Neuroethics

Edited by L. Syd M Johnson (Michigan Technological University)
About this topic
Summary Neuroethics is a nascent subdiscipline that has emerged out of bioethics and neuroscience to consider the ethical issued raised by developments in neuroscience, particularly recent developments in neuroetechnologies. The scope of neuroethics is broad and heterogeneous. In her seminal 2002 paper, philosopher and neuroscientist Adina Roskies bisected the field of neuroethics into two broad sectors: the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics. The ethics of neuroscience overlaps significantly with traditional issues in biomedical ethics, including the ethics of neuroscientific research, and the ethical, legal, and social implications of new developments and discoveries in neuroscience. The “neuroscience of ethics”  engages with traditional ethical questions, and (controversially) overlaps with neurophilosophical, metaphysical inquiries concerning free will and personal identity as they inform and interact with important ethical and social issues. Specific areas of neuroethical interest include: cognitive enhancement, disorders of consciousness and neurological impairment, psychiatric disorders, brain imaging, free will/moral responsibility, and addiction, and the neuroscientific study of morality and decision-making.
Key works The broad scope of neuroethics defies a concise bibliography. Moreover, while there is overlap in some foci of neuroethics, there are also regions that stand apart. This article reflects neuroethics' origins as a subdiscipline of bioethics by examining ethical issues in clinical neuroscience (Glannon 2011). The moral significance of consciousness (Kahane & Savulescu 2009), and the role of neuroscience in illuminating the "problem of other minds" with respect to brain damage, and nonhuman animals (Farah 2008) is a subject with an extensive literature. Works on issues related to control, responsibility, freedom, and addiction include Hall 2003 and Glannon 2012Persson & Savulescu 2008 proposes both cognitive and moral enhancement. The neuroscience of ethics overlaps considerably with the work of experimental philosophers, e.g. Knobe 2003Greene unknown, and Appiah 2008.
Introductions For a general introductions to neuroethics, see Illes & Sahakian 2011 and Levy 2009 and Roskies 2002.
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  1. Addiction and the Concept of Disorder, Part 1: Why Addiction is a Medical Disorder.C. Wakefield Jerome - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (1):39-53.
    In this two-part analysis, I analyze Marc Lewis’s arguments against the brain-disease view of substance addiction and for a developmental-learning approach that demedicalizes addiction. I focus especially on the question of whether addiction is a medical disorder. Addiction is currently classified as a medical disorder in DSM-5 and ICD-10. It is further labeled a brain disease by NIDA, based on observed brain changes in addicts that are interpreted as brain damage. Lewis argues that the changes result instead from normal neuroplasticity (...)
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  2. The Locked-in Syndrome: Perspectives From Ethics, History, and Phenomenology.Fernando Vidal - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-4.
    The existential situation of persons who suffer from the locked-in syndrome raises manifold issues significant to medical anthropology, phenomenology, biomedical ethics, and neuroethics that have not yet been systematically explored. The present special issue of Neuroethics illustrates the joint effort of a consolidating network of scholars from various disciplines in Europe, North America and Japan to go in that direction, and to explore LIS beyond clinical studies and quality of life assessments.
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  3. Pesticides, Neurodevelopmental Disagreement, and Bradford Hill’s Guidelines.Kristin Shrader-Frechette & Christopher ChoGlueck - 2017 - Accountability in Research 1 (24):30-42.
    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism affect one-eighth of all U.S. newborns. Yet scientists, accessing the same data and using Bradford-Hill guidelines, draw different conclusions about the causes of these disorders. They disagree about the pesticide-harm hypothesis, that typical United States prenatal pesticide exposure can cause neurodevelopmental damage. This article aims to discover whether apparent scientific disagreement about this hypothesis might be partly attributable to questionable interpretations of the Bradford-Hill causal guidelines. Key scientists, who claim to employ Bradford-Hill causal guidelines, yet (...)
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  4. The Ethical and Empirical Status of Dimensional Diagnosis: Implications for Public Mental Health?Kelso Cratsley - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (2):183-199.
    The field of mental health continues to struggle with the question of how best to structure its diagnostic systems. This issue is of considerable ethical importance, but the implications for public health approaches to mental health have yet to be explored in any detail. In this article I offer a preliminary treatment, drawing out several core issues while sounding a note of caution. A central strand of the debates over diagnosis has been the contrast between categorical and dimensional models, with (...)
