Neuroethics

Edited by L. Syd M Johnson (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
About this topic
Summary Neuroethics is a nascent subdiscipline that has emerged out of bioethics and neuroscience to consider the ethical issued raised by developments in neuroscience, particularly recent developments in neuroetechnologies. The scope of neuroethics is broad and heterogeneous. In her seminal 2002 paper, philosopher and neuroscientist Adina Roskies bisected the field of neuroethics into two broad sectors: the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics. The ethics of neuroscience overlaps significantly with traditional issues in biomedical ethics, including the ethics of neuroscientific research, and the ethical, legal, and social implications of new developments and discoveries in neuroscience. The “neuroscience of ethics”  engages with traditional ethical questions, and (controversially) overlaps with neurophilosophical, metaphysical inquiries concerning free will and personal identity as they inform and interact with important ethical and social issues. Specific areas of neuroethical interest include: cognitive enhancement, disorders of consciousness and neurological impairment, psychiatric disorders, brain imaging, free will/moral responsibility, and addiction, and the neuroscientific study of morality and decision-making.
Key works The broad scope of neuroethics defies a concise bibliography. Moreover, while there is overlap in some foci of neuroethics, there are also regions that stand apart. This article reflects neuroethics' origins as a subdiscipline of bioethics by examining ethical issues in clinical neuroscience (Glannon 2011). The moral significance of consciousness (Kahane & Savulescu 2009), and the role of neuroscience in illuminating the "problem of other minds" with respect to brain damage, and nonhuman animals (Farah 2008) is a subject with an extensive literature. Works on issues related to control, responsibility, freedom, and addiction include Hall 2003 and Glannon 2012Persson & Savulescu 2008 proposes both cognitive and moral enhancement. The neuroscience of ethics overlaps considerably with the work of experimental philosophers, e.g. Knobe 2003Greene unknown, and Appiah 2008.
Introductions For a general introductions to neuroethics, see Illes & Sahakian 2011 and Levy 2009 and Roskies 2002.
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  1. Ethical Implications of the Impact of Fracking on Brain Health.Ava Grier & Judy Illes - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-10.
    Environmental ethicists and experts in human health have raised concerns about the effects of hydraulic fracking to access natural oil and gas resources found deep in shale rock formations on surrounding ecosystems and communities. In this study, we analyzed the prevalence of discourse on brain and mental health, and ethics, in the peer-reviewed and grey literature in the five-year period between 2016 and 2022. A total of 84 articles met inclusion criteria for analysis. Seventy-six percent (76%) mentioned impacts on brain (...)
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  2. Giving Consent to the Ineffable.Daniel Villiger - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-16.
    A psychedelic renaissance is currently taking place in mental healthcare. The number of psychedelic-assisted therapy trials is growing steadily, and some countries already grant psychiatrists special permission to use psychedelics in non-research contexts under certain conditions. These clinical advances must be accompanied by ethical inquiry. One pressing ethical question involves whether patients can even give informed consent to psychedelic-assisted therapy: the treatment’s transformative nature seems to block its assessment, suggesting that patients are unable to understand what undergoing psychedelic-assisted therapy actually (...)
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  3. Safeguarding Users of Consumer Mental Health Apps in Research and Product Improvement Studies: an Interview Study.Kamiel Verbeke, Charu Jain, Ambra Shpendi & Pascal Borry - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-20.
    Mental health-related data generated by app users during the routine use of Consumer Mental Health Apps (CMHAs) are being increasingly leveraged for research and product improvement studies. However, it remains unclear which ethical safeguards and practices should be implemented by researchers and app developers to protect users during these studies, and concerns have been raised over their current implementation in CMHAs. To better understand which ethical safeguards and practices are implemented, why and how, 17 app developers and researchers were interviewed (...)
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  4. Global Versus Local Theories of Consciousness and the Consciousness Assessment Issue in Brain Organoids.Maxence Gaillard - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-14.
