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  1. added 2020-05-18
    The Morality of Economic Behaviour: Economics as Ethics.Vangelis Chiotis - 2020 - London: Routledge.
    The links between self-interest and morality have been examined in moral philosophy since Plato. Economics is a mostly value-free discipline, having lost its original ethical dimension as described by Adam Smith. Examining moral philosophy through the framework provided by economics offers new insights into both disciplines and the discussion on the origins and nature of morality. The Morality of Economic Behaviour: Economics as Ethics argues that moral behaviour does not need to be exogenously encouraged or enforced because morality is a (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-08
    David Boonin on the Non-Identity Argument: Rejecting the Second Premise.Molly Gardner - 2019 - Law, Ethics and Philosophy 7:29-47.
    According to various “harm-based” approaches to the non-identity problem, an action that brings a particular child into existence can also harm that child, even if his or her life is worth living. In the third chapter of The Non-Identity Problem and the Ethics of Future People, David Boonin surveys a variety of harm-based approaches and argues that none of them are successful. In this paper I argue that his objections to these various approaches do not impugn a harm-based approach that (...)
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  3. added 2020-05-07
    Rationality as a Human Value.Lavinia Marin - 2014 - In Mihaela Pop (ed.), Values of the Human Person. Contemporary challenges. Bucharest: Editura universitatii Bucuresti. pp. 111-120.
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  4. added 2020-04-22
    Logique floue et arborescence comme outils de modélisation des catégories en tant que prototypes.Taraneh Javanbakht - 2016 - Dissertation, Université au Québec À Montréal
    The master's thesis of Dr. Taraneh Javanbakht in philosophy that was published at the Université du Québec à Montréal in 2016 includes her innovations in logic and cognitive sciences as well as some parts of her philosophical system, netism.
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  5. added 2020-03-30
    Defining Poverty as Distinctively Human.H. P. P. Lötter - 2007 - Hts Theological Studies 63 (3).
    Most of us can easily identify human beings suffering from poverty, but find it slightly more difficult to understand poverty properly. In this essay I want to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. I start with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. I then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty. I argue that a revision of this (...)
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  6. added 2020-03-20
    Moral Luck and Moral Performance.Hallvard Lillehammer - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    The aims of this paper are fourfold. The first aim is to characterize two distinct forms of circumstantial moral luck and illustrate how they are implicitly recognized in pre-theoretical moral thought. The second aim is to identify a significant difference between the ways in which these two kinds of circumstantial luck are morally relevant. The third aim is to show how the acceptance of circumstantial moral luck relates to the acceptance of resultant moral luck. The fourth aim is to defuse (...)
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  7. added 2020-03-17
    On the Rationality of Vow‐Making.Alida Liberman - 2019 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 100 (3):881-900.
    I offer a philosophical account of vowing and the rationality of vow-making. I argue that vows are most productively understood as exceptionless resolutions that do not have any excusing conditions. I then articulate an apparent problem for exceptionless vow-making: how can it be rational to bind yourself unconditionally, when circumstances might change unexpectedly and make it the case that vow-keeping no longer makes sense for you? As a solution, I propose that vows can be rational to make only if they (...)
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  8. added 2020-03-17
    Permissible Promise-Making Under Uncertainty.Alida Liberman - 2019 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 5 (4):468-486.
    I outline four conditions on permissible promise-making: the promise must be for a morally permissible end, must not be deceptive, must be in good faith, and must involve a realistic assessment of oneself. I then address whether promises that you are uncertain you can keep can meet these four criteria, with a focus on campaign promises as an illustrative example. I argue that uncertain promises can meet the first two criteria, but that whether they can meet the second two depends (...)
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  9. added 2020-03-10
    Collective Action Problems and Conflicting Obligations.Brian Talbot - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (9):2239-2261.
    Enormous harms, such as climate change, often occur as the result of large numbers of individuals acting separately. In collective action problems, an individual has so little chance of making a difference to these harms that changing their behavior has insignificant expected utility. Even so, it is intuitive that individuals in many collective action problems should not be parts of groups that cause these great harms. This paper gives an account of when we do and do not have obligations to (...)