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  5. Review of Gregg D. Caruso and Owen Flanagan , Neuroexistentialism: Meaning, Morals, & Purpose in the Age of Neuroscience, Oxford University Press, 2018, 392pp., ISBN: 9780190460730. [REVIEW]Bryce Huebner - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (2):213-220.
    In this review, I offer an overview of of the questions that caught my attention while reading Neuroexistentialism. I aim to make it clear why the issues that are raised in this volume are worth exploring in more detail. I also hope to clarify the limitations that are imposed by neural and social constraints, and to recommend ways of anchoring a third wave of existentialism in our understanding of neuroscience, our expanding sense of cultural variation, and our emerging recognition of (...)
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  6. Metamorality Without Moral Truth.Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Hanno Sauer - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (2):119-131.
    Recently, Joshua Greene has argued that we need a metamorality to solve moral problems for which evolution has not prepared us. The metamorality that he proposes is a utilitarian account that he calls deep pragmatism. Deep pragmatism is supposed to arbitrate when the values espoused by different groups clash. To date, no systematic appraisal of this argument for a metamorality exists. We reconstruct Greene’s case for deep pragmatism as a metamorality and consider three lines of objection to it. We argue (...)
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  7. Intensity of Experience: Maher’s Theory of Schizophrenic Delusion Revisited.Eisuke Sakakibara - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (2):171-182.
    Maher proposed in 1974 that schizophrenic delusions are hypotheses formed to explain anomalous experiences. He stated that they are “rational, given the intensity of the experiences that they are developed to explain.” Two-factor theorists of delusion criticized Maher’s theory because 1) it does not explain why some patients with anomalous experiences do not develop delusions, and 2) adopting and adhering to delusional hypotheses is irrational, considering the totality of experiences and patients’ other beliefs. In this paper, the notion of the (...)
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  8. Can They Feel? The Capacity for Pain and Pleasure in Patients with Cognitive Motor Dissociation.Mackenzie Graham - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (2):153-169.
    Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome is a disorder of consciousness wherein a patient is awake, but completely non-responsive at the bedside. However, research has shown that a minority of these patients remain aware, and can demonstrate their awareness via functional neuroimaging; these patients are referred to as having ‘cognitive motor dissociation’. Unfortunately, we have little insight into the subjective experiences of these patients, making it difficult to determine how best to promote their well-being. In this paper, I argue that the capacity to (...)
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  9. Should Neuroscience Inform Judgements of Decision-Making Capacity?Andrew Peterson - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (2):133-151.
    In this article, I present an argument that suggests neuroscience should inform judgments of decision-making capacity. First, I review key behavioral and neurocognitive data to demonstrate that neuroscientific tests might be predictive of decision-making capacity, and that these tests might inform clinical judgments of capacity. Second, I argue that, consistent with the principles of autonomy and justice, such data should inform judgements of decision-making capacity. While the neuroscience of decision-making capacity still requires time to mature, there is strong reason to (...)
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  10. Neuroethics and Philosophy in Responsible Research and Innovation: The Case of the Human Brain Project.Arleen Salles, Kathinka Evers & Michele Farisco - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (2):201-211.
    Responsible Research and Innovation is an important ethical, legal, and political theme for the European Commission. Although variously defined, it is generally understood as an interactive process that engages social actors, researchers, and innovators who must be mutually responsive and work towards the ethical permissibility of the relevant research and its products. The framework of RRI calls for contextually addressing not just research and innovation impact but also the background research process, specially the societal visions underlying it and the norms (...)
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  11. DBS and Autonomy: Clarifying the Role of Theoretical Neuroethics.Peter Zuk & Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-11.
    In this article, we sketch how theoretical neuroethics can clarify the concept of autonomy. We hope that this can both serve as a model for the conceptual clarification of other components of PIAAAS and contribute to the development of the empirical measures that Gilbert and colleagues [1] propose.
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  12. Do We Need Neuroethics?Eric Racine & Matthew Sample - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (3):101-103.