    Any attempt at consciousness assessment in organoids requires careful consideration of the theory of consciousness that researchers will rely on when performing this task. In cognitive neuroscience and the clinic, there are tools and theories used to detect and measure consciousness, typically in human beings, but none of them is neither fully consensual nor fit for the biological characteristics of organoids. I discuss the existing attempt relying on the Integrated Information Theory and its models and tools. Then, I revive the (...)
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  5. Rewriting the Script: the Need for Effective Education to Address Racial Disparities in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Uptake in BIPOC Communities.Saydra Wilson, Anita Randolph, Laura Y. Cabrera, Alik S. Widge, Ziad Nahas, Logan Caola, Jonathan Lehman, Alex Henry & Christi R. P. Sullivan - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-12.
    Depression is a widespread concern in the United States. Neuromodulation treatments are becoming more common but there is emerging concern for racial disparities in neuromodulation treatment utilization. This study focuses on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), a treatment for depression, and the structural and attitudinal barriers that racialized individuals face in accessing it. In January 2023 participants from the Twin Cities, Minnesota engaged in focus groups, coupled with an educational video intervention. Individuals self identified as non-white who had no previous TMS (...)
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  6. Behavioral vs. Neural Methods in the Treatment of Acutely Comatose Patients.Hyungrae Noh - 2022 - Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (13):245-258.
    Behaviorally assessing residual consciousness of acutely comatose patients involves a high rate of false-negatives. That is, long-term behavioral assessment shows that 41% of vegetative state patients in fact have residual consciousness. Nonetheless, surrogates need to remove ventilation before the acute-phase passes away if they want to induce medico-legal death due to pragmatic factors, such as financial costs. So, surrogate decision-making regarding behaviorally nonresponsive acutely comatose patients involves a moral dilemma: should we ignore the chance that patients have residual consciousness for (...)
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  7. Patentability of Brain Organoids derived from iPSC– A Legal Evaluation with Interdisciplinary Aspects.Hannes Wolff - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-15.
    Brain Organoids in their current state of development are patentable. Future brain organoids may face some challenges in this regard, which I address in this contribution. Brain organoids unproblematically fulfil the general prerequisites of patentability set forth in Art. 3 (1) EU-Directive 98/44/ec (invention, novelty, inventive step and susceptibility of industrial application). Patentability is excluded if an invention makes use of human embryos or constitutes a stage of the human body in the individual phases of its formation and development. Both (...)
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  8. The methods of Neuroethics.Luca Malatesti & John McMillan - 2024 - Cambridge University Press.
    This Element offers a framework for exploring the methodological challenges of neuroethics. The aim is to provide a roadmap for the methodological assumptions, and related pitfalls, involved in the interdisciplinary investigation of the ethical and legal implications of neuroscientific research and technology. It illustrates these points via the debate about the ethical and legal responsibility of psychopaths. Argument and the conceptual analysis of normative concepts such as 'personhood' or 'human agency' is central to neuroethics. This Element discusses different approaches to (...)
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  9. The Conditions for Ethical Chemical Restraints.Parker Crutchfield & Michael Redinger - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 15 (1):3-16.
    The practice of medicine frequently involves the unconsented restriction of liberty. The reasons for unilateral liberty restrictions are typically that being confined, strapped down, or sedated are necessary to prevent the person from harming themselves or others. In this paper, we target the ethics of chemical restraints, which are medications that are used to intentionally restrict the mental states associated with the unwanted behaviors, and are typically not specifically indicated for the condition for which the patient is being treated. Specifically, (...)
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  10. What (if anything) morally separates environmental from neurochemical behavioral interventions?Viktor Ivanković - 2023 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-14.
    Drawing from the literatures on the ethics of nudging and moral bioenhancement, I elaborate several pairs of cases in which one intervention is classified as an environmental behavioral intervention (EBI) and the other as a neurochemical behavioral intervention (NBI) in order to morally compare them. The intuition held by most is that NBIs are by far the more morally troubling kind of influence. However, if this intuition cannot be vindicated, we should at least entertain the _Similarity Thesis_, according to which (...)
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  11. Personhood and Disorders of Consciousness: Finding Room in Person-Centered Healthcare.Marco Antonio Azevedo - 2020 - European Journal for Person Centered Healthcare 8 (3):391-405.
