Normativity

Edited by Federico L. G. Faroldi (Universita' degli Studi di Pavia)
About this topic
Summary

Defining 'normativity' is itself a normative task, and no clear agreement has been reached on the matter. The normative has often been contrasted with the descriptive; sometimes the normative is thought to be made up of deontic (e.g. 'oughts') and evaluative (e.g. 'good') concepts. 'Normativity' may have at least two senses: first, a nomophoric sense, if one refers to implicit or explicit rules (of various kinds); second, an axiological sense, if one refers to values. Few have defined normativity explicitly; many are interested in the normativity of something else (meaning and content, semantics, aesthetics, moral claims, epistemic norms, context, the law) rather than in normativity itself. When they do, normativity is usually explained (or explained away) with reference to "having reasons".

Key works The contemporary debate on normativity has various threads. A recent, fundamental work dealing directly with 'normativity' tout court is Thomson 2008. The normativity of morality and reason is investigated in Korsgaard 1996. For the normativity of meaning and content, one classical piece is surely Kripke 1982. Fundamental works for the normativity of the law are Kelsen 1967 and Kelsen 1990.
Introductions For an overview of contemporary work on normativity, see Finlay 2010
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  1. Can We Defend Normative Error Theory?Joshua Taccolini - 2024 - European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 20 (1):131-154.
    Normative error theorists aim to defend an error theory which says that normative judgments ascribe normative properties, and such properties, including reasons for belief, are never instantiated. Many philosophers have raised objections to defending a theory which entails that we cannot have reason to believe it. Spencer Case objects that error theorists simply cannot avoid self-defeat. Alternatively, Bart Streumer argues that we cannot believe normative error theory but that, surprisingly, this helps its advocates defend it against these objections. I think (...)
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  2. Metaethics as Dead Politics? On Political Normativity and Justification.Ben Cross - 2024 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 27 (3):319-335.
    Many political realists endorse some notion of political normativity. They think that there are certain normative claims about politics that do not depend on moral premises. The most prominent moralist objections to political normativity have been metaethical: specifically, that political normativity is not genuinely normative; and that it is incapable of justifying normative claims. In this article, I criticize the latter metaethical objection. I argue that the objection presupposes a notion of ‘justification’ that renders it something that is no longer (...)
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  3. Normativity, Autonomy, and Agency: A Critical Review of Three Essays on Agency in Nature, and a Modest Proposal for the Road Ahead.Lenny Moss - 2024 - Biological Theory 19 (2):73-83.
    Has the renewal of interest in the ostensible agency of living beings signaled an advance from a merely heuristic Kantian sense of purposiveness to an unequivocally, empirically grounded research program or are there as yet hidden tensions or contradictions in, for example, the organizational autonomy approach to natural agency? Can normativity be found to be immanent in nature but only beginning with the living cell or must a thoroughgoing naturalism find the seeds of normativity immanent throughout abiotic as well as (...)
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  4. Unification without Pragmatism.Keshav Singh - forthcoming - Philosophical Issues.
    Both actions and beliefs are subject to normative evaluation as rational or irrational. As such, we might expect there to be some general, unified story about what makes them rational. However, orthodox approaches suggest that the rationality of action is determined by practical considerations, while the rationality of belief is determined by properly epistemic considerations. This apparent disunity leads some, like Rinard (2019), to reject orthodox theories of the rationality of belief in favor of pragmatism. In this paper, I argue (...)
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  5. Explanationism about Freedom and Orthonomy.David Heering - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    According to a popular idea, freedom is grounded in orthonomy – the ability to be responsive to normative demands. But how exactly must an agent’s action relate to their reasons in order for this orthonomous relationship to hold? In this paper, I propose a novel explanationist answer to this question. I argue that extant answers – causalism and modalism about orthonomy – fail because they fail to account for the fact that intuitions about freedom and orthonomy track facts about explanation. (...)
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  6. How Not to Find Over-Imitation in Animals.Kristin Andrews & Jedediah W. P. Allen - 2024 - Human Development.
    While more species are being identified as cultural on a regular basis, stark differences between human and animal cultures remain. Humans are more richly cultural, with group-specific practices and social norms guiding almost every element of our lives. Furthermore, human culture is seen as cumulative, cooperative, and normative, in contrast to animal cultures. One hypothesis to explain these differences is grounded in the observation that human children across cultures appear to spontaneously over-imitate silly or causally irrelevant behaviors that they observe. (...)
