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  1. What Did Hooke Want From the Microscope? Magnification, Matter Theory and Mechanism.Ian Lawson - 2021 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (6):640-664.
    This article discusses Hooke’s microscopy in the context of the nature of his explanations of natural phenomena. It illustrates that while Hooke’s particular conception of microscopy certainly cohered with his general framework of mechanical philosophy, he thought of his microscope as an artisanal tool that could help him examine unknown natural machinery. It seems, however, that he never used magnifying lenses with the hope of confirming mechanism by glimpsing fundamental particles. Indeed, through a consideration of sources spanning from his 1665 (...)
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  2. Can Constructive Empiricists Believe in Exoplanets Too?Alessio Gava - 2021 - Dissertatio 51:167-182.
    Bas van Fraassen maintains that the actual function of optical instruments is producing images. Still, the output of a telescope is different from that of a microscope, for in the latter case it is not possible to empirically investigate the geometrical relations between the observer, the image and the detected entity, while in the former it is - at least in principle. In this paper I argue that this is a weak argument to support the belief in the existence of (...)
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  3. Can We Test Inconsistent Empirical Theories?Luis Felipe Bartolo Alegre - manuscript
    This paper discusses the logical possibility of testing an inconsistent empirical theory. The main challenge for answering this affirmatively is to avoiding that the inconsistent consequences of a theory are both potential corroborators and falsifiers of the same theory. I answer affirmatively by showing that we can define a class of empirical sentences whose truth would force us to abandon such inconsistent theory: the class of its potential refuters. In spite of this, I show that the contradictions implied by a (...)
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  4. Visions Visualised? On the Evidential Status of Scientific Visualisations.Nicola Mößner - forthcoming - In Erna Fiorentini (ed.), On Visualization. A Multicentric Critique beyond Infographics. Berlin et al.:
    ‘Visualisations play an important role in science’, this seems to be an uncontroversial statement today. Scientists not only use visual representations as means to communicate their research results in publications or talks, but also often as surrogates for their objects of interest during the process of research. Thus, we can make a distinction between two contexts of usage here, namely the explanatory and the exploratory context. The focus of this paper is on the latter one. Obviously, using visualisations as surrogates (...)
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  5. Observing Primates: Gender, Power, and Knowledge in Primatology.Maria Botero - forthcoming - In K. Intemann & S. Crasnow (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Feminist Philosophy of Science. London and New York:
    Using examples of observations of primates in the wild, I will focus in this chapter on the ways in which some of the main feminist critiques are applicable to the observation of non-human animals. In particular, I will focus on the relationship between primatology and various conceptions of human nature and on the fact that primatology has often been described as a “feminist science.” I argue that in primatology there is an openness to a diversity of approaches and to feminist (...)
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  6. Compte rendu de L’observation scientifique, aspects philosophiques et pratiques de Vincent Israel-Jost. [REVIEW]Quentin Ruyant - 2018 - Lato Sensu, Revue de la Société de Philosophie des Sciences 5:41-43.
    Revue de l'ouvrage "l'observation scientifique" de Vincent Israël-Jost. -/- Review of the book "l'observation scientifique" of Vincent Israël-Jost.
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  7. Primates Are Touched by Your Concern: Touch, Emotion, and Social Cognition in Chimpanzees.Maria Botero - 2018 - In Kristin Andrews & Jacob Beck (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds. London: Routledge. pp. p. 372-380.
    There is something important about the way human primates use touch in social encounters; for example, consider greetings in airports (hugs vs. handshakes) and the way children push each other in a playground (a quick push to warn, a really hard one when it is serious!). Human primates use touch as a way of conveying a wide range of social information. In this chapter I will argue that one of the best ways of understanding social cognition in non-human primates is (...)
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  8. How Primate Mothers and Infants Communicate, Characterizing Interaction in Mother-Infant Studies Across Species.Maria Botero - 2016 - In Marco Pina & Nathalie Gontier (eds.), The Evolution of Social Communication in Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London, UK: pp. pp. 83-100.
    All methodologies used to characterize mother-infant interaction in non-human primates includes mother, infant, and other social factors. The chief difference is their understanding of how this interaction takes place. Using chimpanzees as a model, I will compare the different methodologies used to describe mother-infant interaction and show how implicit notions of communication and social interaction shape descriptions of this kind of interaction. I will examine the limitations and advantages of different approaches used in mother-infant studies and I will sketch an (...)
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  9. É possível ver imagens? (Ou do porquê van Fraassen deveria rever a sua abordagem em relação a elas).Alessio Gava - 2018 - Griot 18 (2):143-160.
