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  1. Nyāya Formalized: Exercises of Application.Alberto Anrò - 2022 - Philosophy East and West 72 (1):1-34.
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  2. Debating with Fists and Fallacies: Vācaspati Miśra and Dharmakīrti on Norms of Argumentation.Malcolm Keating - 2022 - International Journal of Hindu Studies 26 (April):63-87.
    The tradition of Nyāya philosophy centers on a dispassionate quest for truth which is simultaneously connected to soteriological and epistemic aims. This article shows how Vācaspati Miśra brings together the soteriological concept of dispassion with the discourse practices of debate, as a response to Buddhist criticisms in Dharmakīrti’s Vādanyāya. He defends the Nyāyasūtra’s stated position that fallacious reasoning is a legitimate means for a debate, under certain circumstances. Dharmakīrti argues that such reasoning is rationally ineffective and indicates unvirtuous qualities. For (...)
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  3. The Pragma-Dialectics of Dispassionate Discourse: Early Nyāya Argumentation Theory.Malcolm Keating - 2022 - Religions 10 (12).
    Analytic philosophers have, since the pioneering work of B.K. Matilal, emphasized the contributions of Nyāya philosophers to what contemporary philosophy considers epistemology. More recently, scholarly work demonstrates the relevance of their ideas to argumentation theory, an interdisciplinary area of study drawing on epistemology as well as logic, rhetoric, and linguistics. This paper shows how early Nyāya theorizing about argumentation, from Vātsyāyana to Jayanta Bhaṭṭa, can fruitfully be juxtaposed with the pragma-dialectic approach to argumentation pioneered by Frans van Eemeren. I illustrate (...)
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  4. Theory of Error and Nyaya Philosophy: A Conceptual Analysis.Gobinda Bhattacharjee - 2021 - International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews 8 (3):958-964.
    In this paper, I propose to discuss the theory of error or Khyativāda with special reference to Nyāya philosophy. The error is an epistemological concept. As such it is contrasted with the truth. Philosophers, while dealing with the concept of error, have analyzed it from logical, metaphysical and psychological perspective. The problem of error in Indian philosophy is discussed in the different theories known as the Khyativāda. According to Nyāya School error is known as anyathākhyativāda. Here 'anyathā' literally means 'otherwise' (...)
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  5. Nyāya’s Response to Skepticism.Kisor Kumar Chakrabarti - 2021 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 12 (1):72-89.
    The classical Indian school called Nyāya (literally “logic” or “right reasoning”), is arguably the leading anti-skeptical tradition within all of Indian philosophy. Defending a realist metaphysics and an epistemology of “knowledge sources” (pramāṇa), its responses to skepticism are often appropriated by other schools of thought. This paper examines its responses to skeptical arguments from dreams, from “the three times,” from justificatory regress, and over the problem of induction.
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  6. Gaṅgeśa on Epistemic Luck.Nilanjan Das - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (2):153-202.
    This essay explores a problem for Nyāya epistemologists. It concerns the notion of pramā. Roughly speaking, a pramā is a conscious mental event of knowledge-acquisition, i.e., a conscious experience or thought in undergoing which an agent learns or comes to know something. Call any event of this sort a knowledge-event. The problem is this. On the one hand, many Naiyāyikas accept what I will call the Nyāya Definition of Knowledge, the view that a conscious experience or thought is a knowledge-event (...)
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  7. Epistemology, Logic and Metaphysics in Pre-Modern India: New Avenues for the Study of Navya-Nyāya.Hugo David & Jonathan Duquette - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (2):145-151.
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  8. Old Topics, New Formulations: Khaṇḍadeva and Navyanyāya.Bogdan Diaconescu - 2021 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 49 (2):291-321.
    This article is first in a series dedicated to issues in the intellectual history of Mīmāṃsā in early modern India and part of a larger effort to broaden the basis for understanding the new formulations of central topics of the Mīmāṃsā textual-ritual complex in this period. It examines how the Varanasi scholar Khaṇḍadevamiśra makes use of Navyanyāya tools of analysis by putting under the microscope the example of his investigation and new formulation of the signification of agent and agency by (...)
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  9. There is Something Wrong with Raw Perception, After All: Vyāsatīrtha’s Refutation of Nirvikalpaka-Pratyakṣa.Amit Chaturvedi - 2020 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 48 (2):255-314.