    Advocates of the Person-Centered Healthcare (PCH) approach say that PCH is a response to a failure of caring for patients as persons. Nevertheless, there are many human subjects falling to fulfill the requirements of a traditional philosophical definition of personhood. Hence, if we take, PCH seriously, a greater clarification of the key terminology of PCH is urgently needed. It seems necessary, for instance, that the concept of the person should be extended in order to include those individuals with insipient or (...)
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  12. Dimensions of Consciousness and the Moral Status of Brain Organoids.J. Lomax Boyd & Nethanel Lipshitz - 2023 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-15.
    Human brain organoids (HBOs) are novel entities that may exhibit unique forms of cognitive potential. What moral status, if any, do they have? Several authors propose that consciousness may hold the answer to this question. Others identify various _kinds of_ consciousness as crucially important for moral consideration, while leaving open the challenge of determining whether HBOs have them. This paper aims to make progress on these questions in two ways. First, it proposes a framework for thinking about the moral status (...)
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  13. Bipolar Disorder and Competence.Samuel Director - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Josh is a typical 27-year-old in a career that he enjoys and a successful marriage. Josh begins to exhibit the symptoms of a manic episode. He is soon diagnosed with bipolar disorder. While non-manic, Josh’s preferences are typical. While manic, his preferences change dramatically. He quits his job, cheats on his partner, and squanders his savings. These are behaviors that Josh, when non-manic (euthymic), would never agree to. When Josh returns to a euthymic state, he regrets these decisions. Should those (...)
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  14. Caregivers of ALS Patients: Their Experiences and Needs.Kun Yang, Hongxia Xue, Li Li & Shan Tang - 2023 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-11.
    We explored the care experiences and needs of the home caregivers of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to improve their quality of life. We interviewed home caregivers in-depth and analyzed the data using Colaizzi's descriptive phenomenological method. We interviewed 11 home caregivers of patients with ALS with a disease duration between 1.5 and 4 years. Primary caregivers were predominantly female and were the patients' spouses. Daily caregiving time averaged 4–14 h for 0.5–3.5 years. Interview themes included helplessness and adaptation (...)
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  15. When the Trial Ends: The Case for Post-Trial Provisions in Clinical Psychedelic Research.Edward Jacobs, Ashleigh Murphy-Beiner, Ian Rouiller, David Nutt & Meg J. Spriggs - 2023 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-17.
    The ethical value—and to some scholars, necessity—of providing trial patients with post-trial access (PTA) to an investigational drug has been subject to significant attention in the field of research ethics. Although no consensus has emerged, it seems clear that, in some trial contexts, various factors make PTA particularly appropriate. We outline the atypical aspects of psychedelic clinical trials that support the case for introducing the provision of PTA within research in this field, including the broader legal status of psychedelics, the (...)
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  16. Rationales and Approaches to Protecting Brain Data: a Scoping Review.Anita S. Jwa & Nicole Martinez-Martin - 2023 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-15.
    Advances in neurotechnologies, artificial intelligence (AI) and Big Data analytics are allowing interpretation of patterns from brain data to identify and even predict and manipulate mental states. Furthermore, there are avenues through which brain data can move into the consumer sphere, be reidentified and brokered. In response to these developments, there have been a number of approaches proposed to strengthen protections of brain data. To better understand the landscape of brain data protection discussions, we conducted a scoping review to identify (...)
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  17. Personalist Neuroethics: Practical Neuroethics. Volume 2 by James Beauregard.Benedict M. Guevin - 2023 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 23 (2):357-359.
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  18. How to Advance the Debate on the Criminal Responsibility of Antisocial Offenders.Marko Jurjako, Luca Malatesti & Inti A. Brazil - 2024 - Neuroethics 17 (1):1-17.
