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Objects

Edited by Daniel Z. Korman (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
Assistant editor: Andrew Higgins (Heartland Community College, Illinois State University)
About this topic
Summary

Objects are subjects of predication: anything of which something can be said is an object. So construed, the category of objects covers not only material beings like mountains, baseballs, and electrons, but also abstracta (numbers, properties, relations, set). and even non-existent entities if there be any. The papers contained herein concern the nature and existence of different varieties of objects. Some of the most prominent topics include the relation between an objects and the properties it bears; the relation between an object and its parts (mereology); the identity relation that holds between an object and itself; and the persistence of objects through time.  

Key works

For work on the nature and existence of abstract objects, see Quine 1961, Bealer 1982, Armstrong 1989, and Dorr 2008.

For work on persistence, see Hirsch 1982Hawley 2001, and Sider 2001.

For work on identity, see Black 1952Kripke 1971, and Adams 1979.

Introductions

For an introduction to the notion of a object, see Laycock 2010. For abstract objects, see Rosen 2008. For material objects, see van Inwagen 1990 and Korman 2016.

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Related categories
Subcategories:
Abstract Objects (527 | 495)
Properties* (1,735 | 82)
Ontology of Music* (346 | 197)
Ontology of Mathematics* (1,813 | 238)
Words* (405)
The Nature of Sets* (203 | 84)
Numbers* (255)
Ontology of Mathematics* (1,813 | 238)