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  10. added 2020-02-17
    Derivation of Morality From Prudence.Marcus Arvan - 2020 - In Neurofunctional Prudence and Morality: A Philosophical Theory. New York: Routledge. pp. 60-94.
    This chapter derives and refines a novel normative moral theory and descriptive theory of moral psychology--Rightness as Fairness--from the theory of prudence defended in Chapter 2. It briefly summarizes Chapter 2’s finding that prudent agents typically internalize ‘moral risk-aversion’. It then outlines how this prudential psychology leads prudent agents to want to know how to act in ways they will not regret in morally salient cases, as well as to regard moral actions as the only types of actions that satisfy (...)
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  11. added 2020-02-11
    Thoughtful Economic Man: Essays on Rationality, Moral Rules and Benevolence.Donald C. Hubin - 1993 - Ethics 103 (3):572-574.
    Some have attempted to justify benefit/ cost analysis by appealing to a moral theory that appears to directly ground the technique. This approach is unsuccessful because the moral theory in question is wildly implausible and, even if it were correct, it would probably not endorse the unrestricted use of benefit/ cost analysis. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that a carefully restricted use of benefit/ cost analysis will be justifiable from a wide variety of plausible moral perspectives. From this, it (...)
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  12. added 2020-01-02
    Letting Others Do Wrong.Tyler Doggett - manuscript
    It is sometimes, but not always, permissible to let others do wrong. This paper is about why that is so.
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  13. added 2020-01-02
    Wronging by Requesting.N. G. Laskowski & Kenneth Silver - manuscript
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  14. added 2019-11-20
    Justifying Standing to Give Reasons: Hypocrisy, Minding Your Own Business, and Knowing One's Place.Ori J. Herstein - 2020 - Philosophers' Imprint 20 (7).
    What justifies practices of “standing”? Numerous everyday practices exhibit the normativity of standing: forbidding certain interventions and permitting ignoring them. The normativity of standing is grounded in facts about the person intervening and not on the validity of her intervention. When valid, directives are reasons to do as directed. When interventions take the form of directives, standing practices may permit excluding those directives from one’s practical deliberations, regardless of their validity or normative weight. Standing practices are, therefore, puzzling – forbidding (...)
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  15. added 2019-10-29
    A Composite Portrait of a True American Philosophy on Magnanimity.Andrew J. Corsa & Eric Schliesser - 2019 - In Sophia Vasalou (ed.), The Measure of Greatness: Philosophers on Magnanimity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 235-265.
    This paper offers a composite portrait of the concept of magnanimity in nineteenth-century America, focusing on Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, and Henry David Thoreau. A composite portrait, as a method in the history of philosophy, is designed to bring out characteristic features of a group's philosophizing in order to illuminate characteristic features that may still resonate in today's philosophy. Compared to more standard methods in the historiography of philosophy, the construction of a composite portrait de-privileges the views of individual (...)
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  16. added 2019-10-27
    What Second-Best Scenarios Reveal About Ideals of Global Justice.Christian Barry & David Wiens - 2020 - In Thom Brooks (ed.), Oxford Handbook to Global Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    While there need be no conflict in theory between addressing global inequality (inequalities between people worldwide) and addressing domestic inequality (inequalities between people within a political community), there may be instances in which the feasible mechanism for reducing global inequality risks aggravating domestic inequality. The burgeoning literature on global justice has tended to overlook this type of scenario, and theorists espousing global egalitarianism have consequently not engaged with cases that are important for evaluating and clarifying the content of their theories. (...)
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  17. added 2019-10-21
    Hypocrisy as Either Deception or Akrasia.Christopher Bartel - 2019 - Philosophical Forum 50 (2):269-281.
    The intuitive, folk concept of hypocrisy is not a unified moral category. While many theorists hold that all cases of hypocrisy involve some form of deception, I argue that this is not the case. Instead, I argue for a disjunctive account of hypocrisy whereby all cases of “hypocrisy” involve either the deceiving of others about the sincerity of an agent's beliefs or the lack of will to carry through with the demands of an agent's sincere beliefs. Thus, all cases of (...)