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  7. Epistemic Rationality and Epistemic Normativity, written by Bondy, P.Guido Tana - 2024 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis:1-11.
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  8. Normativity, prudence and welfare.Michael Ridge - 2024 - Philosophical Studies 181 (5):1213-1235.
    Most discussions of discourse about welfare and discourse about prudence are a “package deal” when it comes to their normativity—either both or neither are normative. In this paper I argue against this conventional “package deal” assumption. I argue that discourse about welfare is not normative in one useful sense of that term, but that prudential discourse is normative. My argument draws in part on ideas from Derek Parfit’s account of personal identity. I then offer a novel positive account of the (...)
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  9. Are ants not only ‘social insects’, but also ‘nomic insects’? In search of clues of normativity in the ant world.Giuseppe Lorini, Donato Antonio Grasso & Andrea Loi - 2024 - Behaviour 161.
    Recently, various philosophers and ethologists have argued or hypothesised that, in addition to humans, there are also non-human animals that are capable of following rules and implementing normative behaviours. The investigation of animal normativity until now, however, has been almost exclusively focused on mammals and, in particular, non-human primates and cetaceans. In contrast, this work aims to extend this research to the world of invertebrates and, more specifically, to the world of eusocial insects. For the purpose of investigating whether there (...)
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  10. Joint Attention: Normativity and Sensory Modalities.Antonio Scarafone - 2024 - Topoi 43 (2):283-294.
    Joint attention is typically conceptualized as a robust psychological phenomenon. In philosophy, this apparently innocuous assumption leads to the problem of accounting for the “openness” of joint attention. In psychology, it leads to the problem of justifying alternative operationalizations of joint attention, since there does not seem to be much which is psychologically uniform across different joint attentional engagements. Contrary to the received wisdom, I argue that joint attention is a social relationship which normatively regulates the attentional states of two (...)
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  11. Social role normativity: from individualism to institutionalism.Kevin Richardson - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    In her book Social Goodness, Charlotte Witt gives an account of the normativity of social norms, crucially appealing to (and naming) social role normativity. Social role normativity is a distinctive kind of normativity that follows from social roles. For example, teachers ought to teach and students ought to do their homework. According to Witt's artisanal model of social role normativity, we should make sense of social role normativity by reference to artisanal roles, like being a carpenter. Just as carpenters have (...)
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  12. Meylan, Anne (2017). In support of the Knowledge-First conception of the normativity of justification. In: Carter, J Adam; Gordon, Emma C; Jarvis, Benjamin. Knowledge First: Approaches in Epistemology and Mind. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 246-258.Anne Meylan, J. Adam Carter, Emma C. Gordon & Benjamin Jarvis (eds.) - 2017
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  13. The Future of Normativity.Simon Kirchin (ed.) - forthcoming - Oxford:
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  14. Kant on Morality, Humanity, and Legality: Dimensions of Normativity.Ansgar Lyssy & Christopher Yeomans (eds.) - 2021 - Cham: Palgrave.
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  15. Artificially Geistige: A Hegelian Perspective on the Developing History of AI.A. Zachman - manuscript
    Modern philosophy can often appear to be mere cryptomnesia, redressed and resuited to fit the particular mouth from which it is espoused. This notion is but a sorrowful chimera binding the 21st-century mind to the confines of an eternal shadow, an eternal prison of doubt in the face of limitless potential. As a species, we are rapidly approaching the precipice of Yahweh's original position as instantiators of consciousness, as the I AM in relation to our artificial progeny. Could one fabricate (...)
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  16. Rationality, Shmationality: Even Newer Shmagency Worries.Olof Leffler - 2024 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 27 (2):371-404.
    Constitutivist approaches to the normativity of rationality have recently come into vogue. Unlike their moral counterparts, however, they have not been confronted with the shmagency objection. In this paper, I challenge them with two versions of the objection based on recent developments in the debate surrounding the normativity of morality. These are shmagency as modal escapability, which is based on taking sophisticated shmagents to be able to modally escape various norms, and shmagency as underdetermination, which is based on taking constitutive (...)
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  17. How to Do “Ought” with “Is”? A Cognitive Linguistics Approach to the Normativity of Legal Language.Mateusz Zeifert - forthcoming - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique:1-26.
