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  1. Observing Primates: Gender, Power, and Knowledge in Primatology.Maria Botero - forthcoming - In K. Intemann & S. Crasnow (eds.), The Routledge Feminist Philosophy of Science Handbook. London and New York:
    Using examples of observations of primates in the wild, I will focus in this chapter on the ways in which some of the main feminist critiques are applicable to the observation of non-human animals. In particular, I will focus on the relationship between primatology and various conceptions of human nature and on the fact that primatology has often been described as a “feminist science.” I argue that in primatology there is an openness to a diversity of approaches and to feminist (...)
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  2. Compte rendu de L’observation scientifique, aspects philosophiques et pratiques de Vincent Israel-Jost. [REVIEW]Quentin Ruyant - 2018 - Lato Sensu, Revue de la Société de Philosophie des Sciences 5:41-43.
    Revue de l'ouvrage "l'observation scientifique" de Vincent Israël-Jost. -/- Review of the book "l'observation scientifique" of Vincent Israël-Jost.
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  3. Primates Are Touched by Your Concern: Touch, Emotion, and Social Cognition in Chimpanzees.Maria Botero - 2018 - In Kristin Andrews & Jacob Beck (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal Minds. London: Routledge. pp. p. 372-380.
    There is something important about the way human primates use touch in social encounters; for example, consider greetings in airports (hugs vs. handshakes) and the way children push each other in a playground (a quick push to warn, a really hard one when it is serious!). Human primates use touch as a way of conveying a wide range of social information. In this chapter I will argue that one of the best ways of understanding social cognition in non-human primates is (...)
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  4. How Primate Mothers and Infants Communicate, Characterizing Interaction in Mother-Infant Studies Across Species.Maria Botero - 2016 - In Marco Pina & Nathalie Gontier (eds.), The Evolution of Social Communication in Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach. London, UK: pp. pp. 83-100.
    All methodologies used to characterize mother-infant interaction in non-human primates includes mother, infant, and other social factors. The chief difference is their understanding of how this interaction takes place. Using chimpanzees as a model, I will compare the different methodologies used to describe mother-infant interaction and show how implicit notions of communication and social interaction shape descriptions of this kind of interaction. I will examine the limitations and advantages of different approaches used in mother-infant studies and I will sketch an (...)
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  5. É possível ver imagens? (Ou do porquê van Fraassen deveria rever a sua abordagem em relação a elas).Alessio Gava - 2018 - Griot 18 (2):143-160.
    In his last book (2008), Bas van Fraassen, the originator of constructive empiricism, put forward a table containing a categorization of images. His aim, however, was to discuss the reality of what they represent and not addressing the issue of images per se. One of the consequences is that it remained an open question what ‘public hallucinations’ - reflections in the water, rainbows and the like - are. In this paper it will be defended that only images in the relevant (...)
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  6. In Praise of Sorensen’s ‘Blockage Theory’ on Shadows.Alessio Gava - 2018 - Filosofia Unisinos 19 (2):161-166.
    In his famous book "Seeing Dark Things: The Philosophy of Shadows" (2008), Roy Sorensen put forward a ‘blocking theory of shadows’, a causal view on these entities according to which a shadow is an absence of light caused by blockage. This approach allows him to solve a quite famous riddle on shadows, ‘the Yale puzzle’, that was devised by Robert Fogelin in the late 1960s and that Sorensen presents in the form mentioned by Bas van Fraassen (1989). István Aranyosi has (...)
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  7. De-Eclipsing Common Sense: Why We See Near Rather Than Far in Roy Sorensen’s Eclipse Riddle.Gava Alessio - 2017 - Prolegomena 16 (1):55-72.
    According to Roy Sorensen, when one looks at the Moon, during a solar eclipse, what she sees is its inner part of the farther, reflective one, and not the always-facing-Earth side of our natural satellite. To make his point clearer, he put forward the famous example of a double eclipse involving the fictional planets Far and Near. From the observer’s vantage point, the two planets have the same apparent diameter and overlap. What the agent sees is a dark disk, but (...)
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  8. Pattern as Observation: Darwin’s ‘Great Facts’ of Geographical Distribution.Casey Helgeson - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 7 (2):337-351.
    Among philosophical analyses of Darwin’s Origin, a standard view says the theory presented there had no concrete observational consequences against which it might be checked. I challenge this idea with a new analysis of Darwin’s principal geographical distribution observations and how they connect to his common ancestry hypothesis.
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  9. Histories of Scientific Observation. [REVIEW]Bradford Bouley - 2013 - Annals of Science 70 (4):582-585.