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  18. added 2019-10-14
    The Walk and the Talk.Daniela Dover - 2019 - Philosophical Review 128 (4):387-422.
    It is widely believed that we ought not to criticize others for wrongs that we ourselves have committed. The author draws out and challenges some of the background assumptions about the practice of criticism that underlie our attraction to this claim, such as the tendency to think of criticism either as a social sanction or as a didactic intervention. The author goes on to offer a taxonomy of cases in which the moral legitimacy of criticism is challenged on the grounds (...)
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  19. added 2019-10-02
    Democratic Education in a Globalized World – A Normative Theory.Julian Culp - 2019 - London and New York: Routledge.
    Due to the economic and social effects of globalization democracy is currently in crisis in many states around the world. This book suggests that solving this crisis requires rethinking democratic education. It argues that educational public policy must cultivate democratic relationships not only within but also across and between states, and that such policy must empower citizens to exercise democratic control in domestic as well as in inter- and transnational politics. -/- Democratic Education in a Globalized World articulates and defends (...)
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  20. added 2019-09-26
    Weil man das so macht?! Zur spezifischen Normativität sozialer Praxis.Hauke Behrendt - 2019 - Archiv Für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie – Beihefte 156:167-183.
  21. added 2019-09-23
    A Capacitarian Account of Culpable Ignorance.Fernando Rudy-Hiller - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (S1):398-426.
    Ignorance usually excuses from responsibility, unless the person is culpable for the ignorance itself. Since a lot of wrongdoing occurs in ignorance, the question of what makes ignorance culpable is central for a theory of moral responsibility. In this article I examine a prominent answer, which I call the ‘volitionalist tracing account,’ and criticize it on the grounds that it relies on an overly restrictive conception of responsibility‐relevant control. I then propose an alternative, which I call the ‘capacitarian conception of (...)
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  22. added 2019-09-16
    A Moral Education.Patrick Stokes - 2019 - Philosophy Now 130:38-39.
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  23. added 2019-08-30
    The Counterfactual Comparative Account of Harm and Reasons for Action and Preference: Reply to Carlson.Justin Klocksiem - 2019 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 22 (3):673-677.
    The counterfactual comparative account of harm has emerged as the main contender in the recent literature on the nature of harm. But Erik Carlson argues that the account violates plausible normative principles connecting harm with our reasons to perform certain actions and to prefer certain outcomes. According to Carlson, the account implies that we have reason to perform actions and to prefer outcomes that we do not in fact possess. This paper defends the counterfactual comparative account from these objections.
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  24. added 2019-08-26
    Elizabeth Anscombe on Consequentialism and Absolute Prohibitions.Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2012 - Danish Yearbook of Philosophy 47:7-39.
    I discuss the third of Anscombe’s theses from “Modern Moral Philosophy”, namely that post-Sidgwickian consequentialism makes the worst action acceptable. I scrutinize her comprehension of “consequentialism”, her reconstruction of Sidgwick’s view of intention, her defence of casuistry, her reformulation of the double-effect doctrine, and her view of morality as based on Divine commands. I argue that her characterization of consequentialism suffers from lack of understanding of the history of utilitarianism and its self-transformation through the Intuitionism-Utilitarianism controversy; that she uncritically accepted (...)
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  25. added 2019-07-30
    Deleuze and the Liberal Tradition: Normativity, Freedom and Judgement.Daniel W. Smith - 2003 - Economy and Society 32 (2):299-324.
  26. added 2019-07-19
    Nietzsche's Naturalist Morality of Breeding: A Critique of Eugenics as Taming.Donovan Miyasaki - 2014 - In Vanessa Lemm (ed.), Nietzsche and the Becoming of Life. Fordham University Press. pp. 194-213.