    This paper analyzes the incisive counter-arguments against Gaṅgeśa’s defense of non-conceptual perception offered by the Dvaita Vedānta scholar Vyāsatīrtha in his Destructive Dance of Dialectic. The details of Vyāsatīrtha’s arguments have gone largely unnoticed by subsequent Navya Nyāya thinkers, as well as by contemporary scholars engaged in a debate over the role of non-conceptual perception in Nyāya epistemology. Vyāsatīrtha thoroughly undercuts the inductive evidence supporting Gaṅgeśa’s main inferential proof of non-conceptual perception, and shows that Gaṅgeśa has no basis for thinking (...)
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  10. Vātsyāyana’s Guide to Liberation.Nilanjan Das - 2020 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 48 (5):791-825.
    In this essay, my aim is to explain Vātsyāyana’s solution to a problem that arises for his theory of liberation. For him and most Nyāya philosophers after him, liberation consists in the absolute cessation of pain. Since this requires freedom from embodied existence, it also results in the absolute cessation of pleasure. How, then, can agents like us be rationally motivated to seek liberation? Vātsyāyana’s solution depends on what I will call the Pain Principle, i.e., the principle that we should (...)
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  11. Controversial Reasoning in Indian Philosophy: Major Texts and Arguments on Arth'patti.Malcolm Keating - 2020 - London: Bloomsbury Academic Publishing.
    Arthâpatti is a pervasive form of reasoning investigated by Indian philosophers in order to think about unseen causes and interpret ordinary and religious language. Its nature is a point of controversy among Mimamsa, Nyaya, and Buddhist philosophers, yet, to date, it has received less attention than perception, inference, and testimony. This collection presents a one-of-a-kind reference resource for understanding this form of reasoning studied in Indian philosophy. Assembling translations of central primary texts together with newly-commissioned essays on research topics, it (...)
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  12. The Nyāya Argument for Disjunctivism.Henry Ian Schiller - 2019 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 36 (1):1-18.
    The Nyāya school of classical Indian epistemology defended (by today’s standards) a radical version of epistemic externalism. They also gave arguments from their epistemological positions to an early version of disjunctivism about perceptual experience. In this paper I assess the value of such an argument, concluding that a modified version of the Nyāya argument may be defensible.
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  13. History of Indian Philosophy.Purushottama Bilimoria (ed.) - 2017 - New York, Abingdon UK: Routledge Taylor & Francis Palgrave.
    The History of Indian Philosophy is a comprehensive and authoritative examination of the movements and thinkers that have shaped Indian philosophy over the last three thousand years. An outstanding team of international contributors provide fifty-eight accessible chapters, organis[=z]ed into three clear parts: knowledge, context, concepts philosophical traditions engaging and encounters: modern and postmodern. This outstanding collection is essential reading for students of Indian philosophy. It will also be of interest to those seeking to explore the lasting significance of this rich (...)
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  14. Vatsyayana: Cognition as a Guide to Action.Matthew R. Dasti - 2017 - In Jonardon Ganeri (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Indian Philosophy.
    Pakṣilasvāmin Vātsyāyana (c. 450 CE) is the author of the Commentary on Nyāya (Nyāya-bhāṣya), the first full commentary on the Nyāya-sūtra of Gautama (c. 150 CE), which is itself the foundational text of the school of philosophy called “Nyāya.” The Nyāya tradition is home to a number of leading voices within the classical Indian philosophical scene and is celebrated in later doxographies as one of the six “orthodox” systems of Hindu thought. Given the way that sūtra texts and their first (...)
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  15. The Nyāya-Sūtra: Selections with Early Commentaries.Matthew Dasti & Stephen Phillips - 2017 - Hackett Publishing Company.
    Often translated simply as "logic," the Sanskrit word _nyāya_ means "rule of reasoning" or "method of reasoning." Texts from the school of classical Indian philosophy that bears this name are concerned with cognition, reasoning, and the norms that govern rational debate. This translation of selections from the early school of Nyāya focuses on its foundational text, the _Nyāya-sūtra_, with excerpts from the early commentaries. It will be welcomed by specialists and non-specialists alike seeking an accessible text that both represents some (...)
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  16. Reliability of a Speaker and Recognition of a Listener: Bocheński and Nyāya on the Relation of Authority.Agnieszka Rostalska - 2017 - Kervan. International Journal of Afro-Asiatic Studies 21:155-173.