    Do we need neuroethics? This provocative question, posed almost 20 years after a series of landmark neuroethics conferences in North America (Marcus 2002; Canadian Institutes of Health Research 2002), can’t be answered briefly. We can, however, consider some of the most important arguments in favor of neuroethics. First, neuroethics may appear to be needed because neuroscience offers a new lens on human morality. This is an argument made by neuroscientists Michael Gazzaniga (Gazzaniga 2005) and (to some extent) Jean-Pierre Changeux (Changeux (...)
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  13. Pragmatism and the Importance of Interdisciplinary Teams in Investigating Personality Changes Following DBS.Cynthia S. Kubu, Paul J. Ford, Joshua A. Wilt, Amanda R. Merner, Michelle Montpetite, Jaclyn Zeigler & Eric Racine - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-10.
    Gilbert and colleagues point out the discrepancy between the limited empirical data illustrating changes in personality following implantation of deep brain stimulating electrodes and the vast number of conceptual neuroethics papers implying that these changes are widespread, deleterious, and clinically significant. Their findings are reminiscent of C. P. Snow’s essay on the divide between the two cultures of the humanities and the sciences. This division in the literature raises significant ethical concerns surrounding unjustified fear of personality changes in the context (...)
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  14. Changes in Personality Associated with Deep Brain Stimulation: A Qualitative Evaluation of Clinician Perspectives.Cassandra J. Thomson, Rebecca A. Segrave & Adrian Carter - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-16.
    Gilbert et al. argue that the neuroethics literature discussing the putative effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on personality largely ignores the scientific evidence and presents distorted claims that personality change is induced by the DBS stimulation. This study contributes to the first-hand primary research on the topic exploring DBS clinicians’ views on post-DBS personality change among their patients and its underlying cause. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen clinicians from various disciplines working in Australian DBS practice for movement disorders and/or (...)
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  15. Public Mental Health Ethics: An Overview.Kelso Cratsley & Jennifer Radden - forthcoming - In Kelso Cratsley & Jennifer Radden (eds.), Mental Health as Public Health: Interdisciplinary Perspectives in the Ethics of Prevention.
    In this chapter we outline ethical issues raised by the application of public health approaches to the field of mental health. We first set out some of the basics of public health ethics that are particularly relevant to mental health, with special attention to the ongoing debate over the traditional presumption of non-infringement, increased recognition of the social determinants of health, and the concept of prevention. Then we turn to the moral particularities of mental health, focusing on questions concerning coercion (...)
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  16. Introduction.Jennifer Radden & Kelso Cratsley - forthcoming - In Kelso Cratsley & Jennifer Radden (eds.), Mental Health as Public Health: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Ethics of Prevention.
    In this introduction to the edited volume we briefly describe some of the current challenges faced by public mental health initiatives, at both the national and global level. We also include several general remarks on interdisciplinary methodology in public mental health ethics, followed by short descriptions of the chapters included in the volume.
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  17. Mental Health as Public Health: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Ethics of Prevention.Kelso Cratsley & Jennifer Radden (eds.) - forthcoming - Elsevier.
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  18. Committing Crimes with BCIs: How Brain-Computer Interface Users Can Satisfy Actus Reus and Be Criminally Responsible.Kramer Thompson - 2019 - Neuroethics 1:1-12.
    Brain-computer interfaces allow agents to control computers without moving their bodies. The agents imagine certain things and the brain-computer interfaces read the concomitant neural activity and operate the computer accordingly. But the use of brain-computer interfaces is problematic for criminal law, which requires that someone can only be found criminally responsible if they have satisfied the actus reus requirement: that the agent has performed some (suitably specified) conduct. Agents who affect the world using brain-computer interfaces do not obviously perform any (...)
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  19. Impact of the Japanese Disability Homecare System on ALS Patients’ Decision to Receive Tracheostomy with Invasive Ventilation.Yumiko Kawaguchi - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-9.
    Research has documented the influence of ALS patients families’ attitudes on patients’ decision to accept or reject TIV, a treatment that in many cases will allow them to live long enough to experience locked-in syndrome ; under Japanese law the use of a ventilator cannot be terminated once it is essential to a patient’s survival, so to choose TIV means to choose the possibility of entering a locked-in state. Previous studies have not, however, elucidated the changes in family members’ attitudes (...)
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  20. Brain Interventions, Moral Responsibility, and Control Over One’s Mental Life.Gabriel De Marco - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-9.