    In this paper, I directly oppose Nietzsche ’s endorsement of a morality of breeding to all forms of comparative, positive eugenics: the use of genetic selection to introduce positive improvement in individuals or the species, based on negatively or comparatively defined traits. I begin by explaining Nietzsche ’s contrast between two broad categories of morality: breeding and taming. I argue that the ethical dangers of positive eugenics are grounded in their status as forms of taming, which preserves positively evaluated character (...)
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  27. added 2019-07-09
    The Problem of Ignorance.Chad Lee-Stronach - 2019 - Ethics 130 (2):211-227.
    Holly Smith (2014) contends that subjective deontological theories – those that hold that our moral duties are sensitive to our beliefs about our situation – cannot correctly determine whether one ought to gather more information before acting. Against this contention, I argue that deontological theories can use a decision-theoretic approach to evaluating the moral importance of information. I then argue that this approach compares favourably with an alternative approach proposed by Philip Swenson (2016).
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  28. added 2019-06-10
    Waldron on the “Basic Equality” of Hitler and Schweitzer: A Brief Refutation.Uwe Steinhoff - manuscript
    The idea that all human beings have equal moral worth has been challenged by insisting that this is utterly counter-intuitive in the case of individuals like, for instance, Hitler on the one hand and Schweitzer on the other. This seems to be confirmed by a hypothetical in which one can only save one of the two: intuitively, one clearly should save Schweitzer, not Hitler, even if Hitler does not pose a threat anymore. The most natural interpretation of this intuition appeals (...)
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  29. added 2019-06-06
    Shaping the Normative Landscape. By David Owens. [REVIEW]Mark Lebar - 2013 - Philosophical Quarterly 63 (253):851-853.
    David Owens argues that we have interests in purely normative phenomena—in particular, in being obligated. That is, obligation is valuable not merely because our more obvious and non-normative interests are served via being obligated and doing what we are obligated to do, but because the various ways in which we obligate ourselves to others, and they to us, are valuable in and of themselves. This is our ‘normative landscape’, and we shape that landscape through our various normative undertakings, such as (...)
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  30. added 2019-06-06
    From Self‐Respect to Respect for Others.Adam Cureton - 2013 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 94 (2):166-187.
    The leading accounts of respect for others usually assume that persons have a rational nature, which is a marvelous thing, so they should be respected like other objects of ‘awesome’ value. Kant's views about the ‘value’ of humanity, which have inspired contemporary discussions of respect, have been interpreted in this way. I propose an alternative interpretation in which Kant proceeds from our own rational self‐regard, through our willingness to reciprocate with others, to duties of respect for others. This strategy, which (...)
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  31. added 2019-06-06
    Review of Peter Railton, Facts, Values and Norms: Essays Toward a Morality of Consequence: John Skorupski. [REVIEW]John Skorupski - 2008 - Utilitas 20 (2):217-229.
  32. added 2019-06-06
    Rational Agreement and the Validity of Moral Norms: Criticisms of Habermas' Discourse Ethics.Chris Calvert-Minor - 2008 - Southwest Philosophy Review 24 (1):101-108.
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  33. added 2019-06-06
    R. M. Hare: A Memorial Address: John Hare.John E. Hare - 2002 - Utilitas 14 (3):306-308.
    My assigned task is to lay out the shape of my father's life and faith. This is daunting, but it is also a privilege because I loved him and admired him, and his life has been central in shaping my own. I am speaking also on behalf of my mother, my three sisters, Bridget, Louise and Ellie, and our children, Catherine and Andrew, Sam and Anisa, Hannah and Matty.
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  34. added 2019-06-06
    A Philosophical Autobiography: R. M. Hare.R. M. Hare - 2002 - Utilitas 14 (3):269-305.
    I had a strange dream, or half-waking vision, not long ago. I found myself at the top of a mountain in the mist, feeling very pleased with myself, not just for having climbed the mountain, but for having achieved my life's ambition, to find a way of answering moral questions rationally. But as I was preening myself on this achievement, the mist began to clear, and I saw that I was surrounded on the mountain top by the graves of all (...)