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  1. Andre Gallois (1998). II–Andre Gallois. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 72 (1):263-283.
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  2. A. Gueddim, S. Zerroug & N. Bouarissa (2015). Composition Dependence of the Optical Properties and Band Structure of the Zinc-Blende ZnS1-xOx: A First Principles Study. Philosophical Magazine 95 (24):2627-2638.
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  3. John Hilton (1964). Indeterminate Determinism. Mind 73 (289):117-124.
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  4. S. Jang, B. D. White, I. K. Lum, H. Kim, M. A. Tanatar, W. E. Straszheim, R. Prozorov, T. Keiber, F. Bridges, L. Shu, R. E. Baumbach, M. Janoschek & M. B. Maple (2014). Resolution of the Discrepancy Between the Variation of the Physical Properties of Ce1-xYbxCoIn5single Crystals and Thin Films with Yb Composition. [REVIEW] Philosophical Magazine 94 (36):4219-4231.
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  5. W. López-Pérez, P. Castro-Diago, L. Ramírez-Montes, A. González-García & R. González-Hernández (2016). Effects of Scandium Composition on the Structural, Electronic, and Thermodynamic Properties of SCxY1–Xmetallic Alloys. Philosophical Magazine 96 (5):498-510.
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  6. Steven Savitt (1972). I-Counting is Counting. Philosophy of Science 39 (1):72-73.
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  7. R. A. Sharpe (1976). Counting Actions. Philosophical Quarterly 26 (104):258-260.
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  8. David H. Wright (1961). English UncialE. A. Lowe. Speculum 36 (3):493-496.
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  1. R. I. Aaron (1933). IX.—Locke's Theory of Universals. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 33 (1):173-202.
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  2. Raziel Abelson (1961). Not Necessarily. Philosophical Review 70 (1):67-84.
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  3. Adler Jonathan (1983). Universals, Explanation and Realism. der 16. Weltkongress Für Philosophie 2:98-105.
    If one had all the true particular statements that there are would such a collection be deficient for the purpose of science? In particular, would we still require a type of explanation that requires irreducible appeal to universals, and modalities. An argument to this conclusion is examined. In the situation envisaged, the realists needed distinctions such as between accidental and essential properties, or generalizations that are accidently true and those that are lawful and true, cannot be made. The argument then (...)
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  4. David J. Anderson & Edward N. Zalta (2004). Frege, Boolos, and Logical Objects. Journal of Philosophical Logic 33 (1):1-26.
    In this paper, the authors discuss Frege's theory of "logical objects" and the recent attempts to rehabilitate it. We show that the 'eta' relation George Boolos deployed on Frege's behalf is similar, if not identical, to the encoding mode of predication that underlies the theory of abstract objects. Whereas Boolos accepted unrestricted Comprehension for Properties and used the 'eta' relation to assert the existence of logical objects under certain highly restricted conditions, the theory of abstract objects uses unrestricted Comprehension for (...)
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  5. Hajnal Andréka, Ivo Düntsch & István Németi (1995). Expressibility of Properties of Relations. Journal of Symbolic Logic 60 (3):970-991.
    We investigate in an algebraic setting the question of which logical languages can express the properties integral, permutational, and rigid for algebras of relations.
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  6. Dimitri Z. Andriopoulos (1972). Is Michelis a ‘Platonist’? British Journal of Aesthetics 12 (4):395-402.
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  7. István Aranyosi (2011). The Solo Numero Paradox. American Philosophical Quarterly 48 (4):347.
    Leibniz notoriously insisted that no two individuals differ solo numero, that is, by being primitively distinct, without differing in some property. The details of Leibniz’s own way of understanding and defending the principle –known as the principle of identity of indiscernibles (henceforth ‘the Principle’)—is a matter of much debate. However, in contemporary metaphysics an equally notorious and discussed issue relates to a case put forward by Max Black (1952) as a counter-example to any necessary and non-trivial version of the principle. (...)
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  8. David Armstrong, Revisions, and Quiddities.
    I used to think of the connection between a particular and a universal that it instantiates as a contingent one. Now I think that this is not quite right. This revision, as I now see it, is not a very large one. I still think that the states of affairs that unite particulars and universals are contingent beings. But the connection within states of affairs is, in a certain way, necessary.
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  9. David M. Armstrong (2003). Resemblance Nominalism: A Solution to the Problem of Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (2):285-286.
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  10. Keith Augustine (2001). A Defense of Naturalism. Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park
    The first part of this essay discusses what naturalism in the philosophy of religion should entail for one's ontology, considers various proposed criteria for categorizing something as natural, uses an analysis of these proposed criteria to develop theoretical criteria for both the natural and nonnatural, and develops a set of criteria for identifying a potentially supernatural event in practice. The second part of the essay presents a persuasive empirical case for naturalism based on the lack of uncontroversial evidence for any (...)
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  11. Bruce Aune (1973). On Postulating Universals. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 3 (2):285 - 294.
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  12. D. M. Azraf (1958). The Nature of Universals. Pakistan Philosophical Journal 2 (1):60.
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  13. Jody Azzouni (2015). Why Deflationary Nominalists Shouldn’T Be Agnostics. Philosophical Studies 172 (5):1143-1161.
    A feature of agnostic views—views that officially express ignorance about the existence of something —is that they are widely perceived to be epistemically more cautious than views that are committed to the entities in question. This is often seen as giving agnostics a debating advantage: all things being equal, fence-sitters have smaller argumentative burdens. Otávio Bueno argues in this way for what he calls “agnostic nominalism,” the view that we don’t know whether ontologically-independent Platonic objects exist. I show that agnostic (...)