    Should offenders with psychopathy or those exhibiting extreme forms of antisocial behav- iour be considered criminally responsible? The current debate seems to have reached a stalemate. Several scholars have argued that neuropsychologi- cal data on individuals with psychopathy might be relevant for determining their criminal responsibil- ity. However, relying on such data has not produced a consensus among legal scholars and philosophers on whether individuals with psychopathy should be excused from responsibility. We offer a diagnosis about why this debate has (...)
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  19. Inviting Clinicians to Become Neuroethicists: The Value of Shared Language for Integration in Neuroethics.Annie Trang & Margot Kelly-Hedrick - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):408-410.
    Wexler and Sullivan (2023) recommend integration as a guiding principle for translational neuroethics. We agree that collaboration between neuroethicists and other professionals can advance the fie...
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  20. The Future of Human Cerebral Organoids: A Reply to Commentaries.Andrea Lavazza & Federico Zilio - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):W1-W4.
    Human brain organoids (HCOs) are laboratory-grown biological entities that have been added to the catalog of living entities for just over a decade. How they are formed and may continue to develop for some time is not irrelevant, given their peculiarity, which is that they mimic the human brain with a high degree of similarity. Revolving around this key issue is the discussion on our target article (Zilio and Lavazza 2023), for which we are grateful to all the commentators.
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  21. Synergies of Translational and Transnational Neuroethics for Global Neuroscience.Judy Illes & Anthony J. Hannan - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):400-401.
    The momentum for global neuroscience that is geopolitically-free has never been greater, and neuroethics holds a unique place in this context both in its translational and transnational forms.In th...
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  22. (Re-)Redefining Neuroethics to Meet the Challenges of the Future.Noa Cohen - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):421-424.
    Today, nearly two years after Wexler and Sullivan’s (2023) article was first published, the crucial questions discussed therein are all the more pertinent and troubling. The advent of novel interve...
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  23. The Potential Harms of Speculative Neuroethics Research.Amanda R. Merner & Cynthia S. Kubu - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):418-421.
    Wexler and Specker Sullivan (2023) note that, “unbridled speculation can imperil the credibility of neuroethics, generate unrealistic expectations amongst different stakeholders, take up time that...
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  24. Neuroethics & Bioethics: Distinct but Not Separate.K. Evers, M. Guerrero & M. Farisco - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):414-416.
    Wexler and Specker (2023) offer a review of criticisms directed against what they describe as the relatively new field of neuroethics and offer as solution the development of a more “integrated, in...
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  25. A Braver Neuroethics that Matters in (and for) Africa.Olivia P. Matshabane & Cornelius Ewuoso - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):410-413.
    Anna Wexler and Laura Specker Sullivan (2023) draw on their positionality as Global North early career neuroethics scholars to initiate a meaningful and timely conversation on Translational Neuroet...
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  26. Mending the Language Barrier: The Need for Ethics Communication in Neuroethics.Katherine Bassil - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):402-405.
    Wexler and Specker Sullivan (2023) reflect on the field of neuroethics by highlighting criticisms from both scholars within and outside the field. Among these criticisms, are claims that neuroethic...
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  27. Zooming Out from the Brain to Foster Translational Neuroethics.José M. Muñoz & Javier Bernácer - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):405-407.
    In their valuable call-for-action article, Wexler and Specker Sullivan (2023) propose an integration–inclusion–impact axis for “translational neuroethics,” to face the challenges and criticisms tha...
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  28. Translational Neuroethics: A Vision for a More Integrated, Inclusive, and Impactful Field.Anna Wexler & Laura Specker Sullivan - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (4):388-399.
    As early-career neuroethicists, we come to the field of neuroethics at a unique moment: we are well-situated to consider nearly two decades of neuroethics scholarship and identify challenges that have persisted across time. But we are also looking squarely ahead, embarking on the next generation of exciting and productive neuroethics scholarship. In this article, we both reflect backwards and turn our gaze forward. First, we highlight criticisms of neuroethics, both from scholars within the field and outside it, that have focused (...)
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  29. The Moral Permissibility of Perspective-Taking Interventions.Hannah Read & Thomas Douglas - forthcoming - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-16.