    In his last book (2008), Bas van Fraassen, the originator of constructive empiricism, put forward a table containing a categorization of images. His aim, however, was to discuss the reality of what they represent and not addressing the issue of images per se. One of the consequences is that it remained an open question what ‘public hallucinations’ - reflections in the water, rainbows and the like - are. In this paper it will be defended that only images in the relevant (...)
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  10. In Praise of Sorensen’s ‘Blockage Theory’ on Shadows.Alessio Gava - 2018 - Filosofia Unisinos 19 (2):161-166.
    In his famous book "Seeing Dark Things: The Philosophy of Shadows" (2008), Roy Sorensen put forward a ‘blocking theory of shadows’, a causal view on these entities according to which a shadow is an absence of light caused by blockage. This approach allows him to solve a quite famous riddle on shadows, ‘the Yale puzzle’, that was devised by Robert Fogelin in the late 1960s and that Sorensen presents in the form mentioned by Bas van Fraassen (1989). István Aranyosi has (...)
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  11. De-Eclipsing Common Sense: Why We See Near Rather Than Far in Roy Sorensen’s Eclipse Riddle.Gava Alessio - 2017 - Prolegomena 16 (1):55-72.
    According to Roy Sorensen, when one looks at the Moon, during a solar eclipse, what she sees is its inner part of the farther, reflective one, and not the always-facing-Earth side of our natural satellite. To make his point clearer, he put forward the famous example of a double eclipse involving the fictional planets Far and Near. From the observer’s vantage point, the two planets have the same apparent diameter and overlap. What the agent sees is a dark disk, but (...)
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  12. Pattern as Observation: Darwin’s ‘Great Facts’ of Geographical Distribution.Casey Helgeson - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 7 (2):337-351.
    Among philosophical analyses of Darwin’s Origin, a standard view says the theory presented there had no concrete observational consequences against which it might be checked. I challenge this idea with a new analysis of Darwin’s principal geographical distribution observations and how they connect to his common ancestry hypothesis.
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  13. The Theory-Ladenness of Observations.John Weckert - 1985 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 17 (1):115.
  14. How Do Scientists Reach Agreement About Novel Observations?David Gooding - 1986 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 17 (2):205.
    I outline a pragmatic view of scientists' use of observation which draws attention to non-discursive, instrumental and social contexts of observation, in order to explain scientists' agreement about the appearance and significance of new phenomena. I argue that: observation is embedded in a network of activities, techniques, and interests; that experimentalists make construals of new phenomena which enable them communicate exploratory techniques and their outcomes, and that empirical enquiry consists of communicative, exploratory and predictive strategies whose interdependence ensures that, notwithstanding (...)
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  15. Histories of Scientific Observation. [REVIEW]Bradford Bouley - 2013 - Annals of Science 70 (4):582-585.
  16. Appendix: Theory and Observation.Nenad Miscevic - 2000 - In Rationality and Cognition: Against Relativism-Pragmatism. University of Toronto Press. pp. 233-276.
  17. Wissenschaftslogik: The Role of Logic in the Philosophy of Science.Michael Friedman - 2008 - Synthese 164 (3):385-400.
    Carl Hempel introduced what he called "Craig's theorem" into the philosophy of science in a famous discussion of the "problem of theoretical terms." Beginning with Hempel's use of 'Craig's theorem," I shall bring out some of the key differences between Hempel's treatment of the "problem of theoretical terms" and Carnap's in order to illuminate the peculiar function of Wissenschaftslogik in Carnap's mature philosophy. Carnap's treatment, in particular, is fundamentally antimetaphysical—he aims to use the tools of mathematical logic to dissolve rather (...)
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  18. Is Observation Mathematically-Laden?Thomas Mueller Thomas Mueller - 2013 - Principia: An International Journal of Epistemology 17 (1):165.
  19. A Teleologist's Reactions To "on Private Events And Theoretical Terms".Joseph Rychlak - 1992 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 13 (4):347-358.
    This paper examines the theoretical differences obtaining between a mechanist like Moore and a teleologist like Rychlak. It is shown that mechanistic formulations invariably reduce the account to material and efficient causation, whereas teleologists want to bring in formal-final cause descriptions as well. Mechanists frame their explanations in third-person terms whereas teleologists often seek a first-person formulation of behavior. Moore's references to "private events" are shown to be extraspectively understood. A major theme of this paper is that Skinner actually capitalized (...)
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  20. A Theory of Experimentation and Observation: An Application of Inductive Logic and Information Theory.Eckehart Adolf Kohler - 1976 - Dissertation, The University of Nebraska - Lincoln
  21. Why is Observation Important to Science?Robert G. Hudson - 1991 - Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    I believe observation is valued by scientists because it is an objective source of information. Objective here can mean two things. First, observation could be objective in that it is an assured source of truths about the world, truths whose meaning is the same for everyone regardless of their personal theoretical vantage points. I criticize this construal of observational objectivity in chapter one. The guilty doctrine, which I entitle 'empiricistic epistemological foundationalism', is shown to be untenable on, in part, historical (...)