    In the Nyāyasūtras (NS), the fundamental text of the Nyāya tradition, testimony is defined as a statement of a reliable speaker (āpta). According to the NS, such a speaker should possess three qualities: competence, honesty and desire to speak. The content of a discourse, including the prescriptions, is also considered reliable due to the status of a given author and the person that communicated it. -/- The Polish philosopher J.M. Bocheński similarly stresses the role of a speaker; he holds that (...)
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  17. The Problem of Foundation in Early Nyāya and in Navya-Nyāya.Eberhard Guhe - 2015 - History and Philosophy of Logic 36 (2):97-113.
    The evaluation of arguments was not the sole concern of logicians in ancient India. Early Nyāya and the later Navya-Nyāya provide an interesting example of the interaction between logic and ontology. In their attempt to develop a kind of property-location logic Naiyāyikas had to consider what kind of restrictions they should impose on the residence relation between a property and its locus. Can we admit circular residence relations or infinitely descending chains of properties, each depending on its successor as its (...)
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  18. Comparative Philosophy & J. L. Shaw.Michael Hemmingsen & Purushottama Bilimoria - 2015 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
    As a Festschrift, this book celebrates and honours the scholarly achievements of Professor Jaysankar Lal Shaw, one of the most eminent and internationally acclaimed comparative philosophers of our times. Original works by leading international philosophers and logicians are presented here, exploring themes such as: meaning, negation, perception and Indian and Buddhist systems of philosophy, especially Nyaya perspectives. -/- Professor Shaw’s untiring effort to solve some of the problems of contemporary philosophy of language, logic, epistemology, metaphysics and morals from the perspectives (...)
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  19. A Study on Congruence Between Classical Nyaya Sutras and Modern Theories of Knowledge.Jatin Pandey & Manjari Singh - 2015 - Journal of Human Values 21 (2):106-115.
    Knowledge is an asset that can make or break organizations. Its importance has been duly asserted in the Western management thought as well as in the Indian classical philosophical thought. The present study takes a hermeneutical approach by reviewing the Western literature related to knowledge and then trying to find congruence with the Indian philosophy of Nyaya Sutras. Nyaya is a branch of Indian philosophical thought; these thoughts were written in the form of verses called the sutras. We draw from (...)
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  20. On Knowing Universals: The Nyāya Way.Monima Chadha - 2014 - Philosophy East and West 64 (2):287-302.
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  21. Nyāya's Self as Agent and Knower.Matthew R. Dasti - 2014 - In Matthew R. Dasti & Edwin F. Bryant (eds.), Free will, Agency, and Selfhood in Indian Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 112.
    Much of classical Hindu thought has centered on the question of self: what is it, how does it relate to various features of the world, and how may we benefit by realizing its depths? Attempting to gain a conceptual foothold on selfhood, Hindu thinkers commonly suggest that its distinctive feature is consciousness (caitanya). Well-worn metaphors compare the self to light as its awareness illumines the world of knowable objects. Consciousness becomes a touchstone to recognize the presence of a self. A (...)
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  22. Synopsis of Science: From the Standpoint of the Nyaya Philosophy.James R. Ballantyne - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    James Robert Ballantyne taught oriental languages in India for sixteen years, compiling grammars of Hindi, Sanskrit and Persian, along with translations of Hindu philosophy. In 1859, for the use of Christian missionaries, he prepared a guide to Hinduism, in English and Sanskrit. Published in two volumes in 1852, Synopsis of Science was intended to introduce his Indian pupils to Western science by using the framework of Hindu Nyaya philosophy, which was familiar to them and which Ballantyne greatly respected. This second (...)
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  23. A Synopsis of Science: From the Standpoint of the Nyaya Philosophy.James R. Ballantyne - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    James Robert Ballantyne taught oriental languages in India for sixteen years, producing grammars of Hindi, Sanskrit and Persian, along with translations of Hindu philosophy. In 1859, for the use of Christian missionaries, he prepared a guide to Hinduism, in English and Sanskrit. Published in two volumes in 1852, Synopsis of Science was intended to introduce his Indian pupils to Western science by using the framework of Hindu Nyaya philosophy, which was familiar to them and which Ballantyne greatly respected. Volume 1 (...)
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  24. The Arrival of Navya-Nyāya Techniques in Varanasi.Johannes Bronkhorst, Bogdan Diaconescu & Malhar Kulkarni - 2013 - In Kuruvilla Pandikattu Sj & Binoy Pichalakkattu Sj (eds.), An Indian Ending: Rediscovering the Grandeur of Indian Heritage for a Sustainable Future. Essays in Honour of Professor Dr. John Vattanky SJ On Completing Eighty Years. Serials Publications.