    Interventions designed to promote perspective taking are increasingly prevalent in educational settings, and are also being considered for applications in other domains. Thus far, these perspective-taking interventions (PTIs) have largely escaped philosophical attention, however they are sometimes prima facie morally problematic in at least two respects: they are neither transparent nor easy to resist. Nontransparent or hard-to-resist PTIs call for a moral defense and our primary aim in this paper is to provide such a defense. We offer two arguments for (...)
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  30. The Ethics of Human Brain Organoid Transplantation in Animals.Tsutomu Sawai, Julian Savulescu, Christopher Gyngell & Masanori Kataoka - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (3):1-15.
    In this paper, we outline how one might conduct a comprehensive ethical evaluation of human brain organoid transplantation in animals. Thus far, ethical concerns regarding this type of research have been assumed to be similar to those associated with other transplants of human cells in animals, and have therefore not received significant attention. The focus has been only on the welfare, moral status, or mental capacities of the host animal. However, the transplantation of human brain organoids introduces several new ethical (...)
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  31. Epistemic Challenges in Neurophenomenology: Exploring the Reliability of Knowledge and Its Ontological Implications.Anna Shutaleva - 2023 - Philosophies 8 (5):94.
    This article investigates the challenges posed by the reliability of knowledge in neurophenomenology and its connection to reality. Neurophenomenological research seeks to understand the intricate relationship between human consciousness, cognition, and the underlying neural processes. However, the subjective nature of conscious experiences presents unique epistemic challenges in determining the reliability of the knowledge generated in this research. Personal factors such as beliefs, emotions, and cultural backgrounds influence subjective experiences, which vary from individual to individual. On the other hand, scientific knowledge (...)
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  32. Neurointerventions in Criminal Justice: On the Scope of the Moral Right to Bodily Integrity.G. Meynen, S. Ligthart, L. Forsberg, T. Douglas & V. Tesink - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (3):1-11.
    There is growing interest in the use of neurointerventions to reduce the risk that criminal offenders will reoffend. Commentators have raised several ethical concerns regarding this practice. One prominent concern is that, when imposed without the offender’s valid consent, neurointerventions might infringe offenders’ right to bodily integrity. While it is commonly held that we possess a moral right to bodily integrity, the extent to which this right would protect against such neurointerventions is as-yet unclear. In this paper, we will assess (...)
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  33. Brain age Prediction and the Challenge of Biological Concepts of Aging.Jan-Hendrik Heinrichs - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (3):1-13.
    Brain age prediction is a relatively new tool in neuro-medicine and the neurosciences. In research and clinical practice, it finds multiple use as a marker for biological age, for general health status of the brain and as an indicator for several brain-based disorders. Its utility in all these tasks depends on detecting outliers and thus failing to correctly predict chronological age. The indicative value of brain age prediction is generated by the gap between a brain’s chronological age and the predicted (...)
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  34. Addiction and Volitional Abilities: Stakeholders’ Understandings and their Ethical and Practical Implications.Marianne Rochette, Matthew Valiquette, Claudia Barned & Eric Racine - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (3):1-22.
    Addiction is a common condition affecting millions of people worldwide of which only a small proportion receives treatment. The development and use of healthcare services is influenced by how addiction is understood (e.g., a condition to treat, a shameful condition to stigmatize), notably with respect to how volition is impacted (e.g., addiction as a choice or a disease beyond one’s control). Through semi-structured qualitative interviews, we explore the implicit views and understandings of addiction and volition across three stakeholder groups: people (...)
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  35. Potential Consciousness of Human Cerebral Organoids: on Similarity-Based Views in Precautionary Discourse.Sarah Diner - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (3):1-8.
    Advances in research on human cerebral organoids (HCOs) call for a critical review of current research policies. A challenge for the evaluation of necessary research regulations lies in the severe uncertainty about future trajectories the currently very rudimentary stages of neural cell cultures might take as the technology progresses. To gain insights into organotypic cultures, ethicists, legal scholars, and neuroscientists rely on resemblances to the human brain. They refer to similarities in structural or functional terms that have been established in (...)
