Edited by L. Syd M Johnson (Michigan Technological University)
About this topic
Summary Neuroethics is a nascent subdiscipline that has emerged out of bioethics and neuroscience to consider the ethical issued raised by developments in neuroscience, particularly recent developments in neuroetechnologies. The scope of neuroethics is broad and heterogeneous. In her seminal 2002 paper, philosopher and neuroscientist Adina Roskies bisected the field of neuroethics into two broad sectors: the ethics of neuroscience, and the neuroscience of ethics. The ethics of neuroscience overlaps significantly with traditional issues in biomedical ethics, including the ethics of neuroscientific research, and the ethical, legal, and social implications of new developments and discoveries in neuroscience. The “neuroscience of ethics”  engages with traditional ethical questions, and (controversially) overlaps with neurophilosophical, metaphysical inquiries concerning free will and personal identity as they inform and interact with important ethical and social issues. Specific areas of neuroethical interest include: cognitive enhancement, disorders of consciousness and neurological impairment, psychiatric disorders, brain imaging, free will/moral responsibility, and addiction, and the neuroscientific study of morality and decision-making.
Key works The broad scope of neuroethics defies a concise bibliography. Moreover, while there is overlap in some foci of neuroethics, there are also regions that stand apart. This article reflects neuroethics' origins as a subdiscipline of bioethics by examining ethical issues in clinical neuroscience (Glannon 2011). The moral significance of consciousness (Kahane & Savulescu 2009), and the role of neuroscience in illuminating the "problem of other minds" with respect to brain damage, and nonhuman animals (Farah 2008) is a subject with an extensive literature. Works on issues related to control, responsibility, freedom, and addiction include Hall 2003 and Glannon 2013Persson & Savulescu 2008 proposes both cognitive and moral enhancement. The neuroscience of ethics overlaps considerably with the work of experimental philosophers, e.g. Knobe 2003Greene unknown, and Appiah 2008.
Introductions For a general introductions to neuroethics, see Illes & Sahakian 2011 and Levy 2009 and Roskies 2002.
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  1. Moral Enhancement Should Target Self-Interest and Cognitive Capacity.Ahlskog Rafael - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-11.
    Current suggestions for capacities that should be targeted for moral enhancement has centered on traits like empathy, fairness or aggression. The literature, however, lacks a proper model for understanding the interplay and complexity of moral capacities, which limits the practicability of proposed interventions. In this paper, I integrate some existing knowledge on the nature of human moral behavior and present a formal model of prosocial motivation. The model provides two important results regarding the most friction-free route to moral enhancement. First, (...)
  2. Perception and Cognition of Cues Used in Synchronous Brain–Computer Interfaces Modify Electroencephalographic Patterns of Control Tasks.Luz María Alonso-Valerdi, Francisco Sepulveda & Ricardo A. Ramírez-Mendoza - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  3. Brain Privacy: How Can We Protect It?Sheri Alpert - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (9):70-73.
  4. A Pilot Study of Disparity Vergence and Near Dissociated Phoria in Convergence Insufficiency Patients Before Vs. After Vergence Therapy.Tara L. Alvarez - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  5. The Frog Test: A Tool for Measuring Humor Theories' Validity and Humor Preferences.Ori Amir - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  6. Reward Predictions Bias Attentional Selection.Brian A. Anderson, Patryk A. Laurent & Steven Yantis - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  7. The Care and Testing of Video-Game Players: Using Patterns of Performance to Provide Insight Into the Effects of Video-Game Experience and Expertise.Latham Andrew, Westermann Christine, Patston Lucy & Tippett Lynette - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  8. Characterizing Rare Copy Number Variants in Schizophrenia: A Clinical, Cognitive, and Neuroimaging Study.Martin Andrew, Robinson Gail, Reutens David & Mowry Bryan - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  9. A Pilot Study on the Effect of Cognitive Training on BDNF Serum Levels in Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease.Francesco Angelucci, Antonella Peppe, Giovanni A. Carlesimo, Francesca Serafini, Silvia Zabberoni, Francesco Barban, Jacob Shofany, Carlo Caltagirone & Alberto Costa - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  10. Introduction: Testing and Refining Marc Lewis’s Critique of the Brain Disease Model of Addiction.Anke Snoek & Steve Matthews - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (1):1-6.