    The paper addresses the question how descriptive language is used to express legal norms. Sentences we find in legislative acts, i.e. statutes, constitutions and regulations, express legal norms. Linguistically speaking, there are various grammatical and lexical ways of expressing norms, such as imperative mood, modal verbs, deontic verbs, etc. However, norms may also be expressed by descriptive sentences, namely sentences in present or future tense and indicative (declarative) mood (i.e. _The minister determines the tax rate_). In many civil law countries (...)
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  18. Practices and normativity: Philosophy of Science, Agency and Epistemic Normativity.Miguel Fonseca Martínez - 2024 - Cuadernos de Filosofía Latinoamericana 45 (130).
    The present work aims to present the notion of eidetic agency as a novel account for the understanding of an epistemic normativity based on practices. The eidetic agency (Fonseca, 2020) and (Fonseca, 2023) is a modality of material agency that, scaffolded and extensively, delegates epistemic agency to formal artifacts that become evident in the materiality of the signifiers of artificial languages. Such eidetic artifacts constitute an epistemic normativity that, although it is based on implicit practices and norms of scientific practices, (...)
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  19. Arquetipos Morales: ética prehistoria-pe.Roberto Thomas Arruda - 2024 - São Paulo: Terra à Vista.
    Pe tradición filosófica umi enfoque moral rehegua oñemopyenda predominantemente umi concepto ha teoría metafísica ha teológica-pe. Umi concepto tradicional ética rehegua apytépe, ojehecharamovéva ha’e Teoría de Comando Divino (TCD). TCD he’iháicha, Ñandejára ome’ẽ pyenda moral yvypórape ojejapo guive ha umi revelación rupive. Péicha, pe moralidad ha divinidad ndojeseparái va’erãmo’ã pe civilización mombyryvéva guive. Ko'ã concepto oime sumergido peteî estructura teológica ha oasepta principalmente mayoría umi omoirûva mbohapy tradición abrahámica: judaísmo, cristianismo ha islam, oimehápe parte considerable población humana. Oñongatúvo jerovia ha (...)
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  20. Shadows or Forgeries? Explaining Legal Normativity.Alma Diamond - 2024 - Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence 37 (1):47-78.
    Legal norms serve as practical standards for individuals and officials. While this ‘normative aspect’ of law is widely acknowledged, its significance for theories of law remains contested. In this paper, I examine three views on the matter. First, that we should explain legal norms as reason-giving. Second, that we should explain legal discourse as being about reasons for action. Third, that we should explain law as capable of being reason-giving. I survey some challenges associated with each of these views. What (...)
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  21. “Philosophy is its Own Time Comprehended in Thought”: On the NORMativity of Hegel’s Practical Philosophy.Andrew Buchwalter - 2022 - In Kaveh Boveiri (ed.), L’héritage de Hegel - Hegel’s Legacy. Les Presses de l’Université de Laval. pp. 37-52.
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  22. Uncosmetic Surgeries in An Age of Normativity.Gail Weiss - 2014 - In Kristin Zeiler & Lisa Folkmarson Käll (eds.), Feminist Phenomenology and Medicine. State University of New York Press. pp. 101-117.
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  23. The ethical normativity of instinctive intentionality in Husserl"s later ethics. 안준상 - 2024 - Phenomenology and Contemporary Philosoph 100:39-71.
    본 논문은 에드문트 후설의 전기 윤리학과 후기 윤리학의 변모를 살펴보며, 특히 후기 윤리학을 특징짓는 사랑가치의 본능적 지향성에 주목한다. 이러한 과정에서 본 논문은 ‘본능과 충동’이 후설의 전기 윤리학에서와는 달리 후기 윤리학에서 그 윤리적 규범성을 부여 받게 되는 근본적인 이유를 추적하며, 그를 후설 그 자신의 지향성 개념에 대한 이해의 심화에서 찾고자 한다. 이를 통해 후설에게서 본능적 지향성은 초월론적 대상구성 그 자체를 가능하게 하는 초월론적 조건으로서 여타의 감각적인 충동들과 구별된다는 점이 밝혀진다. 또한 본능적 지향성은 그러한 구성작업에 의해 가능해지는 습성적 삶의 전개 양상을 규제하는 (...)