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  35. added 2019-06-06
    R. M. Hare's Achievements in Moral Philosophy: Peter Singer.Peter Singer - 2002 - Utilitas 14 (3):309-317.
    In his Axel Hägerström Lectures, given in Sweden in 1991, Dick Hare referred to Hägerström as a pioneer in ethics who had made the most important breakthrough that there had been in ethics during the twentieth century. Although Hägerström's development of a nondescriptivist approach to ethics certainly was pioneering philosophical work, when the history of twentieth century ethics comes to be written, I believe that it is Hare's own work that will be seen as having made the most important contribution.
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  36. added 2019-06-06
    J. S. Mill on What We Don't Know About Women: G. W. Smith.G. W. Smith - 2000 - Utilitas 12 (1):41-61.
    Mill's feminism has been attacked as being logically incoherent. The general verdict has been that Mill can easily be defended from the charge. However, both sides in the debate have ignored the fact that his feminism is part of a broader theory of liberal empiricism. Placing The Subjection of Women in this context re–opens the question of its logical credentials and reveals a basic weakness in Millian feminism.
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  37. added 2019-06-06
    On Universalism: Communitarians, Rorty, and “Liberal Metaphysicians”.Andrew Jason Cohen - 2000 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 38 (1):39-75.
    It is often claimed that liberalism is falsely and perniciously universalist. I take this charge seriously, exploring three positions: the communitarians’, Rorty’s, and that of “comprehensive” liberalism. After explaining why universalism is thought impossible, I examine the communitarian view that value is determined within communities and argue that it results in a form of relativism that is unacceptable. I next discuss Richard Rorty’s liberal acceptance of “conventionalism” and explain how, despite his rejection of universalism, Rorty remains a liberal. I then (...)
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  38. added 2019-06-06
    Improving Our Practice of Sentencing: Brenda M. Baker.Brenda M. Baker - 1997 - Utilitas 9 (1):99-114.
    Restorative justice should have greater weight as a criterion in criminal justice sentencing practice. It permits a realistic recognition of the kinds of harm and damage caused by offences, and encourages individualized non-custodial sentencing options as ways of addressing these harms. Non-custodial sentences have proven more effective than incarceration in securing social reconciliation and preventing recidivism, and they avoid the serious social and personal costs of imprisonment. This paper argues in support of restorative justice as a guiding idea in sentencing. (...)
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  39. added 2019-06-06
    The Importance of Being Important: Euthanasia and Critical Interests in Dworkin's Life's Dominion: David Mitchell.David Mitchell - 1995 - Utilitas 7 (2):301-314.
    Near the beginning of the last chapter of Life's Dominion, Ronald Dworkin expounds the following problem. Margo has Alzheimer's disease. She suffers from ‘serious and permanent dementia’. It transpires that some years ago, at a time when she was mentally fully competent, Margo executed an advance directive. In this formal document she expressed her wishes concerning what should happen to her if she were to develop Alzheimer's. Should those wishes now be acceded to? For instance, suppose that in her document (...)
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  40. added 2019-06-06
    The Moral Justification of Benefit/Cost Analysis: Donald C. Hubin.Donald C. Hubin - 1994 - Economics and Philosophy 10 (2):169-194.
    Benefit/cost analysis is a technique for evaluating programs, procedures, and actions; it is not a moral theory. There is significant controversy over the moral justification of benefit/cost analysis. When a procedure for evaluating social policy is challenged on moral grounds, defenders frequently seek a justification by construing the procedure as the practical embodiment of a correct moral theory. This has the apparent advantage of avoiding difficult empirical questions concerning such matters as the consequences of using the procedure. So, for example, (...)
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  41. added 2019-06-06
    Classical Republicanism and the History of Ethics: J. B. Schneewind.J. B. Schneewind - 1993 - Utilitas 5 (2):185-207.
    The ‘modern’ natural law philosophers of the seventeenth century believed that conflict was an unavoidable concomitant of human intercourse, rooted in our nature. They understood the normative laws of nature as serving the purpose of setting the limits within which conflict is compatible with lasting social cooperation, thus showing, in effect, how warfare can be turned into competition. The natural lawyers were interested primarily in legal and political problems, not in ethics. But in order to provide reasoned approaches to immediate (...)