  10. Wissenschaftslogik: The Role of Logic in the Philosophy of Science.Michael Friedman - 2008 - Synthese 164 (3):385-400.
    Carl Hempel introduced what he called "Craig's theorem" into the philosophy of science in a famous discussion of the "problem of theoretical terms." Beginning with Hempel's use of 'Craig's theorem," I shall bring out some of the key differences between Hempel's treatment of the "problem of theoretical terms" and Carnap's in order to illuminate the peculiar function of Wissenschaftslogik in Carnap's mature philosophy. Carnap's treatment, in particular, is fundamentally antimetaphysical—he aims to use the tools of mathematical logic to dissolve rather (...)
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  11. A Teleologist's Reactions To "on Private Events And Theoretical Terms".Joseph Rychlak - 1992 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 13 (4):347-358.
    This paper examines the theoretical differences obtaining between a mechanist like Moore and a teleologist like Rychlak. It is shown that mechanistic formulations invariably reduce the account to material and efficient causation, whereas teleologists want to bring in formal-final cause descriptions as well. Mechanists frame their explanations in third-person terms whereas teleologists often seek a first-person formulation of behavior. Moore's references to "private events" are shown to be extraspectively understood. A major theme of this paper is that Skinner actually capitalized (...)
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  12. Why is Observation Important to Science?Robert G. Hudson - 1991 - Dissertation, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)
    I believe observation is valued by scientists because it is an objective source of information. Objective here can mean two things. First, observation could be objective in that it is an assured source of truths about the world, truths whose meaning is the same for everyone regardless of their personal theoretical vantage points. I criticize this construal of observational objectivity in chapter one. The guilty doctrine, which I entitle 'empiricistic epistemological foundationalism', is shown to be untenable on, in part, historical (...)
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  13. Matthias Adam: Theoriebeladenheit Und Objektivität. Zur Rolle von Beobachtungen in den Naturwissenschaften. [REVIEW]Claus Beisbart - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (1):193-200.
    Ever since work of Paul Feyerabend, Russell Hanson and Thomas Kuhn in the 1960s, the thesis of the theory-ladenness of scientific observation has attracted much attention both in the philosophy and the sociology of science. The main concern has always been epistemic. It was argued –or feared– that if scientific observations depend on prevalent theories, an objective empirical test of theories and hypotheses by independent observation and experience is impossible. This suggests that theories might appear to be well confirmed by (...)
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  14. Observation and Explanation a Guide to Philosophy of Science. Pref. By Stephen Toulmin. --.Norwood Russell Hanson - 1971 - Harper & Row.
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  15. Observation Observed: Lorraine Daston and Elizabeth Lunbeck : Histories of Scientific Observation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011, 460pp, $81.00 HB, $27.50 PB.Sachiko Kusukawa - 2014 - Metascience 23 (2):347-352.
    This is an important volume of seventeen essays that historicizes observation as a practice, concept and ideal. It belongs to the historiographical tradition of scrutinizing central aspects of the scientific enterprise such as experiments and objectivity that once appeared too self-evident to be probed. The challenge of historicizing such a significant idea is that it has to be a collective enterprise.The volume starts with three essays that provide a chronological survey of the period from 500 to 1800. Katherine Park, covering (...)
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  16. Circles Without Circularity, Testing Theories by Theory-Laden Observations in An Intimate Relation. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science.M. Carrier - 1989 - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 116:405-428.
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  17. Interactions Between Theory, Models, and Observation.Erica Jen - forthcoming - Complexity.
  18. Introduction: Lay Participation in the History of Scientific Observation.Jeremy Vetter - 2011 - Science in Context 24 (2):127-141.
  19. Science and Hypotheses on Unobservable Domains of Nature.Ervin Laszlo - 1996 - Philosophia Scientiae 1 (S1):177-186.
  20. Lorraine Daston and Elizabeth Lunbeck, Eds. Histories of Scientific Observation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. Pp. 460. $75.00 ; $27.50 ; $7.00–$27.50. [REVIEW]Alan Salter - 2012 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 2 (1):196-200.
  21. Search for a Naturalistic Worldview, Volume 2: Natural Science and Metaphysics.Abner Shimony - 1993 - Cambridge University Press.
    Table of Contents: Acknowledgements; Preface; 1. Integral epistemology; 2. Reality, causality and closing the circle; 3. Search for a world view that can accommodate our knowledge of microphysics; 4. Perception from an evolutionary point of view; 5. Is observation theory-laden? A problem in naturalistic epistemology; 6. Coherence and the axioms of confirmation; 7. An adamite derivation of the principles of the calculus of probability; 8. The status of the principle of maximum entropy; 9. Scientific inference; 10. Reconsiderations on inductive logic; (...)