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  14. Jody Azzouni (2011). II—Jody Azzouni: Singular Thoughts. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 85 (1):45-61.
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  15. John Bacon (1986). Abstract Objects: An Introduction to Axiomatic Metaphysics by Edward N. Zalta. Critical Philosophy 3 (3):218.
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  16. Bogdan Bakies (1982). Between the Concretist and Abstract Concepts of Being. Roczniki Filozoficzne 30 (1):91.
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  17. Mark Balaguer (2008). Fictionalism in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Mathematical fictionalism (or as I'll call it, fictionalism) is best thought of as a reaction to mathematical platonism. Platonism is the view that (a) there exist abstract mathematical objects (i.e., nonspatiotemporal mathematical objects), and (b) our mathematical sentences and theories provide true descriptions of such objects. So, for instance, on the platonist view, the sentence ‘3 is prime’ provides a straightforward description of a certain object—namely, the number 3—in much the same way that the sentence ‘Mars is red’ provides a (...)
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  18. Mark Balaguer (2008). Platonism in Metaphysics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Platonism is the view that there exist such things as abstract objects — where an abstract object is an object that does not exist in space or time and which is therefore entirely non-physical and nonmental. Platonism in this sense is a contemporary view. It is obviously related to the views of Plato in important ways, but it is not entirely clear that Plato endorsed this view, as it is defined here. In order to remain neutral on this question, the (...)
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  19. Mark Balaguer (2001). A Theory of Mathematical Correctness and Mathematical Truth. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 82 (2):87–114.
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  20. P. Ballonoff (1976). On Bernshtein's "Solution of a Mathematical Problem in the Theory of Heredity". Social Science Information 15 (4-5):793-795.
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  21. Eduardo Alejandro Barrio (2014). Collapse, Plurals and Sets. Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 18 (3):419.
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  22. J. D. Bastable (1955). Realism and Nominalism Revisited. Philosophical Studies 5:164-165.
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  23. Beards Andrew (2008). 7. Universals, Tropes, Substance, and Events. In Andrew Beards (ed.), Method in Metaphysics. University of Toronto Press. pp. 193-242.
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  24. D. A. Bell & W. D. Hart (1979). The Epistemology of Abstract Objects. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 53 (1):135-166.
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  25. Paul Benacerraf (1984). Comments on Maddy and Tymoczko. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:476 - 485.
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  26. Ermanno Bencivenga (2006). Mathematics and Poetry. Inquiry 49 (2):158 – 169.
    Since Descartes, mathematics has been dominated by a reductionist tendency, whose success would seem to promise greater certainty: the fewer basic objects mathematics can be understood as dealing with, and the fewer principles one is forced to assume about these objects, the easier it will be to establish a secure foundation for it. But this tendency has had the effect of sharply limiting the expressive power of mathematics, in a way that is made especially apparent by its disappointing applications to (...)
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  27. David Wells Bennett (1961). The Natural Numbers From Frege to Hilbert. Dissertation, Columbia University
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  28. Hugh H. Benson (1988). Universals as Sortals in the Categories. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 69 (4):282-306.
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  29. Gustav Bergmann (1958). Frege's Hidden Nominalism. Philosophical Review 67 (4):437-459.
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  30. S. Bernard Lonergan (1996). The Notion of Structure. Method 14 (2):117-132.
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  31. S. N. Bernshtein (1976). Solution of a Mathematical Problem in the Theory of Heredity. Social Science Information 15 (4-5):797-821.
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  32. J. M. Bernstein (2004). Readymades, Monochromes, Etc.: Nominalism and the Paradox of Modernism. Diacritics 32 (1):83-100.
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  33. Alexander U. Bertland (1996). Abstract. New Vico Studies 14:96-99.
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  34. Peter Bieri (1982). Nominalism and Inner Experience. The Monist 65 (January):68-87.
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  35. John Bigelow (1991). The Reality of Numbers. Mind 100 (2):283-287.
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  36. John Bigelow (1981). Semantic Nominalism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 59 (4):403 – 421.
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  37. A. Bird (2003). Resemblance Nominalism and Counterparts. Analysis 63 (3):221-228.
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  38. Katharina Biske (1930). Otto Heyn Als Nominalist Dissertation. Druckerei-Genossenschaft.
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  39. Bogdan Bjankov (1983). The Theory of Semantic Cazegories and the Problem of the Typology of Universals. der 16. Weltkongress Für Philosophie 2:398-405.
    According to the basic idea of the theory of semantic categories the huge variety of expressions could be reduced to three basic classes, called basic semantic categories: names, statements, and functors. On this basis abstract objects or universale can be reduced also to three basic typest abstract objects-terms, abstract objects-statements, and abstract objects-operators. The so-called auxilliary signs, in particular brackets in formalized languages, fulfil a certain, structural function and, on this ground, can be numbered to the type of abstract objects-operators (...)
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  40. Patricia Blanchette (2007). 3 Mathematical Objects and Identity. In Michael O'Rourke Corey Washington (ed.), Situating Semantics: Essays on the Philosophy of John Perry. pp. 73.
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  41. C. D. Blanton (2010). Medieval Currencies : Nominalism and Art. In Andrew Cole & D. Vance Smith (eds.), The Legitimacy of the Middle Ages: On the Unwritten History of Theory. Duke University Press.
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  42. Martha Brandt Bolton (1996). The Nominalist Argument of the New Essays. Leibniz Society Review 6:1-24.
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