    In this introduction we set out some salient themes that will help structure understanding of a complex set of intersecting issues discussed in this special issue on the work of Marc Lewis: conceptual foundations of the disease model, tolerating the disease model given socio-political environments, and A third wave: refining conceptualization of addiction in the light of Lewis’s model.
  11. How to Recover From a Brain Disease: Is Addiction a Disease, or Is There a Disease-Like Stage in Addiction?Snoek Anke - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-10.
    People struggling with addiction are neither powerless over their addiction, nor are they fully in control. Lewis vigorously objects to the brain disease model of addiction, because it makes people lose belief in their self-efficacy, and hence hinders their recovery. Although he acknowledges that there is a compulsive state in addiction, he objects to the claim that this compulsion is carved in stone. Lewis argues that the BDMA underestimates the agency of addicted people, and hence hinder their recovery. Lewis’s work (...)
  12. At Law: The Insane Root Takes Reason Prisoner.George J. Annas - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
  13. The Insane Root Takes Reason Prisoner.George J. Annas - 1989 - Hastings Center Report 19 (1):29-31.
  14. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation.Andrea Antal & Walter Paulus - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  15. An Event-Related Potential Study of Sentence Processing in Parkinson's Disease.Angwin Anthony, Dissanayaka Nadeeka, McMahon Katie, Silburn Peter & Copland David - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  16. Detection of EEG-Resting State Independent Networks by eLORETA-ICA Method.Yasunori Aoki, Ryouhei Ishii, Roberto D. Pascual-Marqui, Leonides Canuet, Shunichiro Ikeda, Masahiro Hata, Kaoru Imajo, Haruyasu Matsuzaki, Toshimitsu Musha, Takashi Asada, Masao Iwase & Masatoshi Takeda - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  17. Walking Strategies in Subjects with Congenital or Early Onset Strabismus.Irene Aprile, Maurizio Ferrarin, Luca Padua, Enrica Di Sipio, Chiara Simbolotti, Sergio Petroni, Costanza Tredici & Anna Dickmann - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  18. Minimally Invasive Dentistry: A Treatment Philosophy.Stefano Ardu - unknown
  19. Neuroimaging, Uncertainty, and the Problem of Dispositions.Gardar Árnason - 2010 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (2):188.
    Brain research in neuroscience and related fields is changing our understanding of the brain and its relation to the mind and to human behavior, giving a new impetus to the problem of free will and moral responsibility. The reactions have covered the entire range, from claims to the effect that neuroscientific research is showing that our folkrnason, Ph.D., is Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Department of Social and Moral Philosophy, University of Helsinki, Finland. His research interests include bioethics, neuroethics, and (...)
  20. Editorial: Neurofeedback in ADHD.Martijn Arns, Hartmut Heinrich, Tomas Ros, Aribert Rothenberger & Ute Strehl - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  21. Executive Summary of Project Conclusions.Jd Arras & Nn Dubler - 1994 - Hastings Center Report 24 (5).
  22. On the Death of Human and Its History.Yubraj Aryal - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy: A Cross-Disciplinary Inquiry 5 (11):1-8.
  23. The Misfortunes of Moral Enhancement.Marco Antonio Azevedo - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 41 (5):461-479.
    In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu present a sophisticated argument in defense of the imperative of moral enhancement. They claim that without moral enhancement, the future of humanity is seriously compromised. The possibility of ultimate harm, caused by a dreadful terrorist attack or by a final unpreventable escalation of the present environmental crisis aggravated by the availability of cognitive enhancement, makes moral enhancement a top priority. It may be considered optimistic to think that our present moral (...)
