  6. La differenza tra ereditarietà ed ereditabilità nello studio dei tratti psicologici.Davide Serpico - 2020 - Medicalive Magazine 6 (1):7-21.
    ITA: In questo articolo analizzerò la differenza tra il concetto di ereditarietà e quello di ereditabilità. In primo luogo, evidenzierò come i due concetti derivino storicamente da differenti tradizioni nello studio della variabili-tà fenotipica e del rapporto genotipo-fenotipo. Secondariamente, illustrerò gli aspetti teorici e metodologici alla base dei due concetti, che sono peraltro collegati a differenti aree delle scienze biologiche. Infine, spigherò brevemente come si sia recentemente tentato, con molte difficoltà, di connettere lo studio dei meccanismi dell’ereditarietà allo studio dell’ereditabilità. (...)
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  7. Brains Emerging: On Modularity and Self-Organisation of Neural Development In Vivo and In Vitro.Paul Gottlob Layer - 2019 - In Lars H. Wegner & Ulrich Lüttge (eds.), Emergence and Modularity in Life Sciences. Springer Verlag. pp. 145-169.
    Molecular developmental biology has expanded our conceptions of gene actions, underpinning that embryonic development is not only governed by a set of specific genes, but as much by space–time conditions of its developing modules. Typically, formation of cellular spheres, their transformation into planar epithelia, followed by tube formations and laminations are modular steps leading to the development of nervous tissues. Thereby, actions of organising centres, morphogenetic movements, inductive events between epithelia, tissue polarity reversal, widening of epithelia, and all these occurring (...)
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  8. Organic Selection and Social Heredity: The Original Baldwin Effect Revisited.Nam Le - 2019 - Artificial Life Conference Proceedings 2019 (31):515-522.
    The so-called “Baldwin Effect” has been studied for years in the fields of Artificial Life, Cognitive Science, and Evolutionary Theory across disciplines. This idea is often conflated with genetic assimilation, and has raised controversy in trans-disciplinary scientific discourse due to the many interpretations it has. This paper revisits the “Baldwin Effect” in Baldwin’s original spirit from a joint historical, theoretical and experimental approach. Social Heredity – the inheritance of cultural knowledge via non-genetic means in Baldwin’s term – is also taken (...)
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  9. The Organism and its Umwelt: A Counterpoint Between the Theories of Uexküll, Goldstein and Canguilhem.Agustin Ostachuk - 2019 - In Jakob von Uexküll and Philosophy: Life, Environments, Anthropology. Londres, Reino Unido: pp. 158-171.
    The topic of the relationship between the organism and its environment runs through the theories of Uexküll, Goldstein and Canguilhem with equal importance. In this work a counterpoint will be established between their theories, in the attempt to assess at which points the melodies are concordant and at which points they are discordant. As fundamental basis to his theory, Uexküll relies on the concept of conformity to a plan, which allows him to account for the congruity and perfect adjustment between (...)
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  10. What Kind of Kind is Intelligence?Serpico Davide - 2018 - Philosophical Psychology 31 (2):232-252.
    The model of human intelligence that is most widely adopted derives from psychometrics and behavioral genetics. This standard approach conceives intelligence as a general cognitive ability that is genetically highly heritable and describable using quantitative traits analysis. The paper analyzes intelligence within the debate on natural kinds and contends that the general intelligence conceptualization does not carve psychological nature at its joints. Moreover, I argue that this model assumes an essentialist perspective. As an alternative, I consider an HPC theory of (...)
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  11. The Nature-Nurture Debate Today.Lucas J. Matthews - 2018 - Psychology Review 24 (1):25-27.
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  12. Conceived This Way: Innateness Defended.Robert Northcott & Gualtiero Piccinini - 2018 - Philosophers' Imprint 18.
    We propose a novel account of the distinction between innate and acquired biological traits: biological traits are innate to the degree that they are caused by factors intrinsic to the organism at the time of its origin; they are acquired to the degree that they are caused by factors extrinsic to the organism. This account borrows from recent work on causation in order to make rigorous the notion of quantitative contributions to traits by different factors in development. We avoid the (...)
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  13. Vererbungslehre auf schwankendem Grund: Von der Genetik zur Epigenetik.Paul Gottlob Layer - 2016 - BRIEFE Zur Orientierung Im Konflikt Mensch - Erde, Evangelische Akademie Sachsen-Anhalt E.V 121 (4):7-15.