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  42. added 2019-06-06
    J. S. Mill and Political Violence: Geraint Williams.Geraint Williams - 1989 - Utilitas 1 (1):102-111.
    The most common view of Mill sees him as the classic liberal and one key element in this liberalism is said to be that his thought ‘rests on the belief that the use of reason can settle fundamental social conflicts’. He is seen by a leading authority as ‘the rationalist, confident that social change could be effected by the art of persuasion and by the simple fact that men would learn from bitter experiences’. To point out that at various times (...)
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  43. added 2019-06-06
    Personal Continuity and Instrumental Rationality in Rawls’ Theory of Justice.Adrian M. S. Piper - 1987 - Social Theory and Practice 13 (1):49-76.
    I want to examine the implications of a metaphysical thesis which is presupposed in various objections to Rawls' theory of justice.Although their criticisms differ in many respects, they concur in employing what I shall refer to as the continuity thesis. This consists of the following claims conjointly: (1) The parties in the original position (henceforth the OP) are, and know themselves to be, fully mature persons who will be among the members of the well-ordered society (henceforth the WOS) which is (...)
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  44. added 2019-06-06
    IQ: Heritability and Inequality, Part 1.N. J. Block & Gerald Dworkin - 1974 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 3 (4):331-409.
  45. added 2019-06-05
    The Ethics of Singing Along: The Case of “Mind of a Lunatic”.Aaron Smuts - 2013 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 71 (1):121-129.
    In contrast to film, theater, and literature, audiences typically sing along with popular songs. This can encourage a first-person mode of engagement with the narrative content. Unlike mere spectators, listeners sometimes imagine acting out the content when it is recited in the first-person. This is a common mode of engaging with popular music. And it can be uniquely morally problematic. It is problematic when it involves the enjoyment of imaginatively doing evil. I defend a Moorean view on the issue: It (...)
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  46. added 2019-06-05
    Sverdlik, Steven. Motive and Rightness. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Pp. 224. $55.00.Liezl van Zyl - 2012 - Ethics 122 (3):627-632.
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  47. added 2019-06-05
    Cognitive Enhancement, Virtue Ethics and the Good Life.Barbro Elisabeth Esmeralda Fröding - 2011 - Neuroethics 4 (3):223-234.
    This article explores the respective roles that medical and technological cognitive enhancements, on the one hand, and the moral and epistemic virtues traditionally understood, on the other, can play in enabling us to lead the good life. It will be shown that neither the virtues nor cognitive enhancements on their own are likely to enable most people to lead the good life. While the moral and epistemic virtues quite plausibly are both necessary and sufficient for the good life in theory, (...)
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  48. added 2019-05-29
    Actualism and Possibilism in Ethics.Travis Timmerman & Yishai Cohen - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  49. added 2019-05-17
    Who Has the Capacity to Participate as a Rearee in a Person-Rearing Relationship?Agnieszka Jaworska & Julie Tannenbaum - 2015 - Ethics 125 (4):1096-1113.
    We discuss applications of our account of moral status grounded in person-rearing relationships: which individuals have higher moral status or not, and why? We cover three classes of cases: (1) cases involving incomplete realization of the capacity to care, including whether infants or fetuses have this incomplete capacity; (2) cases in which higher moral status rests in part on what is required for the being to flourish; (3) hypothetical cases in which cognitive enhancements could, e.g., help dogs achieve human-like cognitive (...)
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  50. added 2019-05-10
    Euporia: On Sorrow, Forgiveness and the Idea of the Unforgivable.Raymond Aaron Younis - 2018 - In Gregory Bock (ed.), The Philosophy of Forgiveness Vol IV. London: Vernon. pp. 189-207.
    A critical account of forgiveness and the "unforgivable", with particular reference to Bonaventure and Derrida, among others.
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1 — 50 / 507