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  24. Mimicry and normativity.Edward A. Lenzo & Shaun Gallagher - 2020 - In Christian Tewes & Giovanni Stanghellini (eds.), Time and Body: Phenomenological and Psychopathological Approaches. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
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  25. Does evolutionary psychology show that normativity is mind-dependent?Selim Berker - 2014 - In Justin D'Arms & Daniel Jacobson (eds.), Moral Psychology and Human Agency: Philosophical Essays on the Science of Ethics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  26. Relaxing Normativity: Essays on Relaxed Approaches to Realism about Normativity.Paiman Karimi - 2023 - Dissertation, University of Gothenburg
    This thesis is concerned with a relaxed form of normative realism. Relaxed realists accept the existence of mind-independent normative truths, properties, and facts, but argue that normative truths do not have truthmakers and that normative properties and facts are not metaphysically robust. The thesis develops relaxed realism by responding to various objections and challenges. The first paper argues that relaxed realists can answer questions about normative language without their theory collapsing into one of the familiar theories in the literature or (...)
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  27. Epistemic Normativity Without Epistemic Teleology.Benjamin Kiesewetter - forthcoming - Philosophical Issues.
    This article is concerned with a puzzle that arises from three initially plausible assumptions that form an inconsistent triad: (1) Epistemic reasons are normative reasons (normativism); (2) reasons are normative only if conformity with them is good (the reasons/value-link); (3) conformity with epistemic reasons need not be good (the nihilist assumption). I start by defending the reasons/value-link, arguing that normativists need to reject the nihilist assumption. I then argue that the most familiar view that denies the nihilist assumption – epistemic (...)
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  28. Normativity, Lifeworld, and Science in Sellars’ Synoptic Vision: by Dionysis Christias, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2023, vii + 321 pp., €128.39 hbk, €96.29 Ebook, ISBN 978-3-031-27025-3; ISBN 978-3-031-27026-0 (eBook). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-27026-0. [REVIEW]Carl B. Sachs - 2023 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 31 (5):739-744.
    Once upon a time, academic philosophy in the Global North was characterized by a dichotomy between ‘analytic philosophy’ and ‘Continental philosophy.’ This distinction often determined not just one...
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  29. Normativity of war and peace : thoughts from the Han Feizi.Eirik Lang Harris - 2024 - In Sumner B. Twiss, Bingxiang Luo & Benedict S. B. Chan (eds.), Warfare ethics in comparative perspective: China and the West. New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. pp. 113-125.
    Throughout the text of the _Han Feizi_, we see opposition to traditional (and often Confucian) perspectives on a wide range of state activities, both internally and externally. This antipathy towards the traditional morally-based criteria for justifying state actions extends to the questions of when, how, and if to wage war. In what we may today think of as reasoning akin to Western conceptions of political realism, Han Fei argues that considerations of morality have no place, either in questions of war (...)
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  30. Normativity, meaning and philosophy: essays on Wittgenstein.Hans-Johann Glock - 2024 - Anthem Press.
    This is a collection of essays on Wittgenstein and Wittgensteinian themes that appeared between 1996 and 2019. It is divided into three parts, with a common trajectory laid out in a substantial introduction. The first part links meaning, necessity and normativity. It defends and modifies Wittgenstein’s claim that the idea of a ‘grammatical rule’ holds the key to understanding linguistic meaning and its connection to necessary propositions. The second part elucidates the connections between meaning, concepts and thought in Wittgenstein and (...)
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  31. Precedent as a path laid down in walking: Grounding intrinsic normativity in a history of response.Joshua Rust - 2024 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 23 (2):435-466.
    While developments of a shared intellectual tradition, the enactivist approach and the organizational account proffer importantly different accounts of organismic normativity. Where enactivists tend to follow Hans Jonas, Andres Weber, and Francisco Varela in grounding intrinsic affordance norms in existential concern, organizational theorists such as Alvaro Moreno, Matteo Mossio, and Leonardo Bich seek a more deflationary account of these normative phenomena. Critiques directed at both of these accounts of organismic normativity motivate the introduction of the precedential account of organismic normativity, (...)
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  32. Rethinking Logical and Political Normativity.Sebastiano Maffettone - 2024 - History and Philosophy of Logic 45 (1):81-91.
    The focus of the article is the notion of normativity in logic and politics and their possible intersections. The twentieth-century divide between the analytical and the continental idea of logic is explored, by noting that they both – with significant differences – can be seen as proposing a ‘bottom-up normativity’, which may have immediate political effects. Logical normativity postulates universality, and a connection between reality and reason able to orient actions universalistically. For a bottom-up conception (as specifically advanced by Deleuze’s (...)