  24. The Misfortunes of Moral Enhancement.Marco Antonio Azevedo - 2016 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy: A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine 41 (5):461-479.
    In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu present a sophisticated argument in defense of the imperative of moral enhancement. They claim that without moral enhancement, the future of humanity is seriously compromised. The possibility of ultimate harm, caused by a dreadful terrorist attack or by a final unpreventable escalation of the present environmental crisis aggravated by the availability of cognitive enhancement, makes moral enhancement a top priority. It may be considered optimistic to think that our present moral (...)
  25. Sex Differences in the Brain: From Genes to Behavior.Jill B. Becker, Karen J. Berkley, Nori Geary, Elizabeth Hampson, James P. Herman & Elizabeth Young (eds.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Sex is a fundamentally important biological variable. Recent years have seen significant progress in the integration of sex in many aspects of basic and clinical research, including analyses of sex differences in brain function. Significant advances in the technology available for studying the endocrine and nervous systems are now coupled with a more sophisticated awareness of the interconnections of these two communication systems of the body. A thorough understanding of the current knowledge, conceptual approaches, methodological capabilities, and challenges is a (...)
  26. Neuroethics and Philosophy.Jovan Babic - 2014 - Filozofija I Društvo 25 (2):181-203.
  27. Youth Sports & Public Health: Framing Risks of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in American Football and Ice Hockey.Kathleen E. Bachynski & Daniel S. Goldberg - 2014 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (3):323-333.
  28. COMT Val158Met Genotypes Differentially Influence Subgenual Cingulate Functional Connectivity in Healthy Females.Chris Baeken, Daniele Marinazzo, Stephan Claes, Guo-Rong Wu, Peter Van Schuerbeek, Johan De Mey, Robert Luypaert & Rudi De Raedt - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  29. What is It Like to Be ‘Tuned’? Moral Lessons Drawn From Experiences of Enhancement.Bernard Baertschi - 2014 - Jahrbuch für Wissenschaft Und Ethik 18 (1).
  30. Functional Organization and Restoration of the Brain Motor-Execution Network After Stroke and Rehabilitation.Sahil Bajaj, Andrew J. Butler, Daniel Drake & Mukesh Dhamala - 2015 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 9.
  31. Are Beliefs Brain-States, and If They Are What Might That Explain - Reply to Vangulick.LR Baker - unknown
  32. Habits as Learning Enhancers.Gloria Balderas - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  33. On the Valorisation of Public Real Estate Enhancement: The Valuation of Programs and Projects (Feasibility Study).Giampiero Bambagioni - 2012 - Techne: Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment 3.
  34. Editorial: Effects of Game and Game-Like Training on Neurocognitive Plasticity.Guido P. H. Band, Chandramallika Basak, Heleen A. Slagter & Michelle W. Voss - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  35. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Sports Training: Potential Approaches.Michael J. Banissy & Neil G. Muggleton - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  36. The New Philosophy of Psychiatry: Its (Recent) Past, Present and Future: A Review of the Oxford University Press Series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry. [REVIEW]Natalie F. Banner & Tim Thornton - 2007 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2 (1):9-.
    There has been a recent growth in philosophy of psychiatry that draws heavily (although not exclusively) on analytic philosophy with the aim of a better understanding of psychiatry through an analysis of some of its fundamental concepts. This 'new philosophy of psychiatry' is an addition to both analytic philosophy and to the broader interpretation of mental health care. Nevertheless, it is already a flourishing philosophical field. One indication of this is the new Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy (...)
  37. A Genealogical Map of the Concept of Habit.Xabier E. Barandiaran & Ezequiel A. Di Paolo - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.
  38. Unlimited Damage Accumulation in Metallic Materials Under Cascade-Damage Conditions.A. V. Barashev & S. I. Golubov - 2009 - Philosophical Magazine 89 (31):2833-2860.