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  25. Systematizing Nyāya. [REVIEW]Matthew R. Dasti - 2013 - Philosophy East and West 63 (4):617-637.
    An ongoing effort, exemplified though happily not exhausted in the work of B. K. Matilal, is to present the best of classical Indian philosophy in a way that speaks to contemporary philosophical concerns, while still being historically and philologically responsible. Epistemology in Classical India: The Knowledge Sources of the Nyāya School by Stephen Phillips is expressly this kind of work. Phillips begins by explaining that his book is “for philosophers and students of philosophy, not for specialists in classical Indian thought” (...)
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  26. Nyāya.Matthew R. Dasti - 2012 - The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This is an overview of the Nyaya ("Logic") school of classical Indian philosophy, focusing on the earlier period (up to roughly 1000 CE).
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  27. Parasitism and Disjunctivism in Nyāya Epistemology.Matthew R. Dasti - 2012 - Philosophy East and West 62 (1):1-15.
    From the early modern period, Western epistemologists have often been concerned with a rigorous notion of epistemic justification, epitomized in the work of Descartes: properly held beliefs require insulation from extreme skepticism. To the degree that veridical cognitive states may be indistinguishable from non-veridical states, apparently veridical states cannot enjoy high-grade positive epistemic status. Therefore, a good believer begins from what are taken to be neutral, subjective experiences and reasons outward—hopefully identifying the kinds of appearances that properly link up to (...)
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  28. Debating Verbal Cognition: The Theory of the Principal Qualificand (Mukyaviśeṣya) in Classical Indian Thought.Bogdan Diaconescu - 2012 - Motilal Banarsidass.
    The intellectual culture of India presents us with highly elaborated theories of verbal cognition, known in Sanskrit philosophical literature under the generic name of sabdabodha. The theory explored in this book represents the content of the cognition derived from linguistic utterances as a paraphrase centered on a meaning element-the principal qualificand, which is qualified by other meaning elements. Thinkers of the Mimamsa, Nyaya and Vyakarana schools concern themselves with this topic, situated at the interface between epistemology, linguistics, scriptural exegesis and (...)
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  29. On the New Ways of the Late Vedic Hermeneutics: Mīmāṃsā and Navya-Nyāya.Bogdan Diaconescu - 2012 - Asiatische Studien / Études Asiatiques 66 (2):261-306.
    This article aims to follow the process of adoption of Navya-Nyāya techniques of cognitive analysis in the school of Vedic hermeneutics, Mīmāṃsā, in the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries, in the larger context of the spread of these techniques in India. I shall argue that this process arises in Mīmāṃsā on the sidelines of the Advaita-Dvaita Vedānta controversy in South India, then subsequently flourishes in Varanasi. These techniques are adopted gradually and selectively, for not all the Mīmāṃsā thinkers choose to (...)
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  30. Realism and Essentialism in the Nyāya Darśana.John Kronen & Joy Laine - 2012 - International Philosophical Quarterly 52 (3):315-333.
    Philosophers affiliated with the Nyāya school of classical Indian philosophy developed an impressive species of realism. Nyāya philosophers defended direct realism in holding that we perceive bodies, not just their qualities or mental images of their qualities. This sort of realism has been out of favor for centuries in the West and faces a number of problems that the Nyāya knew and answered in a sophisticated way. Rather than focus on the Nyāya defense of direct realism, we focus on the (...)
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  31. Indian Rational Theology: Proof, Justification, and Epistemic Liberality in Nyāya's Argument for God.Matthew R. Dasti - 2011 - Asian Philosophy 21 (1):1-21.
    In classical India, debates over rational theology naturally become the occasion for fundamental questions about the scope and power of inference itself. This is well evinced in the classical proofs for God by the Hindu Nyāya tradition and the opposing arguments of classical Buddhists and Mīmāsā philosophers. This paper calls attention to, and provides analysis of, a number of key nodes in these debates, particularly questions of inferential boundaries and whether inductive reasoning has the power to support inferences to wholly (...)
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  32. Is Cognition an Attribute of the Self or It Rather Belongs to the Body? Some Dialectical Considerations on Udbhaṭabhaṭṭa’s Position Against Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika.Krishna Del Toso - 2011 - Open Journal of Philosophy 1 (2):48.