    In the theoretical literature on moral responsibility, one sometimes comes across cases of manipulated agents. In cases of this type, the agent is a victim of wholesale manipulation, involving the implantation of various pro-attitudes along with the deletion of competing pro-attitudes. As a result of this manipulation, the agent ends up performing some action unlike any that she would have performed were it not for the manipulation. These sorts of cases are sometimes thought to motivate historical views of responsibility, on (...)
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  21. Gedächtnis-Enhancement. Wie erstrebenswert wäre ein grenzenloses Gedächtnis?Memory enhancement. Who wants a memory without limits?Joachim Boldt & Uta Bittner - 2013 - Ethik in der Medizin 25 (4):315-328.
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  22. Das Ringen Um Sinn Und Anerkennung – Eine Psychodynamische Sicht Auf Das Phänomen des Neuroenhancement The Struggle for Meaning and Acknowledgement—A Psychodynamic View of the Phenomenon of Neuroenhancement.Marc-Andre Wulf, Ljiljana Joksimovic & Wolfgang Tress - 2012 - Ethik in der Medizin 24 (1):29-42.
    Medizinethische Untersuchungen zum Thema Neuroenhancement (NE) wenden sich oft der Frage zu, inwiefern der Einzelne wie auch die Allgemeinheit durch NE zu Schaden kommen können. Gerechtigkeitsprobleme, ein befürchteter Wandel des Menschenbildes oder die Gefahr einer unerwünschten, schleichenden Veränderung der Gesellschaft werden problematisiert. Bezüglich individueller Risiken bleibt es aufgrund des vermeintlichen Zugewinns an Selbstbestimmung und Eigenverantwortung gerne beim Verweis auf die subjektive Kosten-Nutzen-Abwägung. Innerhalb der NE-Debatte gibt es bisher kaum Arbeiten, die die Aspekte der Motivation für die Nutzung von NE aus (...)
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  23. The History of BCI: From a Vision for the Future to Real Support for Personhood in People with Locked-in Syndrome.Andrea Kübler - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-18.
    The history of brain-computer interfaces developed from a mere idea in the days of early digital technology to today’s highly sophisticated approaches for signal detection, recording, and analysis. In the 1960s, electroencephalography was tied to the laboratory due to equipment and recording requirements. Today, amplifiers exist that are built in the electrode cap and are so resistant to movement artefacts that data collection in the field is no longer a critical issue. Within 60 years, the field has moved from simple (...)
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  24. On the Significance of the Identity Debate in DBS and the Need of an Inclusive Research Agenda. A Reply to Gilbert, Viana and Ineichen.Anke Snoek, Sanneke de Haan, Maartje Schermer & Dorothee Horstkötter - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-10.
    Gilbert et al. argue that the concerns about the influence of Deep Brain Stimulation on – as they lump together – personality, identity, agency, autonomy, authenticity and the self are due to an ethics hype. They argue that there is only a small empirical base for an extended ethics debate. We will critically examine their claims and argue that Gilbert and colleagues do not show that the identity debate in DBS is a bubble, they in fact give very little evidence (...)
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  25. Justice Without Retribution: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Stakeholder Views and Practical Implications.Farah Focquaert, Gregg Caruso, Elizabeth Shaw & Derk Pereboom - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-3.
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  26. Discussions of DBS in Neuroethics: Can We Deflate the Bubble Without Deflating Ethics?Alexandre Erler - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-7.
    Gilbert and colleagues are to be commended for drawing our attention to the need for a sounder empirical basis, and for more careful reasoning, in the context of the neuroethics debate on Deep Brain Stimulation and its potential impact on the dimensions of personality, identity, agency, authenticity, autonomy and self. While acknowledging this, this extended commentary critically examines their claim that the real-world relevance of the conclusions drawn in the neuroethics literature is threatened by the fact that the concepts at (...)
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  27. Enhancement, Authenticity, and Social Acceptance in the Age of Individualism.Nicolae Morar & Daniel R. Kelly - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 10 (1):51-53.
    Public attitudes concerning cognitive enhancements are significant for a number of reasons. They tell us about how socially acceptable these emerging technologies are considered to be, but they also provide a window into the ethical reasons that are likely to get traction in the ongoing debates about them. We thus see Conrad et al’s project of empirically investigating the effect of metaphors and context in shaping attitudes about cognitive enhancements as both interesting and important. We sketch what we suspect is (...)