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  22. Matthias Adam: Theoriebeladenheit Und Objektivität. Zur Rolle von Beobachtungen in den Naturwissenschaften. [REVIEW]Claus Beisbart - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):193-200.
    Ever since work of Paul Feyerabend, Russell Hanson and Thomas Kuhn in the 1960s, the thesis of the theory-ladenness of scientific observation has attracted much attention both in the philosophy and the sociology of science. The main concern has always been epistemic. It was argued –or feared– that if scientific observations depend on prevalent theories, an objective empirical test of theories and hypotheses by independent observation and experience is impossible. This suggests that theories might appear to be well confirmed by (...)
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  23. Observation and Explanation a Guide to Philosophy of Science. Pref. By Stephen Toulmin. --.Norwood Russell Hanson - 1971 - Harper & Row.
  24. Photogenic Venus.Jimena Canales - 2002 - Isis 93:585-613.
    During the late nineteenth century, scientists around the world disagreed as to the types of instruments and methods that should be used for determining the most important constant of celestial mechanics: the solar parallax. Venus’s 1874 transit across the sun was seen as the best opportunity for ending decades of debate. However, a mysterious “black drop” that appeared between Venus and the sun and individual differences in observations of the phenomenon brought traditional methods into disrepute. To combat these difficulties, the (...)
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  25. Empiricism in Practice: Teleology, Economy, and Observation in Faraday's Physics.David Gooding - 1982 - Isis 73:46-67.
  26. Observation Observed: Lorraine Daston and Elizabeth Lunbeck : Histories of Scientific Observation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011, 460pp, $81.00 HB, $27.50 PB.Sachiko Kusukawa - 2014 - Metascience 23 (2):347-352.
    This is an important volume of seventeen essays that historicizes observation as a practice, concept and ideal. It belongs to the historiographical tradition of scrutinizing central aspects of the scientific enterprise such as experiments and objectivity that once appeared too self-evident to be probed. The challenge of historicizing such a significant idea is that it has to be a collective enterprise.The volume starts with three essays that provide a chronological survey of the period from 500 to 1800. Katherine Park, covering (...)
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  27. The Externalization of Observation: An Example From Modern Physics in Scientific Knowledge Socialized.Trevor J. Pinch - 1988 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 108:225-244.
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  28. Circles Without Circularity, Testing Theories by Theory-Laden Observations in An Intimate Relation. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science.M. Carrier - 1989 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 116:405-428.
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  29. Interactions Between Theory, Models, and Observation.Erica Jen - forthcoming - Complexity.
  30. Introduction: Lay Participation in the History of Scientific Observation.Jeremy Vetter - 2011 - Science in Context 24 (2):127-141.
  31. Science and Hypotheses on Unobservable Domains of Nature.Ervin Laszlo - 1996 - Philosophia Scientiae 1 (S1):177-186.
  32. Lorraine Daston and Elizabeth Lunbeck, Eds. Histories of Scientific Observation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. Pp. 460. $75.00 ; $27.50 ; $7.00–$27.50. [REVIEW]Alan Salter - 2012 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 2 (1):196-200.
  33. Search for a Naturalistic Worldview, Volume 2: Natural Science and Metaphysics.Abner Shimony - 1993 - Cambridge University Press.
    Table of Contents: Acknowledgements; Preface; 1. Integral epistemology; 2. Reality, causality and closing the circle; 3. Search for a world view that can accommodate our knowledge of microphysics; 4. Perception from an evolutionary point of view; 5. Is observation theory-laden? A problem in naturalistic epistemology; 6. Coherence and the axioms of confirmation; 7. An adamite derivation of the principles of the calculus of probability; 8. The status of the principle of maximum entropy; 9. Scientific inference; 10. Reconsiderations on inductive logic; (...)
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  34. Science: Observation and Belief.Michael Polanyi - forthcoming - Humanitas.
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  35. The Coming of Precision to Scientific Observation.P. Costabel - 1975 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 29 (114):447-452.
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  36. A Concept of Observation Statements.Stephen P. Norris - 1981 - Philosophy of Education 37:132-142.
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  37. On Observation.N. R. Hanson - 2009 - In Timothy J. McGrew, Marc Alspector-Kelly & Fritz Allhoff (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Historical Anthology. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 432.