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  22. Science: Observation and Belief.Michael Polanyi - forthcoming - Humanitas.
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  23. The Coming of Precision to Scientific Observation.P. Costabel - 1975 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 29 (114):447-452.
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  24. The Observer in the Quantum Experiment.Bruce Rosenblum & Fred Kuttner - 2002 - Foundations of Physics 32 (8):1273-1293.
    A goal of most interpretations of quantum mechanics is to avoid the apparent intrusion of the observer into the measurement process. Such intrusion is usually seen to arise because observation somehow selects a single actuality from among the many possibilities represented by the wavefunction. The issue is typically treated in terms of the mathematical formulation of the quantum theory. We attempt to address a different manifestation of the quantum measurement problem in a theory-neutral manner. With a version of the two-slit (...)
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  25. The Confirmational Significance of Agreeing Measurements.Casey Helgeson - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):721-732.
    Agreement between "independent" measurements of a theoretically posited quantity is intuitively compelling evidence that a theory is, loosely speaking, on the right track. But exactly what conclusion is warranted by such agreement? I propose a new account of the phenomenon's epistemic significance within the framework of Bayesian epistemology. I contrast my proposal with the standard Bayesian treatment, which lumps the phenomenon under the heading of "evidential diversity".
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  26. What Have We Learned From Observational Cosmology?J. -Ch Hamilton - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 46 (1):70-85.
    We review the observational foundations of the ΛCDMΛCDM model, considered by most cosmologists as the standard model of cosmology. The Cosmological Principle, a key assumption of the model is shown to be verified with increasing accuracy. The fact that the Universe seems to have expanded from a hot and dense past is supported by many independent probes . The explosion of detailed observations in the last few decades has allowed for precise measurements of the cosmological parameters within Friedman–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker cosmologies leading (...)
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  27. On the Theory Dependance of Observation.Martin Frické - 1983 - Philosophica 31.
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  28. The Ontology of Patterns in Empirical Data.James W. McAllister - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (5):804-814.
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  29. New Methodological Perspectives on Observation and Experimentation in Science.Wenceslao González (ed.) - 2010 - Netbiblo.
    New Methodological Perspectives on Observation and Experimentation in Science deals with a classic topic that is seen from new angles.
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  30. Theoretical Entities in Statistical Explanation.James G. Greeno - 1970 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1970:3 - 26.
  31. Some Current Trends in Philosophy of Science: With Special Attention to Confirmation, Theoretical Entities, and Mind-Body.Grover Maxwell - 1974 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1974:565 - 584.
  32. The Interplay Between Theory and Observation in the Solar Model of Hipparchus and Ptolemy.Kathleen Okruhlik - 1978 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1978:73 - 82.
    Attempts by twentieth-century historians to account for the successes and failures of the Hipparchian-Ptolemaic solar model provide valuable case studies for philosophers who are studying the relationship between observational data and theoretical constructs. A brief survey of recent literature on the solar model reveals that in some cases results which appear to be the product of highly accurate observation are, in fact, based on rather crude observations aided by a large measure of theoretical presupposition. On the other hand, mistaken results, (...)
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  33. Observation and Growth in Scientific Knowledge.Robert Nola - 1986 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:245 - 257.
    In the writings of scientists we find claim to the effect that we can observe items such as pulsars, gravity waves, quarks, electrons, etc. An epistemological theory, originally developed by Dretske and modified by Jackson, is used to give an account of such claims and the extent to which they may be deemed correct. The theory eschews talk of the theory-ladenness of observation while giving an account of how our observation reports may evolve with growth in scientific knowledge. The theory (...)
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  34. The Role of the Observer in Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics.Paul Sonenthal - unknown
    Although quantum mechanics has significantly advanced our understanding of the physical world, it has also been a source of great confusion. Myriad interpretations, and interpretations of interpretations, have been proposed to try and explain away the seeming inconsistencies which lie at the heart of quantum mechanics. All of these attempts at interpretation center on the seemingly intractable measurement problem. In this essay I argue that a number of interpretations of quantum mechanics are plagued by inadequate and misleading assumptions about the (...)
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  35. Hanson on Observation and Explanation.E. E. Sleinis - 1973 - Philosophical Papers 2 (2):73-83.
  36. A Critical Examination of the Problem of Theoretical Terms.Ping-Kwan Tham & 譚秉鈞 - unknown
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  37. Histories of Scientific Observation.Lorraine Daston & Elizabeth Lunbeck (eds.) - 2011 - University of Chicago Press.
    This book makes a compelling case for the significance of the long, surprising, and epistemologically significant history of scientific observation, a history ...