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  28. Regulating the Use of Cognitive Enhancement: An Analytic Framework.Anita S. Jwa - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-17.
    Recent developments in neuroscience have enabled technological advances to modulate cognitive functions of the brain. Despite ethical concerns about cognitive enhancement, both individuals and society as a whole can benefit greatly from these technologies, depending on how we regulate their use. To date, regulatory analyses of neuromodulation technologies have focused on a technology itself – for instance, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulation of a brain stimulation device – rather than the use of a technology, such as the use (...)
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  29. ‘Woe Betides Anybody Who Tries to Turn Me Down.’ A Qualitative Analysis of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Following Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease.Philip E. Mosley, Katherine Robinson, Terry Coyne, Peter Silburn, Michael Breakspear & Adrian Carter - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-17.
    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease can lead to the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms. These can include harmful changes in mood and behaviour that alienate family members and raise ethical questions about personal responsibility for actions committed under stimulation-dependent mental states. Qualitative interviews were conducted with twenty participants following subthalamic DBS at a movement disorders centre, in order to explore the meaning and significance of stimulation-related neuropsychiatric symptoms amongst a purposive sample of persons (...)
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  30. Neuroessentialism, Our Technological Future, and DBS Bubbles.Maxence Gaillard - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-7.
    Having reviewed a considerable body of scholarly work in neuroethics related to DBS, Gilbert, Viaña, and Ineichen identify a major flaw in the debate—a “bubble” in the literature—and propose new directions for research. This comment addresses the authors’ diagnosis: What exactly is the nature of this bubble? Here, I argue that there are at least two different orientations in the “DBS causes personality changes” bubble. According to a first narrative, DBS is a special technology because its direct, causal action on (...)
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  31. Neuroethik. Eine Einführung.Jan-Hendrik Heinrichs - 2019 - Stuttgart, Deutschland: Metzler.
    Das Buch bietet eine Gesamtdarstellung der noch relativ jungen Disziplin der Neuroethik. Es führt die derzeit separat geführten Diskussionen der forschungs- und medizinethisch ausgerichteten Ethik in den Neurowissenschaften mit der in professionellen und öffentlichen Diskussionen vernachlässigten alltäglichen Ethik des Umgangs mit Manipulationen des menschlichen Geistes jenseits von medizinischen und Forschungskontexten zusammen. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf den moralischen Implikationen der mechanischen Veränderung des menschlichen Geistes.
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  32. Why Neurotechnologies? About the Purposes, Opportunities and Limitations of Neurotechnologies in Clinical Applications.Thomas Stieglitz - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-12.
    Neurotechnologies describe a field of science and engineering in which the nervous system is interfaced with technical devices. Fundamental research is conducted to explore functions of the brain, decipher the neural code and get a better understanding of diseases and disorders. Risk benefit assessment has been well established in all medical disciplines to treat patients best possible while minimizing jeopardizing their lives by the interventions. Is this set of assessment rules sufficient when the brain will be interfaced with a technical (...)
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  33. More Than Our Body: Minimal and Enactive Selfhood in Global Paralysis.Miriam Kyselo - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-18.
    This paper looks to phenomenology and enactive cognition in order to shed light on the self and sense of self of patients with locked-in syndrome. It critically discusses the concept of the minimal self, both in its phenomenological and ontological dimension. Ontologically speaking, the self is considered to be equal to a person’s sensorimotor embodiment. This bodily self also grounds the minimal sense of self as being a distinct experiential subject. The view from the minimal bodily self presupposes that sociality (...)
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  34. Locked-In Syndrome: A Challenge to Standard Accounts of Selfhood and Personhood?Dan Zahavi - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-8.
    A point made repeatedly over the last few years is that the Locked-in Syndrome offers unique real-life material for revisiting and challenging certain ingrained philosophical assumptions about the nature of personhood and personal identity. Indeed, the claim has been made that a closer study of LIS will call into question some of the traditional conceptions of personhood that primarily highlight the significance of consciousness, self-consciousness and autonomy and suggest the need for a more interpersonal account of the person. I am (...)
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  35. Determinism, Moral Responsibility and Retribution.Elizabeth Shaw & Robert Blakey - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-15.