    Die Frage nach der Vererbung von Eigenschaften bei Lebewesen beschäftigt den Menschen seit alters her: das ist Genetik. Auch lange schon beschäftigen sich Biologen mit der Frage, wie sich die vielen Tierarten im Laufe einer langen Stammesgeschichte herausbilden konnten: das ist Evolution. Wie wird Konstantes über Generationen bewahrt und Diverses/Neues eingeführt? Die überragenden Erfolge der Genetik haben uns im Glauben eingelullt, wir hätten diese Prozesse vollständig verstanden. Mit dem Aufkommen der so genannten Epigenetik kommen Grundlagen sowohl der Individual-, wie auch (...)
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  14. Le basi dell’intelligenza. Due modi di ragionare su geni e ambiente.Davide Serpico - 2016 - PNEI News 5 (10):13-16.
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  15. The End of Development.Sergio Balari & Guillermo Lorenzo - 2015 - Biological Theory 10 (1):60-72.
    Recently, there has been a growing interest, both within theoretical biology and the philosophy of biology, in the possibility and desirability of a theory of development. Among the many issues raised within this debate, the questions of the spatial and temporal boundaries of development have received particular attention. In this article, noting that so far the discussion has mostly centered on the processes of morphogenesis and organogenesis, we argue that an important missing element in the equation, namely the development of (...)
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  16. James Tabery: Beyond Versus: The Struggle to Understand the Interaction of Nature and Nurture: London: The MIT Press, 2014, Xiii + 279 Pp, ISBN 978-0-262-02737-3 , ISBN 978-0-262-32415-1 . $40.00 | £27.95.Marion Blute - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 36 (3):464-465.
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  17. Developmental Systems Theory.Paul Griffiths & Adam Hochman - 2015 - eLS:1-7.
    Developmental systems theory (DST) is a wholeheartedly epigenetic approach to development, inheritance and evolution. The developmental system of an organism is the entire matrix of resources that are needed to reproduce the life cycle. The range of developmental resources that are properly described as being inherited, and which are subject to natural selection, is far wider than has traditionally been allowed. Evolution acts on this extended set of developmental resources. From a developmental systems perspective, development does not proceed according to (...)
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  18. Beyond Versus: The Struggle to Understand the Interaction of Nature and Nurture.Ella Whiteley - 2015 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 29 (3):347-350.
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  19. The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture.L. Daston - 2014 - Common Knowledge 20 (2):365-366.
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  20. Review of Studying Human Behavior. [REVIEW]Catherine Driscoll - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (4):676-680,.
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  21. Helen E. Longino. Studying Human Behavior: How Scientists Investigate Aggression and Sexuality. Xi + 249 Pp., Tables, App., Bibl., Indexes. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press. $25. [REVIEW]Maria Kronfeldner - 2014 - Isis 105 (4):876-877.
  22. Aristotle's Theory of Potentiality.Mohan Matthen - 2014 - In John P. Lizza (ed.), Potentiality: Metaphysical and Bioethical Dimensions. Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 29-48.
    In this paper, I examine Aristotle's notion of potentiality as it applies to the beginning of life. Aristotle’s notion of natural kinēsis implies that we should not treat the entity at the beginning of embryonic development as human, or indeed as the same as the one that is born. This leads us to ask: When does the embryo turn into a human? Aristotle’s own answer to this question is very harsh. Bracketing the views that lead to this harsh answer, his (...)
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  23. The Nature-Nurture Problem Revisited. Some Epistemological Topics in Contemporary Human Sciences.Arnulf Kolstad - 2013 - Open Journal of Philosophy 3 (4):517.
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  24. Perceptions of Nature, Nurture and Behaviour.Mairi Levitt - 2013 - Life Sciences, Society and Policy 9 (1):1-11.
    Trying to separate out nature and nurture as explanations for behaviour, as in classic genetic studies of twins and families, is now said to be both impossible and unproductive. In practice the nature-nurture model persists as a way of framing discussion on the causes of behaviour in genetic research papers, as well as in the media and lay debate. Social and environmental theories of crime have been dominant in criminology and in public policy while biological theories have been seen as (...)
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  25. The Umwelt of Uexküll and Merleau-Ponty.Agustin Ostachuk - 2013 - Ludus Vitalis 21 (39):45-65.
    The organism against its environment. The organism against other organisms, competing and struggling for life. Antagonism and confrontment as the only possible relation in nature. The tendency to anthropomorphize nature and explain it using concepts and facts from the human sphere. A stroll through the worlds of Uexküll and Merleau-Ponty in the search of alternative knowledge that allow us to understand relation from another point of view. A counterpoint and identification of common tonalities between the research programs from both thinkers (...)