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  33. Review of Contemporary Phenomenologies of Normativity: Norms, Goals, and Values (edited by Sara Heinämaa, Mirja Hartimo, and Ilpo Hirvonen). [REVIEW]Saulius Geniusas - 2024 - Husserl Studies 40 (1):89-97.
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  34. Essays in the philosophy of motivation, normativity, and self-knowledge.Matthew Kinakin - 2024 - Dissertation, University of Glasgow
    This thesis comprises three distinct and substantial essays concerning motivation, normativity, and self-knowledge. Generally speaking, this thesis focuses on how agents can access particular facts about themselves—e.g., why they acted the way they acted or that a particular experience is bad-for-them. In particular, I show how the motivational and normative nature of certain mental states like our motivating reasons and unpleasant pains interact in unanticipated ways with foundational questions about the nature of phenomenal consciousness—“what it is like” to undergo this (...)
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  35. On Guyer’s Vitruvian Normativity.Saul Fisher - 2024 - Estetika: The European Journal of Aesthetics 61 (1):81-89.
    A critical note on Paul Guyer’s A Philosopher Looks at Architecture (2021). In his book, Paul Guyer proposes that the Vitruvian triad of venustas, utilitas, and firmitas represents central goals and normative values of architecture – ideals that architects should realize and success criteria regarding their realization – that persist through time, place, cultural settings, and other contextual parameters. Indeed, the triad presents sufficiently abstract goals that many disparate views in architectural theory may be subsumed under the triad as distinctive (...)
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  36. Grounding Normativity in Ritual.Takahiro Nakajima - 2016 - In Leigh K. Jenco (ed.), Chinese Thought as Global Theory. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 55-74.
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  37. Normativity and Concepts of Bodily Sensations.Kevin Reuter - forthcoming - Studia Philosophica: Jahrbuch Der Schweizerischen Philosoph Ischen Gesellschaft, Annuaire de la Société Suisse de Philosphie .
    This paper challenges the philosophical assumption that bodily sensations are free from normative constraints. It examines the normative status of bodily sensations through two studies: a corpus-linguistic analysis and an experimental investigation. The corpus analysis shows that while emotions are frequently subject to normative judgments concerning their appropriateness, similar attitudes are less evident towards bodily sensations like feelings of pain, hunger and cold. In contrast, however, the experimental study reveals notable differences in conceptions of bodily sensations. It finds that sensations (...)
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  38. Normativity and Solidarity.Bharat Ranganathan - 2024 - In Bharat Ranganathan & Caroline Anglim (eds.), Religion and Social Criticism: Tradition, Method, and Values. Springer Nature Switzerland. pp. 251-274.
    What methodologies should characterize religious ethics? How should religious ethics relate (or not relate) to religious studies? These questions have long confronted religious ethicists. But in the last decade, debates about what is and isn’t religious ethics have expanded and intensified, including not only disciplinary relationships and methodological commitments but also what the meaning and goals of religious ethics ought to be. In this chapter, I first briefly rehearse recent debates concerning whether and how religious ethics ought to be practiced. (...)
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  39. Evidence, reasons, and knowledge in the reasons-first program.Paul Silva & Sven Bernecker - 2023 - Philosophical Studies 181 (2):617-625.
    Mark Schroeder’s Reasons First is admirable in its scope and execution, deftly demonstrating the theoretical promise of extending the reasons-first approach from ethics to epistemology. In what follows we explore how (not) to account for the evidence-that relation within the reasons-first program, we explain how factive content views of evidence can be resilient in the face of Schroeder’s criticisms, and we explain how knowledge from falsehood threatens Schroeder’s view of knowledge. Along the way we sketch a reliabilist account of the (...)
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  40. Kornblith on Epistemic Normativity.Matthew McGrath - forthcoming - In Luis Oliveira & Joshua DiPaolo (eds.), Kornblith and His Critics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Kornblith’s “Epistemic Normativity” is a classic in the now voluminous literature on the source of epistemic normativity. His account is as simple as it is bold: the source is desire, not a desire for true belief, or knowledge, but any set of desires. No matter what desires you have, so long as you are a being of a kind that employs beliefs in cost-benefit analysis, certain sorts of truth-centered epistemic norms will have normative force for you. We can distinguish two (...)
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  41. Kant on the Normativity of Obligatory Ends.Martin Sticker - 2024 - The Journal of Ethics 28 (1):53-73.