    In this article an attempt is made to detect what could have been the dialectical reasons that impelled the Cār-vāka thinker Udbhatabhatta to revise and reformulate the classical materialistic concept of cognition. If indeed according to ancient Cārvākas cognition is an attribute entirely dependent on the physical body, for Udbhatabhatta cognition is an independent principle that, of course, needs the presence of a human body to manifest itself and for this very reason it is said to be a peculiarity of (...)
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  33. Composite Substances as True Wholes: Toward a Modified Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Theory of Composite Substances.John Kronen & Jacob Tuttle - 2011 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (2):289-316.
    In the Categories Aristotle defined substance as that which is neither predicable of nor in another. In saying that a substance is not predicable of another, Aristotle meant to exclude genera and species from the category substance. Aman is a substance but not man. In saying that a substance is not in another, Aristotle meant to exclude property particulars from the category. A man is a substance, not his color. The Categories treats substances as simples. Though a particular substance, Bucephalus (...)
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  34. Epistemology in Classical India: The Knowledge Sources of the Nyaya School.Stephen H. Phillips - 2011 - Routledge.
    In this book, Phillips gives an overview of the contribution of Nyaya--the classical Indian school that defends an externalist position about knowledge as well as an internalist position about justification. Nyaya literature extends almost two thousand years and comprises hundreds of texts, and in this book, Phillips presents a useful overview of the under-studied system of thought. For the philosopher rather than the scholar of Sanskrit, the book makes a whole range of Nyaya positions and arguments accessible to students of (...)
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  35. Classical Indian Philosophy of Induction: The Nyāya Viewpoint.Kisor Kumar Chakrabarti - 2010 - Lexington Books.
    The problem of induction : East and West -- The later Nyaya solution -- The method of generalization : Vyaptigrahopayah -- Counterfactual reasoning : Tarkah -- Universal based extraordinary perception : Samanyalaksanapratyaksa -- Earlier views of adjuncts : Upadhivadah -- The accepted view of adjuncts : Upadhivadasiddhantah -- Classification of adjuncts : Upadhivibhagah -- Sriharsa's Khandanakhandakhadyam on pervasion -- Selected passages from Prabhacandra's Prameyakamalamartanda on critique of pervasion and inference -- Selections from Dharmakirti's Nyayabindu on non-perception as a probans.
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  36. Against a Hindu God by Parimal G. Patil (Columbia University Press 2009). [REVIEW]Matthew R. Dasti - 2010 - Journal of Asian Studies.
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  37. Pramāṇa Are Factive— A Response to Jonardon Ganeri.Matthew Dasti & Stephen H. Phillips - 2010 - Philosophy East and West 60 (4):535-540.
    Recently, Jonardan Ganeri reviewed the collaborative translation of the first chapter of Gaṅgeśa's Tattvacintāmaṇi by Stephen H. Phillips and N. S. Ramanuja Tatacharya (Ganeri 2007). The review is quite favorable, and we have no desire to dispute his kind words. Ganeri does, however, put forth an argument in opposition to a fundamental line of interpretation given by Phillips and Ramanuja Tatacharya about the nature of pramāṇa, knowledge sources, as understood by Gaṅgeśa and, for that matter, Nyāya tradition. This response is (...)
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  38. Vyādhikaraṇaprakaraṇam. Jagadīśatarkālaṅkāra & Ḍhuṇḍhirāja Śāstri - 2010 - Caukhambhā Saṃskr̥ta Saṃsthāna.
    Treatise, with Gaṅgā commentary, on neo-Nyaya philosophy.
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  39. Prāmāṇyavādavimarśa: Ma.Navīna Kumāra Jhā - 2010 - Abhisheka Prakāśana.
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  40. Prāmāṇyavādavimarśa: Ma. Ma. Harirāma Tarkavāgīśakr̥ta Prāmāṇyavāda Ke Āloka Meṃ.Navīna Kumāra Jhā - 2010 - Abhisheka Prakāśana.
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  41. Nyāya-Vaiśesika Inherence, Buddhist Reduction, and Huayan Total Power.Nicholaos Jones - 2010 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2):215-230.
    This paper elaborates upon various responses to the Problem of the One over the Many, in the service of two central goals. The first is to situate Huayan's mereology within the context of Buddhism's historical development, showing its continuity with a broader tradition of philosophizing about part-whole relations. The second goal is to highlight the way in which Huayan's mereology combines the virtues of the Nyāya-Vaisheshika and Indian Buddhist solutions to the Problem of the One over the Many while avoiding (...)
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  42. An Inquiry Into the Definition of Tarka in Nyāya Tradition and its Connotation of Negative Speculation.Sung Yong Kang - 2010 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 38 (1):1-23.