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  26. Overextension: The Extended Mind and Arguments From Evolutionary Biology. [REVIEW]Armin W. Schulz - 2013 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):241-255.
    I critically assess two widely cited evolutionary biological arguments for two versions of the ‘Extended Mind Thesis’ (EMT): namely, an argument appealing to Dawkins’s ‘Extended Phenotype Thesis’ (EPT) and an argument appealing to ‘Developmental Systems Theory’ (DST). Specifically, I argue that, firstly, appealing to the EPT is not useful for supporting the EMT (in either version), as it is structured and motivated too differently from the latter to be able to corroborate or elucidate it. Secondly, I extend and defend Rupert’s (...)
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  27. Inherited Representations Are Read in Development.Nicholas Shea - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (1):1-31.
    Recent theoretical work has identified a tightly-constrained sense in which genes carry representational content. Representational properties of the genome are founded in the transmission of DNA over phylogenetic time and its role in natural selection. However, genetic representation is not just relevant to questions of selection and evolution. This paper goes beyond existing treatments and argues for the heterodox view that information generated by a process of selection over phylogenetic time can be read in ontogenetic time, in the course of (...)
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  28. En Kropslig Kultur Historie - om omverdens relationen".Maria Brincker - 2012 - In E. O. Pedersen & A.-M. S. Christensen (eds.), Mennesket - En Introduktion Til Filosofisk Antropologi. Systime. pp. 197-216.
    This chapter deals with the way our psychology and actions a scaffolded by their environment but also the tensions that can appear between individual and environment, both at the level of biology and culture. The chapter is grounded in an analysis of the early 20th century theoretical biologist Jacob von Uexkull and his notion of "Umwelt" or "surround world". But also raises the question of whether organisms fit their environment as neatly as Uexkull and many later thinkers have proposed or (...)
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  29. Behavior Genetics and Postgenomics.Evan Charney - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):331-358.
    The science of genetics is undergoing a paradigm shift. Recent discoveries, including the activity of retrotransposons, the extent of copy number variations, somatic and chromosomal mosaicism, and the nature of the epigenome as a regulator of DNA expressivity, are challenging a series of dogmas concerning the nature of the genome and the relationship between genotype and phenotype. According to three widely held dogmas, DNA is the unchanging template of heredity, is identical in all the cells and tissues of the body, (...)
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  30. Grammar as a Developmental Phenomenon.Guy Dove - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (5):615-637.
    More and more researchers are examining grammar acquisition from theoretical perspectives that treat it as an emergent phenomenon. In this essay, I argue that a robustly developmental perspective provides a potential explanation for some of the well-known crosslinguistic features of early child language: the process of acquisition is shaped in part by the developmental constraints embodied in von Baer’s law of development. An established model of development, the Developmental Lock, captures and elucidates the probabilistic generalizations at the heart of von (...)
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  31. The Nature-Nurture Debates: Bridging the Gap.Dale Goldhaber - 2012 - Cambridge University Press.
    How is it possible that in more than one hundred years, the nature-nurture debate has not come to a satisfactory resolution? The problem, Dale Goldhaber argues, lies not with the proposed answers, but with the question itself. In The Nature-Nurture Debate, Goldhaber reviews the four major perspectives on the issue - behavior genetics, environment, evolutionary psychology and developmental systems theory - and shows that the classic, reductionist strategies are incapable of resolving the issue because they each offer a false perspective (...)
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  32. A Call for an Expanded Synthesis of Developmental and Evolutionary Paradigms.Andrew J. Lewis - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (5):368-369.
    Charney's target article continues a critique of genetic blueprint models of development that suggests reconsideration of concepts of adaptation, inheritance, and environment, which can be well illustrated in current research on infant attachment. The concepts of development and adaptation are so heavily based on the model of genetics and inheritance forged in the modern synthesis that they will require reconsideration to accommodate epigenetic inheritance.
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  33. Educating Human Nature: 'Nature' and 'Nurture' in Early Confucian Moral Education.Judson B. Murray - 2012 - Journal of Moral Education 41 (4):509-527.
    This study examines early Chinese moral education?its curriculum, objectives and the philosophical assumptions underlying them?in its classical Confucian expression. It analyzes early Confucian debates on moral psychology, the Confucian moral curriculum consisting of model emulation, cultural practices and canonical instruction, and the methods and aims of Confucian statecraft. The study reveals how ancient Confucians integrated these components into a coherent discourse on moral education and its implementation for the related purposes of cultivating virtuous people and benevolent rulers. It explains why (...)