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  38. Observations, Explanatory Power, and Simplicity: Toward a Non-Humean Account.Richard Boyd - 1991 - In Richard Boyd, Philip Gasper & J. D. Trout (eds.), The Philosophy of Science. MIT Press. pp. 349--377.
  39. Seeing Things: The Philosophy of Reliable Observation.Robert Hudson - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    In Seeing Things, Robert Hudson assesses a common way of arguing about observation reports called "robustness reasoning." Robustness reasoning claims that an observation report is more likely to be true if the report is produced by multiple, independent sources. Seeing Things argues that robustness reasoning lacks the special value it is often claimed to have. Hudson exposes key flaws in various popular philosophical defenses of robustness reasoning. This philosophical critique of robustness is extended by recounting five episodes in the history (...)
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  40. La Observación, Una Palabra Para Desbaratar y Re-Significar: Hacia Una Epistemología de la Observación.Rafael Avila - 2004 - Cinta de Moebio 21.
    This text and the seminar referred to, intend to open a window to observe observation, with a double purpose: firstly, to contribute to inquire the naïve concept and practice of observation which disregard its internal complexity; and secondly, identify and put under examination the assumptions ..
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  41. The Observer in the Quantum Experiment.Bruce Rosenblum & Fred Kuttner - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (8):1273-1293.
    A goal of most interpretations of quantum mechanics is to avoid the apparent intrusion of the observer into the measurement process. Such intrusion is usually seen to arise because observation somehow selects a single actuality from among the many possibilities represented by the wavefunction. The issue is typically treated in terms of the mathematical formulation of the quantum theory. We attempt to address a different manifestation of the quantum measurement problem in a theory-neutral manner. With a version of the two-slit (...)
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  42. The Confirmational Significance of Agreeing Measurements.Casey Helgeson - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):721-732.
    Agreement between "independent" measurements of a theoretically posited quantity is intuitively compelling evidence that a theory is, loosely speaking, on the right track. But exactly what conclusion is warranted by such agreement? I propose a new account of the phenomenon's epistemic significance within the framework of Bayesian epistemology. I contrast my proposal with the standard Bayesian treatment, which lumps the phenomenon under the heading of "evidential diversity".
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  43. A Defence of Falsificationism Against Feyerabend's Epistemological Anarchism Using the Example of Galilei's Observations with the Telescope.Mario Günther -
    I confront Feyerabend's position and critical rationalism in order to have a foundation or starting point for my (historical) investigation. The main difference of his position towards falsificationism is the belief that different theories cannot be discussed rationally. Feyerabend is convinced that Galilei's observations with the telescope in the historical context of the Copernican revolution supports his criticism. In particular, he argues that the Copernican theory was supported by deficient hypotheses, and falsifications were disposed by ad hoc hypotheses and propaganda. (...)
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  44. What Have We Learned From Observational Cosmology?J. -Ch Hamilton - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 46 (1):70-85.
    We review the observational foundations of the ΛCDMΛCDM model, considered by most cosmologists as the standard model of cosmology. The Cosmological Principle, a key assumption of the model is shown to be verified with increasing accuracy. The fact that the Universe seems to have expanded from a hot and dense past is supported by many independent probes . The explosion of detailed observations in the last few decades has allowed for precise measurements of the cosmological parameters within Friedman–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker cosmologies leading (...)
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  45. On the Theory Dependance of Observation.Martin Frické - 1983 - Philosophica 31.
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  46. Case Studies: One Observation or Many? Justification or Discovery?Mary S. Morgan - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (5):667-677.
    Critiques of case studies as an epistemic genre usually focus on the domain of justification and hinge on comparisons with statistics and laboratory experiments. In this domain, case studies can be defended by the notion of “infirming”: they use many different bits of evidence, each of which may independently “infirm” the account. Yet their efficacy may be more powerful in the domain of discovery, in which these same different bits of evi- dence must be fully integrated to create an explanatory (...)
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  47. The Ontology of Patterns in Empirical Data.James W. McAllister - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (5):804-814.
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  48. Observation, Experiment, and Hypothesis in Modern Physical Science. [REVIEW]Raymond Woller - 1986 - Review of Metaphysics 40 (2):365-366.
    This book, as the Preface reports, is the first of a series from the Johns Hopkins Center for the History and Philosophy of Science. The essays in this book were invited from both historians of and philosophers of science on the general theme of "testing of hypotheses in modern physics by observation and experiment," accordingly none has been previously published.
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  49. New Methodological Perspectives on Observation and Experimentation in Science.Wenceslao González (ed.) - 2010 - Netbiblo.
    New Methodological Perspectives on Observation and Experimentation in Science deals with a classic topic that is seen from new angles.
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  50. Observation.Peter K. Machamer - 1970 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1970:187 - 201.
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