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  38. The Scientist in Action.William Herbert George - 1936 - London: Williams & Norgate.
    It seems that the only scientific device which is not widely applicable is the special experimental technique necessary to establish the cause-and-effect ...
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  39. Seeing the Same Things.Ioannis Votsis - unknown
    The concern with the objectivity of observations is as old as empirical study itself. Protagoras’ assertion that ‘Man is the measure of all things’, though not particularly directed at observations, raised general doubts concerning the objectivity of our beliefs. In the twentieth century, the concern has been brought under the banner ‘theory-ladenness of observation’. In simple terms, since observations are conducted and formulated in theory-specific contexts, they are inadvertently imbued with the prejudices of those contexts - the terms ‘theory’ and (...)
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  40. The Observation-Ladenness of Theory.Ioannis Votsis - unknown
    Discussions of theory-ladenness have traditionally focused on the extent to which observations and observational language are pure, i.e. unaffected by theory, and hence can function as neutral adjudicators in theory testing. By contrast, the purity of theories and of theoretical language is never brought into question. My aim in this paper is to contest this view by arguing that theories and theoretical terms can be afflicted by observation-ladenness.
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  41. An Introduction to Experimentation.Brian Joseph Brinkworth - 1968 - New York: American Elsevier Pub. Co..
  42. Theory and Observation in Science.Jim Bogen - 2009 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Scientists obtain a great deal of the evidence they use by observingnatural and experimentally generated objects and effects. Much of thestandard philosophical literature on this subject comes from20th century logical positivists and empiricists, theirfollowers, and critics who embraced their issues and accepted some oftheir assumptions even as they objected to specific views. Theirdiscussions of observational evidence tend to focus on epistemologicalquestions about its role in theory testing. This entry follows theirlead even though observational evidence also plays important andphilosophically interesting roles (...)
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  43. A Theory-Laden Observation Can Test the Theory.Harold I. Brown - 1993 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (3):555-559.
  44. Observation And Objectivity.Harold I. Brown - 1987 - Oxford University Press.
    This book develops an explanation for the roles of observation and theory in scientific endeavor that occupies the middle ground between empiricism and rationalism, and captures the strengths of both approaches. Brown argues that philosophical theories have the same epistemological status as scientific theories and constructs an epistemological theory that provides an account of the role that theory and instruments play in scientific observation. His theory of perception yields a new analysis of objectivity that combines the traditional view of observation (...)
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  45. Erkenntnistheoretische Und Ontologische Probleme der Theoretischen Begriffe.Marco Buzzoni - 1997 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 28 (1):19-53.
    Operationalism and theoretical entities. The thesis of the“theory ladenness” of observation leads to an antinomy. In order to solve this antinomy a technical operationalism is sketched, according to which theories should in principle not contain anything that cannot be reduced to technical procedures. This implies the rejection of Quine's underdeterminacy thesis and of many views about the theoretical-observational distinction, e.g. neopositivistic views, van Fraassen's view, Sneed-Stegmüller's view. Then I argue for the following theses: 1. All scientific concepts are theory laden (...)
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  46. On the Theoretical Dependence of Correspondence Postulates.James Child - 1971 - Philosophy of Science 38 (2):170-177.
    The nature of the connection between theory and observation has been a major source of difficulty for philosophers of science. It is most vexing for those who would reduce the terms of a theory to those of an observation language, e.g. Carnap, Braithwaite, and Nagel. Carnap's work, particularly his treatment of physical theories as partially interpreted formalisms, forms the point of focus of this paper. Carnap attempted to make the connection between theory and observation through correspondence postulates. It is pointed (...)
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  47. The Light at the End of the Tunneling: Observation and Underdetermination.Michael Dickson - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (3):58.
    If observation is 'theory-laden', how can there be 'observationally equivalent theories'? How can the observations 'laden' by one theory be 'the same as' those 'laden' by another? The answer might lie in the expressibility of observationally equivalent theories in a common mathematical formalism.
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  48. Observational Terms.Fred I. Dretske - 1964 - Philosophical Review 73 (January):25-42.
  49. Can a Theory-Laden Observation Test the Theory?A. Franklin, M. Anderson, D. Brock, S. Coleman, J. Downing, A. Gruvander, J. Lilly, J. Neal, D. Peterson, M. Price, R. Rice, L. Smith, S. Speirer & D. Toering - 1989 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 40 (2):229-231.
  50. The Scientist in Action: A Scientific Study of His Methods.William Herbert George - 1975 - Arno Press.
    THE SCIENTIFIC OUTLOOK "It was a great step in science when men became convinced that, in order to understand the nature of things, they must begin by ...
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