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  34. Murder on the Development Express: Who Killed Nature/Nurture?: Evelyn Fox Keller: The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture. Duke University Press, 2010.Karola Stotz - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (6):919-929.
    Keller explains the persistence of the nature/nurture debate by a chronic ambiguity in language derived from classical and behavioral genetics. She suggests that the more precise vocabulary of modern molecular genetics may be used to rephrase the underlying questions and hence provide a way out of this controversy. I show that her proposal fits into a long tradition in which other authors have wrestled with the same problem and come to similar conclusions. - Review of 'The mirage of a space (...)
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  35. The Impact of Gene–Environment Interaction and Correlation on the Interpretation of Heritability.Omri Tal - 2012 - Acta Biotheoretica 60 (3):225-237.
    The presence of gene–environment statistical interaction and correlation in biological development has led both practitioners and philosophers of science to question the legitimacy of heritability estimates. The paper offers a novel approach to assess the impact of GxE and rGE on the way genetic and environmental causation can be partitioned. A probabilistic framework is developed, based on a quantitative genetic model that incorporates GxE and rGE, offering a rigorous way of interpreting heritability estimates. Specifically, given an estimate of heritability and (...)
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  36. Evolution, Development, and Human Social Cognition.Tyler J. Wereha & Timothy P. Racine - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (4):559-579.
    Explaining the causal origins of what are taken to be uniquely human capacities for understanding the mind in the first years of life is a primary goal of social cognitive development research, which concerns so called “theory of mind” or “mindreading” skills. We review and discuss particular examples of this research in the context of its underlying evolutionary conceptual framework known as the neo-Darwinian modern synthesis. It is increasingly recognized that the modern synthesis is limited in its neglect of developmental (...)
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  37. The Nature and Nurture of Morality.Philip Costanzo - 2011 - In Ruth Weissbourd Grant (ed.), In Search of Goodness. University of Chicago Press.
    This chapter, which deals with the psychological origins of goodness in childhood, and the developmental origins of human morality, argues that the socialization model and cognitive maturation model give short shrift to the role of emotions as one of the multiple natural prerequisites for nurturing morality. The primary models of moral development in the field of developmental psychology considered moral acquisition as a derived and “nurtured” consequence of inborn tendencies to either seek knowledge or gain social connection. Morality could not (...)
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  38. Developmental Prosopagnosia: Cognitive, Neural, and Developmental Investigations.Brad Duchaine - 2011 - In Andy Calder, Gillian Rhodes, Mark Johnson & Jim Haxby (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. Oxford University Press. pp. 821--838.
    This article reviews recent research findings investigating developmental prosopagnosia. Studies involving DP address the cognitive and neural basis of face processing. The relatively rich cognitive, neural, and developmental theories of face recognition provide a framework that should allow for rapid progress. Cognitive studies of DP provide support for the existence of face-specific processes, and dissociations between different types of face processing in DPs are consistent with leading models of face processing that propose separable mechanisms for various aspects of face processing. (...)
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  39. Fine-Tuning Nativism: The 'Nurtured Nature' and Innate Cognitive Structures.Slobodan Perovic & Ljiljana Radenovic - 2011 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 10 (3):399-417.
    S. Oyama’s prominent account of the Parity Thesis states that one cannot distinguish in a meaningful way between nature-based (i.e. gene-based) and nurture-based (i.e. environment-based) characteristics in development because the information necessary for the resulting characteristics is contained at both levels. Oyama as well as P. E. Griffiths and K. Stotz argue that the Parity Thesis has far-reaching implications for developmental psychology in that both nativist and interactionist developmental accounts of psychological capacities that presuppose a substantial nature/nurture dichotomy are inadequate. (...)
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  40. Flexible Intuitions of Euclidean Geometry in an Amazonian Indigene Group.Pierre Pica, Véronique Izard, Elizabeth Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene - 2011 - Pnas 23.
    Kant argued that Euclidean geometry is synthesized on the basis of an a priori intuition of space. This proposal inspired much behavioral research probing whether spatial navigation in humans and animals conforms to the predictions of Euclidean geometry. However, Euclidean geometry also includes concepts that transcend the perceptible, such as objects that are infinitely small or infinitely large, or statements of necessity and impossibility. We tested the hypothesis that certain aspects of nonperceptible Euclidian geometry map onto intuitions of space that (...)