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  36. The Socio-political Perspective in Neuroethics: Applications, Clarifications & Extensions.Katharina Trettenbach, Robert Ranisch & Veljko Dubljević - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (3):1-3.
    In the article “The Socio-Political Roles of Neuroethics and the Case of Klotho,” we proposed a socio-political approach to neuroethics, inspired by John Rawls’s roles for political philosophy. In...
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  37. Why Won’t You Listen To Me? Predictive Neurotechnology and Epistemic Authority.Alessio Tacca & Frederic Gilbert - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (3):1-12.
    From epileptic seizures to depressive symptoms, predictive neurotechnologies are used for a large range of applications. In this article we focus on advisory devices; namely, predictive neurotechnology programmed to detect specific neural events (e.g., epileptic seizure) and advise users to take necessary steps to reduce or avoid the impact of the forecasted neuroevent. Receiving advise from a predictive device is not without ethical concerns. The problem with predictive neural devices, in particular advisory ones, is the risk of seeing one’s autonomous (...)
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  38. Should Moral Bioenhancement Be Covert? A Response to Crutchfield.Louis Austin-Eames - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (3):1-13.
    Crutchfield (Crutchfield in Bioethics 33:112–121, [4]) has argued that if moral bioenhancement (MBE) ought to be compulsory, then it ought to be covert. More precisely, they argue that MBE is a public health intervention, and for this reason should be governed by public health ethics. Taking from various public health frameworks, Crutchfield provides an array of values to consider, such as: utility, liberty, equality, transparency, social trust, and autonomy. Subsequently, they argue that a covert MBE programme does better than an (...)
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  39. The Mystery of Mental Integrity: Clarifying Its Relevance to Neurotechnologies.Hazem Zohny, David M. Lyreskog, Ilina Singh & Julian Savulescu - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (3):1-12.
    The concept of mental integrity is currently a significant topic in discussions concerning the regulation of neurotechnologies. Technologies such as deep brain stimulation and brain-computer interfaces are believed to pose a unique threat to mental integrity, and some authors have advocated for a legal right to protect it. Despite this, there remains uncertainty about what mental integrity entails and why it is important. Various interpretations of the concept have been proposed, but the literature on the subject is inconclusive. Here we (...)
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  40. Recruitment and Engagement of Indigenous Peoples in Brain-Related Health Research.Miles Schaffrick, Melissa L. Perreault, Louise Harding & Judy Illes - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (3):1-14.
    Objectives To characterize recruitment approaches to research on the brain and mind that involves Indigenous peoples. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of a Harding et al. (2021) scoping review. Reviewers screened studies (_n_ = 66) for sampling methods, recruitment and engagement, positionality statements, and details on ethics approvals. Synthesis We identified twenty-nine (29) English-language articles relevant to the analysis. Of these, 52% (_n_ = 15/29) reported a mix of sampling methods; 45% (_n_ = 13/29) contained statements or information about (...)
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  41. A Conceptual Framework to Safeguard the Neuroright to Personal Autonomy.José M. Muñoz, Javier Bernácer & Francisco Güell - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (3):1-13.
    In this article, we propose a philosophical exploration on the main problems involved in two neurorights that concern autonomous action, namely free will and cognitive liberty, and sketch a possible solution to these problems by resourcing to a holistic interpretation of human actions. First, we expose the main conceptual and practical issues arising from the neuroright to “free will,” which are far from minor: the term itself is denied by some trends participating in the neurorights debate, the related concept of (...)
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  42. Hope and Optimism in Pediatric Deep Brain Stimulation: Key Stakeholder Perspectives.Natalie Dorfman, Lilly Snellman, Ynez Kerley, Kristin Kostick-Quenet, Gabriel Lazaro-Munoz, Eric A. Storch & Jennifer Blumenthal-Barby - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (3):1-15.
    IntroductionDeep brain stimulation (DBS) is utilized to treat pediatric refractory dystonia and its use in pediatric patients is expected to grow. One important question concerns the impact of hope and unrealistic optimism on decision-making, especially in “last resort” intervention scenarios such as DBS for refractory conditions.ObjectiveThis study examined stakeholder experiences and perspectives on hope and unrealistic optimism in the context of decision-making about DBS for childhood dystonia and provides insights for clinicians seeking to implement effective communication strategies.Materials and MethodsSemi-structured interviews (...)