    I propose a novel way to understand the stringency of Kant’s conception of beneficence. This novel understanding can ground our intuition that we do not have to forego (almost) all pursuit of our personal ends. I argue that we should understand the application of imperfect duties to specific cases according to the framework set by the adoption and promotion of ends. Agents have other ends than obligatory ones and they must weigh obligatory ends against these other ends. Obligatory ends are (...)
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  42. Correction to: Kant on the Normativity of Obligatory Ends.Martin Sticker - 2024 - The Journal of Ethics 28 (1):75-76.
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  43. Human stem-cell-derived embryo models: When bioethical normativity meets biological ontology.Adrian Villalba - 2024 - Developmental Biology 508.
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  44. Normativity of War and Peace: Thoughts from the Han Feizi.Eirik Lang Harris - 2024 - In Sumner B. Twiss, Ping-Cheung Lo & Benedict S. B. Chan (eds.), Warfare Ethics in Comparative Perspective: China and the West. Routledge. pp. 113-125.
    Throughout the text of the Han Feizi, we see opposition to traditional (and often Confucian) perspectives on a wide range of state activities, both internally and externally. This antipathy towards the traditional morally-based criteria for justifying state actions extends to the questions of when, how, and if to wage war. In what we may today think of as reasoning akin to Western conceptions of political realism, Han Fei argues that considerations of morality have no place, either in questions of war (...)
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  45. The normativity of gender.Rach Cosker-Rowland - 2024 - Noûs 58 (1):244-270.
    There are important similarities between moral thought and talk and thought and talk about gender: disagreements about gender, like disagreements about morality, seem to be intractable and to outstrip descriptive agreement; and it seems coherent to reject any definition of what it is to be a woman in terms of particular social, biological, or other descriptive features, just as it seems coherent to reject any definition of what it is to be good or right in terms of any set of (...)
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  46. 8 Community and Normativity: Hegel’s Challenge to Kant in the Jena Essays.Michael Feola - 2011 - In Charlton Payne & Lucas Thorpe (eds.), Kant and the concept of community. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. pp. 183-208.
  47. One Heresy and One Orthodoxy: On Dialetheism, Dimathematism, and the Non-normativity of Logic.Heinrich Wansing - 2024 - Erkenntnis 89 (1):181-205.
    In this paper, Graham Priest’s understanding of dialetheism, the view that there exist true contradictions, is discussed, and various kinds of metaphysical dialetheism are distinguished between. An alternative to dialetheism is presented, namely a thesis called ‘dimathematism’. It is pointed out that dimathematism enables one to escape a slippery slope argument for dialetheism that has been put forward by Priest. Moreover, dimathematism is presented as a thesis that is helpful in rejecting the claim that logic is a normative discipline.
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  48. Correction: Epistemic Blame and the Normativity of Evidence.Sebastian Schmidt - 2024 - Erkenntnis 89 (1):25-26.
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  49. In search of animal normativity: a framework for studying social norms in non-human animals.Evan Westra, Simon Fitzpatrick, Sarah F. Brosnan, Thibaud Gruber, Catherine Hobaiter, Lydia M. Hopper, Daniel Kelly, Christopher Krupenye, Lydia V. Luncz, Jordan Theriault & Kristin Andrews - 2024 - Biological Reviews 1.
    Social norms – rules governing which behaviours are deemed appropriate or inappropriate within a given community – are typically taken to be uniquely human. Recently, this position has been challenged by a number of philosophers, cognitive scientists, and ethologists, who have suggested that social norms may also be found in certain non-human animal communities. Such claims have elicited considerable scepticism from norm cognition researchers, who doubt that any non-human animals possess the psychological capacities necessary for normative cognition. However, there is (...)
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  50. Contestation of Normativity Views of the Hadits About Physical Appearance Among Muhammadiyah Members.Kasman Kasman - 2023 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 15 (3):98-112.
    The normativity in understanding the hadiths of male physical appearances, such as lengthening the beard, isbal prohibition, and wearing a robe, was still debated by Muslims. This issue was evident, especially in Islamic communities with strong progressive and conservative characters at the same time, like Muhammadiyah. This paper aimed to elucidate the existence of contestation among Muhammadiyah members in understanding and practicing traditions regarding physical appearance. This paper discussed three subjects: first, contestation in the hadith of maintaining a beard; second, (...)
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