    The technical term “ tarka ” in the Nyāya tradition is the object of the present investigation. Diverse texts including Buddhist ones exhibit a negative estimation of activities using tarka . In contrast, more often than not, later treatises dealing with logico-epistemic problems, especially certain Naiyāyika works, identify the methodological peculiarity of Nyāya with tarka . Such an ambivalent attitude toward tarka can be understood in a coherent way if the essential features of tarka that gave rise to it can (...)
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  43. The Shift From Agonistic to Non-Agonistic Debate in Early Nyāya.Hugh Nicholson - 2010 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 38 (1):75-95.
    This article examines the emergence of the Nyāya distinction between vāda and jalpa as didactic-scientific and agonistic-sophistical forms of debate, respectively. Looking at the relevant sutras in Gautama’s Nyāya-sūtra (NS 1.2.1-3) in light of the earlier discussion of the types of debate in Caraka Saṃhitā 8, the article argues that certain ambiguities and obscurities in the former text can be explained on the hypothesis that the early Nyāya presupposed an agonistic understanding of vāda similar to what we find in Caraka.
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  44. Navya-Nyaya Logic.Prabal Sen & Amita Chatterjee - 2010 - Journal of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research 27 (2):77-99.
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  45. The Dispeller of Disputes: Nāgārjuna's Vigrahavyāvartanī.Jan Westerhoff - 2010 - Oup Usa.
    Nagarjuna's Vigrahavyavartani is one of the most important Madhyamaka Buddhist philosophical texts. Jan Westerhoff offers a new translation, reflecting the best current philological research and all available editions, and adds his own philosophical commentary on the text. His nuanced, philosophically sophisticated commentary explains Nagarjuna's arguments in a way that is both grounded in historical and textual scholarship and connected explicitly to contemporary philosophical concerns.
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  46. Pre-Gaṅgeśa Concept of Liṅgaparāmarśa: With Special Reference to Śaśadhara.Bhagaban Panda - 2009 - Bharatiya Kala Prakashan.
    There are number of controversies in accepting paramarsa as a key-factor in Inference. The Naiyayikas hold clearly an objective view of the paramarsa as an `immediate cause of the process of Inference`. But the systems like Mlmamsa, Buddhists etc. hold a subjective view of the concept. To them, this is just a conceptual fiction designed by the Naiyayikas having no practical reality. The present work, therefore, attempts to settle down both the parties by highlighting their standpoints. After a chronological discussion (...)
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  47. The Realism of Universals in Plato and Nyāya.Will Rasmussen - 2009 - Journal of Indian Philosophy 37 (3):231-252.
    It has become commonplace in introductions to Indian philosophy to construe Plato’s discussion of forms (εἶδος/ἰδέα) and the treatment in Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika of universals ( sāmānya/jāti ) as addressing the same philosophical issue, albeit in somewhat different ways. While such a comparison of the similarities and differences has interest and value as an initial reconnaissance of what each says about common properties, an examination of the roles that universals play in the rest of their philosophical enquiries vitiates this commonplace. (...)
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  48. Testimony, Belief Transfer, and Causal Irrelevance: Reflections From India's Nyaya School.Matthew R. Dasti - 2008 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 25 (4):281-299.
    Recent studies of Nyäya’s account of testimony have illustrated its anticipation of contemporary testimonial antireductionism, the position that testimony cannot be reduced to a more fundamental means of knowledge like inference or perception. This paper discusses another relevant but less discussed anticipation of current debate, involving the status of speaker belief in testimonial exchange. Is a speaker’s veridical apprehension of the content of his utterance a necessary condition on testimonial exchange? This was a source of much disputation among Indian epistemologists, (...)
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  49. Nyāya Concept of Cause and Effect Relationship: With Special Reference to Bhavānanda's Kāraṇatāvicāra.Arun Ranjan Mishra - 2008 - Pratibha Prakashan.
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  50. Raghudevabhaṭṭācāryaviracitā Navyanyāyavādagranthāḥ =.Raghudeva Nyāyālaṅkāra - 2008 - Sweta Prajapati.
    Muktivādaḥ -- Īśvaravādaḥ -- Prāgabhāvavādaḥ -- Laukikaviṣayatāvādaḥ -- Anumitiparāmarśavicāraḥ -- Viśiṣṭavaiśiṣṭyabodhavicāraḥ -- Āṅkāṣāvādaḥ -- Sāmagrīvādaḥ.
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