  39. Moral Enhancement, Gnosticism, and Some Philosophical Paradoxes.Y. M. Barilan - 2015 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (1):75-85.
  40. Freedom, Choice, and the Sense of Agency.Zeynep Barlas & Sukhvinder S. Obhi - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  41. Can Medical Interventions Serve as ‘Criminal Rehabilitation’?Gulzaar Barn - forthcoming - Neuroethics:1-12.
    ‘Moral bioenhancement’ refers to the use of pharmaceuticals and other direct brain interventions to enhance ‘moral’ traits such as ‘empathy,’ and alter any ‘morally problematic’ dispositions, such as ‘aggression.’ This is believed to result in improved moral responses. In a recent paper, Tom Douglas considers whether medical interventions of this sort could be “provided as part of the criminal justice system’s response to the commission of crime, and for the purposes of facilitating rehabilitation : 101–122, 2014).” He suggests that they (...)
  42. The Clinical Impact of the Brain Disease Model of Alcohol and Drug Addiction: Exploring the Attitudes of Community-Based AOD Clinicians in Australia.Anthony I. Barnett & Craig L. Fry - 2015 - Neuroethics 8 (3):271-282.
    Despite recent increasing support for the brain disease model of alcohol and drug addiction, the extent to which the model may clinically impact addiction treatment and client behaviour remains unclear. This qualitative study explored the views of community-based clinicians in Australia and examined: whether Australian community-based clinicians support the BDM of addiction; their attitudes on the impact the model may have on clinical treatment; and their views on how framing addiction as a brain disease may impact addicted clients’ behaviour. Six (...)
  43. A Mathematical Model of Levodopa Medication Effect on Basal Ganglia in Parkinson's Disease: An Application to the Alternate Finger Tapping Task.Chiara Baston, Manuela Contin, Giovanna Calandra Buonaura, Pietro Cortelli & Mauro Ursino - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  44. Julian Savulescu and Nick Bostrom, Eds., Human Enhancement.Stephanie Bauer - 2010 - Ethics 121 (1):218.
  45. C Literaturberichte-Künstliches Glück? Biotechnisches Enhancement als (vermeintliche) Abkürzung zum guten Leben.Kurt Bayertz, Birgit Beck & Barbara Stroop - 2012 - Philosophischer Literaturanzeiger 65 (4).
  46. Who Is Responsible?Carol Bayley & Nancy Berlinger - 2006 - Hastings Center Report 36 (3):11-12.
  47. A Face is Not Just Like a Hand: Pace Barker.Françoise Baylis - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (3):30 – 32.
  48. From Brainbank to Database: The Informational Turn in the Study of the Brain.A. BeAulieu - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 35 (2):367-390.
    Brain in a vat scenarios in analytic philosophy feature both brains and technological apparatus. The relation between specimens and technology is an interesting aspect of these scenarios, and in order to explore this relation, I contrast here two kinds of scientific collecting practices: the collection of post-mortem brains versus the compilation of digital brain atlases. This contrast highlights a novel configuration of the relation between brains and new information technologies. This new configuration is traced back to the late 1980s, which (...)
  49. Conceptual and Practical Problems of Moral Enhancement.Birgit Beck - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (4):233-240.
    Recently, the debate on human enhancement has shifted from familiar topics like cognitive enhancement and mood enhancement to a new and – to no one's surprise – controversial subject, namely moral enhancement. Some proponents from the transhumanist camp allude to the ‘urgent need’ of improving the moral conduct of humankind in the face of ever growing technological progress and the substantial dangers entailed in this enterprise. Other thinkers express more sceptical views about this proposal. As the debate has revealed so (...)
  50. Enthusiasm for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri) Often Overlooks its Dependence on Task Selection and Performance.Emily Bell & Eric Racine - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (1):23 – 25.
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