    In this article, we will identify two issues that deserve greater attention from those researching lay people’s attitudes to moral responsibility and determinism. The first issue concerns whether people interpret the term “moral responsibility” in a retributive way and whether they are motivated to hold offenders responsible for pre-determined behaviour by considerations other than retributivism, e.g. the desires to condemn the action and to protect society. The second issue concerns whether explicitly rejecting moral responsibility and retributivism, after reading about determinism, (...)
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  36. Moral Bio-Enhancement, Freedom, Value and the Parity Principle.Jonathan Pugh - 2019 - Topoi 38 (1):73-86.
    A prominent objection to non-cognitive moral bio-enhancements is that they would compromise the recipient’s ‘freedom to fall’. I begin by discussing some ambiguities in this objection, before outlining an Aristotelian reading of it. I suggest that this reading may help to forestall Persson and Savulescu’s ‘God-Machine’ criticism; however, I suggest that the objection still faces the problem of explaining why the value of moral conformity is insufficient to outweigh the value of the freedom to fall itself. I also question whether (...)
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  37. A Critical Analysis of Australia’s Ban on the Sale of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.Wayne Hall, Kylie Morphett & Coral Gartner - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-9.
    Australia does not allow adult smokers to buy or use electronic nicotine delivery systems that contain nicotine without a prescription. This paper critically evaluates the empirical and ethical justifications provided for the policy by Federal and State governments, public health advocates and health organisations. These are: that ENDS should only be approved as products for smoking cessation when there is evidence from randomised controlled trials that they are effective; that as a matter of precaution we should not allow the sale (...)
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  38. What We Talk About When We Talk About Deep Brain Stimulation and Personal Identity.Robyn Bluhm, Laura Cabrera & Rachel McKenzie - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-13.
    A number of reports have suggested that patients who undergo deep brain stimulation may experience changes to their personality or sense of self. These reports have attracted great philosophical interest. This paper surveys the philosophical literature on personal identity and DBS and draws on an emerging empirical literature on the experiences of patients who have undergone this therapy to argue that the existing philosophical discussion of DBS and personal identity frames the problem too narrowly. Much of the discussion by neuroethicists (...)
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  39. Can Medical Interventions Serve as ‘Criminal Rehabilitation’?Gulzaar Barn - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (1):85-96.
    ‘Moral bioenhancement’ refers to the use of pharmaceuticals and other direct brain interventions to enhance ‘moral’ traits such as ‘empathy,’ and alter any ‘morally problematic’ dispositions, such as ‘aggression.’ This is believed to result in improved moral responses. In a recent paper, Tom Douglas considers whether medical interventions of this sort could be “provided as part of the criminal justice system’s response to the commission of crime, and for the purposes of facilitating rehabilitation : 101–122, 2014).” He suggests that they (...)
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  40. Power to the People? Voter Manipulation, Legitimacy, and the Relevance of Moral Psychology for Democratic Theory.Norbert Paulo & Christoph Bublitz - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (1):55-71.
    What should we do if climate change or global injustice require radical policy changes not supported by the majority of citizens? And what if science shows that the lacking support is largely due to shortcomings in citizens’ individual psychology such as cognitive biases that lead to temporal and geographical parochialism? Could then a plausible case for enhancing the morality of the electorate—even against their will –be made? But can a democratic government manipulate the will of the people without losing democratic (...)
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  41. The Tragedy of Biomedical Moral Enhancement.Stefan Schlag - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (1):5-17.
    In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu present a challenging argument in favour of biomedical moral enhancement. In light of the existential threats of climate change, insufficient moral capacities of the human species seem to require a cautiously shaped programme of biomedical moral enhancement. The story of the tragedy of the commons creates the impression that climate catastrophe is unavoidable and consequently gives strength to the argument. The present paper analyses to what extent a policy in favour (...)
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  42. Saving the World Through Sacrificing Liberties? A Critique of Some Normative Arguments in Unfit for the Future.Jan Christoph Bublitz - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (1):23-34.
    The paper critically engages with some of the normative arguments in Julian Savulescu and Ingmar Persson’s book Unfit for the Future. In particular, it scrutinizes the authors’ argument in denial of a moral right to privacy as well as their political proposal to alter humankind’s moral psychology in order to avert climate change, terrorism and to redress global injustice.
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  43. The Right to Bodily Integrity and the Rehabilitation of Offenders Through Medical Interventions: A Reply to Thomas Douglas.Elizabeth Shaw - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (1):97-106.