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  43. Ethical Controversy Surrounding the Revision of the Uniform Determination of Death Act in the United States.Osamu Muramoto - 2023 - In Peter A. Clark (ed.), Contemporary Issues in Clinical Bioethics. London: Intech Open. pp. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.1002031.
    This chapter reviews fundamental ethical controversy surrounding the ongoing effort to revise the Uniform Determination of Death Act in the United States. Instead of focusing on the process of the revision itself, the chapter explores the underlying ethical debate over brain death that has been ongoing for many decades and finally culminated in this revision. Three issues are focused: the requirement for consent and personal exemptions before applying brain death for the diagnosis of death; redefining the areas of the brain (...)
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  44. Johnson, L. S. M. and Rommelfanger, K. S. (Eds.). (2018). The Routledge Handbook of Neuroethics. New York: Routledge.Ginés Marco Perles - 2021 - SCIO Revista de Filosofía 21:241-243.
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  45. Neuroethics and cultural context: The case of electroconvulsive therapy in Argentina.Paula Castelli, Salvador M. Guinjoan, Abel Wajnerman-Paz & Arleen Salles - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
    As neuroethics continues to grow as an established discipline, it has been charged with not being sufficiently sensitive to the way in which the identification, conceptualization, and management of the ethical issues raised by neuroscience and its applications are shaped by local systems of knowledge and structures. Recently there have been calls for explicit recognition of the role played by local cultural contexts and for the development of cross‐cultural methodologies that can facilitate meaningful cultural engagement. In this article, we attempt (...)
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  46. Mild Cognitive Impairment in Relation to Alzheimer’s Disease: An Investigation of Principles, Classifications, Ethics, and Problems.Joseph Lee - 2023 - Neuroethics 16 (2):1-18.
    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a diagnostic category indicating cognitive impairment which does not meet diagnostic criteria for dementia such as Alzheimer’s disease. There are public health concerns about Alzheimer’s disease (AD) prompting intervention strategies to respond to predictions about the impacts of ageing populations and cognitive decline. This relationship between MCI and AD rests on three interrelated principles, namely, that a relationship exists between AD and MCI, that MCI progresses to AD, and that there is a reliable system of (...)
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  47. Protecting Future Generations by Enhancing Current Generations.Parker Crutchfield - forthcoming - In Fabrice Jotterand & Marcello Ienca (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Ethics of Human Enhancement. New York: Routledge.
    It is plausible that current generations owe something to future generations. One possibility is that we have a duty to not harm them. Another possibility is that we have a duty to protect them. In either case, however, to satisfy the duties to future generations from environmental or political degradation, we need to engage in widespread collective action. But, as we are, we have a limited ability to do so, in part because we lack the self-discipline necessary for successful collective (...)
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  48. Once and Future Clinical Neuroethics: A History of What Was and What Might Be.Joseph J. Fins - 2019 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 30 (1):27-34.
    While neuroethics is generally thought to be a modern addition to the broader field of bioethics, this subdiscipline has existed in clinical practice throughout the course of the 20th century. In this essay, Fins describes an older tradition of clinical neuroethics that featured such physician-humanists as Sir William Osler, Wilder Penfield, and Fred Plum, whose work and legacy exploring disorders of consciousness is highlighted. Their normative work was clinically grounded and focused on the needs of patients, in contrast to modern (...)
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  49. Baby Michael’s Short Story: Infant Nutrition and Hydration Discussed with the Ethics Committee—Twice.Christine Mitchell & Robert Truog - 2004 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 15 (3):291-291.
  50. The Influence of Brain Implants on Personal Identity and Personality – a Combined Theoretical and Empirical Investigation in ‘Neuroethics’.Georg Northoff - 2003 - In Thomas Schramme & Johannes Thome (eds.), Philosophy and Psychiatry. De Gruyter. pp. 326-344.
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