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  41. Evelyn Fox Keller, The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2010. Pp. Viii+107. ISBN 978-0-8223-4731-6. £12.99. [REVIEW]Michael Ruse - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Science 44 (4):617-618.
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  42. Evelyn Fox Keller , The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture . Reviewed By.Steven J. Scher - 2011 - Philosophy in Review 31 (4):284-286.
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  43. The Mirage of a Space Between Nature and Nurture. [REVIEW]Neven Sesardić - 2011 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (4):417-420.
    International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Volume 25, Issue 4, Page 417-420, December 2011.
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  44. The Distinction Between Innate and Acquired Characteristics.Paul Griffiths - 2010 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The idea that some characteristics of an organism are explained by the organism's intrinsic nature, whilst others reflect the influence of the environment is an ancient one. It has even been argued that this distinction is itself part of the evolved psychology of the human species. The distinction played an important role in the history of philosophy as the locus of the dispute between Rationalism and Empiricism discussed in another entry in this encyclopedia. This entry, however, focuses on twentieth-century accounts (...)
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  45. How Our Ancestors Raised Children to Think as Modern Humans.Matt J. Rossano - 2010 - Biological Theory 5 (2):142-153.
    This article argues that social selection pressures in recent human evolution were primarily responsible for the emergence of modern cognition. These selection pressures took three specific forms: Increased security and stability, which reduced allostatic load on developing children, facilitating expanded working memory development; increased opportunities for mother-infant joint engagement, which created positive selection for more sophisticated forms of cognition; and increased pressure on ritualized behavior associated with both mother-infant joint engagement and the construction and maintenance of an unprecedentedly complex adult (...)
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  46. Nature, Nurture, and Politics.Neven Sesardic - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):433-436.
    Political imputations in science are notoriously a tricky business. I addressed this issue in the context of the nature–nurture debate in the penultimate chapter of my book Making Sense of Heritability (Cambridge U. P. 2005). Although the book mainly dealt with the logic of how one should think about heritability of psychological differences, it also discussed the role of politics in our efforts to understand the dynamics of that controversy. I first argued that if a scholar publicly defends a certain (...)
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  47. Response to Comment on "Log or Linear? Distinct Intuitions on the Number Scale in Western and Amazonian Indigene Cultures".Stanislas Dehaene, Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica & Elizabeth Spelke - 2009 - Science 323 (5910):38.
    The performance of the Mundurucu on the number-space task may exemplify a general competence for drawing analogies between space and other linear dimensions, but Mundurucu participants spontaneously chose number when other dimensions were available. Response placement may not reflect the subjective scale for numbers, but Cantlon et al.'s proposal of a linear scale with scalar variability requires additional hypotheses that are problematic.
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  48. High Hume (Bio-power and Bio-policy in Society of Risk).Cheshko Valentin Glazko Valery I. (ed.) - 2009 - Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy.
    Human simultaneously is the acting person of a few autonomous and interdepending forms of evolutional process. Accordingly, it is possible to select three forms of adaptation and three constituents of evolutional strategy of survival of humanity – biological, sociocultural and technological adaptations. The actual and potential consequences of development of so-called High Hume technologies (technologies of the guided evolution)  most essential from major technological adaptations of humanity  are analyzed. The phenomenon of bio-power within the framework of global coevolutional (...)
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  49. Genetic Determinism and the Innate-Acquired Distinction in Medicine.Maria E. Kronfeldner - 2009 - Medicine Studies (2):167-181.
    This article illustrates in which sense genetic determinism is still part of the contemporary interactionist consensus in medicine. Three dimensions of this consensus are discussed: kinds of causes, a continuum of traits ranging from monogenetic diseases to car accidents, and different kinds of determination due to different norms of reaction. On this basis, this article explicates in which sense the interactionist consensus presupposes the innate?acquired distinction. After a descriptive Part 1, Part 2 reviews why the innate?acquired distinction is under attack (...)
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  50. The LEARn Model: An Epigenetic Explanation for Idiopathic Neurobiological Diseases.Debomoy K. Lahiri, Bryan Maloney & Nasser H. Zawia - 2009 - Molecular Psychiatry 14 (11):992-1003.
    Neurobiological disorders have diverse manifestations and symptomology. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, manifest late in life and are characterized by, among other symptoms, progressive loss of synaptic markers. Developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum, appear in childhood. Neuropsychiatric and affective disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, respectively, have broad ranges of age of onset and symptoms. However, all share uncertain etiologies, with opaque relationships between genes and environment. We propose a 'Latent Early-life Associated Regulation' (LEARn) model, positing (...)
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