    Medical interventions such as methadone treatment for drug addicts or “chemical castration” for sex offenders have been used in several jurisdictions alongside or as an alternative to traditional punishments, such as incarceration. As our understanding of the biological basis for human behaviour develops, our criminal justice system may make increasing use of such medical techniques and may become less reliant on incarceration. Academic debate on this topic has largely focused on whether offenders can validly consent to medical interventions, given the (...)
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  44. Introduction: Political Implications of Moral Enhancement.Norbert Paulo & Christoph Bublitz - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (1):1-3.
    What should we do if climate change or global injustice require radical policy changes not supported by the majority of citizens? And what if science shows that the lacking support is largely due to shortcomings in citizens’ individual psychology such as cognitive biases that lead to temporal and geographical parochialism? Could then a plausible case for enhancing the morality of the electorate—even against their will –be made? But can a democratic government manipulate the will of the people without losing democratic (...)
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  45. Biomedical Moral Enhancement – Not a Lever Without a Fulcrum.Ingmar Persson & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (1):19-22.
    We argued in Unfit for the Future that moral enhancement – which might include biomedical moral enhancement – is necessary to solve the coordination problem presented by the amelioration of anthropogenic climate change. Stefan Schlag contends that this proposal is self-defeating because the implementation of biomedical moral enhancement poses the same problems as combatting climate change. We reply that it can be seen that this is not so when it is realized that we can be sufficiently morally motivated to form (...)
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  46. The Irrelevance of a Moral Right to Privacy for Biomedical Moral Enhancement.Ingmar Persson & Julian Savulescu - 2019 - Neuroethics 12 (1):35-37.
    In opposition to what we claimed in Unfit for the Future, Jan Christoph Bublitz argues that people have a right to privacy which stands in the way of the use of biomedical moral enhancement. We reply that it is not clear that he has understood what we mean by a right to privacy, that we were speaking of moral and not a legal right to privacy, and that we take a moral right to privacy to be a right against others (...)
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  47. Die Neuen Möglichkeiten der Neurowissenschaften Und Ihre Ethischen ImplikationenThe New Possibilities of Neuroscience and Their Ethical Implications.Matthis Synofzik - 2005 - Ethik in der Medizin 17 (3):206-219.
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  48. Cognitive Enhancement Vs. Plagiarism: A Quantitative Study on the Attitudes of an Italian Sample.Lorenzo Palamenghi & Claudia Bonfiglioli - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-14.
    Irrespective of the presence of formal norms, behaviours such as plagiarism, data fabrication and falsification are commonly regarded as unethical and unfair. Almost unanimously, they are considered forms of academic misconduct. Is this the case also for newer behaviours that technology is making possible and are now entering the academic scenario?In the current paper we focus on cognitive enhancement, the use of drugs to enhance cognitive skills of an otherwise healthy individual. At present, there are no formal rules forbidding its (...)
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  49. Neuroethics Questions to Guide Ethical Research in the International Brain Initiatives.K. S. Rommelfanger, S. J. Jeong, A. Ema, T. Fukushi, K. Kasai, K. M. Ramos, Arleen Salles, I. Singh, Paul Boshears, Global Neuroethics Summit Delegates & Hagop Sarkissian - 2018 - Neuron 100 (1):19-36.
    Increasingly, national governments across the globe are prioritizing investments in neuroscience. Currently, seven active or in-development national-level brain research initiatives exist, spanning four continents. Engaging with the underlying values and ethical concerns that drive brain research across cultural and continental divides is critical to future research. Culture influences what kinds of science are supported and where science can be conducted through ethical frameworks and evaluations of risk. Neuroscientists and philosophers alike have found themselves together encountering perennial questions; these questions are (...)
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  50. The Meta-Analysis of Neuro-Marketing Studies: Past, Present and Future.Mehri Shahriari, Davood Feiz, Azim Zarei & Ehsan Kashi - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-13.
    One of the new topics that has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years is neuro-marketing. The purpose of the present study is to achieve an insight into the progress of studies on neuro-marketing through review of scientific articles in this field with methodology text-mining. A total of 394 articles were selected between 2005 and 2017 using the search for “neuro-marketing” in valid databases. By reviewing the title, abstract, and keywords at various stages of screening, the researchers selected 311 (...)
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