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  1. Anselm and the Question of God's Existence: Interrogating the Ontological Argument.Damian Ilodigwe - 2017 - Nigerian Journal of Theology 31:96-110.
    St Anselm is one of the major thinkers of the medieval epoch of the history of philosophy. Interest in Anselm usually focuses on his discussion of the problem of the existence of God especially as contained in the Proslogion. Indeed Anselm is mostly known for his attempt to proof the existence of God in the Proslogion. The argument he advances here which goes by the name ontological argument has been a point of reference all through the history of Western philosophy (...)
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  2. An Impossible Proof of God.Robert E. Pezet - 2018 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 83 (1):57-83.
    A new version of the ontological argument for the existence of God is outlined and examined. After giving a brief account of some traditional ontological arguments for the existence of God, where their defects are identified, it is explained how this new argument is built upon their foundations and surmounts their defects. In particular, this version uses the resources of impossible worlds to plug the common escape route from standard modal versions of the ontological argument. After outlining the nature of (...)
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  3. Losing the Lost Island.Thomas M. Ward - 2018 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 83 (1):127-134.
    Gaunilo’s Lost Island Objection to Anselm’s Ontological Argument aims to show that if Anselm’s argument can establish the existence of a greatest conceivable being then a very similar argument can establish the existence of a greatest conceivable island. The challenge for the defender of Anselm is to identify the relevant disanalogy between Anselm’s argument and Gaunilo’s, in order to explain why Anselm’s can succeed while Gaunilo’s fails. In this essay I take up this challenge. Reflection on the differences between the (...)
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  4. God and Abstract Objects: The Coherence of Theism: Aseity.William Lane Craig - 2017 - Springer.
    This book is an exploration and defense of the coherence of classical theism’s doctrine of divine aseity in the face of the challenge posed by Platonism with respect to abstract objects. A synoptic work in analytic philosophy of religion, the book engages discussions in philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of language, metaphysics, and metaontology. It addresses absolute creationism, non-Platonic realism, fictionalism, neutralism, and alternative logics and semantics, among other topics. The book offers a helpful taxonomy of the wide range of options (...)
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  5. Two Types of Ontological Frame and Gödel’s Ontological Proof.Sergio Galvan - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (2):147--168.
    The aim of this essay is twofold. First, it outlines the concept of ontological frame. Secondly, two models are distinguished on this structure. The first one is connected to Kant’s concept of possible object and the second one relates to Leibniz’s. Leibniz maintains that the source of possibility is the mere logical consistency of the notions involved, so that possibility coincides with analytical possibility. Kant, instead, argues that consistency is only a necessary component of possibility. According to Kant, something is (...)
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  6. Über die Nichtigkeit des Gegebenen: Schellings und Hegels Verteidigung des ontologischen Arguments und der Deutsche Idealismus im Spätmittelalter.Andrés Quero-sánchez - 2011 - Bochumer Philosophisches Jahrbuch Fur Antike Und Mittelalter 14 (1):191-232.
  7. The Inconceivable Popularity of Conceivability Arguments.Douglas I. Campbell, Jack Copeland & Zhuo-Ran Deng - 2017 - Philosophical Quarterly 67 (267):223-240.
    Famous examples of conceivability arguments include (i) Descartes’ argument for mind-body dualism, (ii) Kripke's ‘modal argument’ against psychophysical identity theory, (iii) Chalmers’ ‘zombie argument’ against materialism, and (iv) modal versions of the ontological argument for theism. In this paper, we show that for any such conceivability argument, C, there is a corresponding ‘mirror argument’, M. M is deductively valid and has a conclusion that contradicts C's conclusion. Hence, a proponent of C—henceforth, a ‘conceivabilist’—can be warranted in holding that C's premises (...)
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  8. The Ontological Argument.Alvin Plantinga & Jonathan Barnes - 1975 - Philosophical Review 84 (4):582.
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  9. Ontological Arguments and Belief in God.Graham Oppy - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book is an interesting contribution to the philosophy of religion. It offers a comprehensive discussion of one of the most famous arguments for the existence of God: the ontological argument. The author provides and analyses a critical taxonomy of those versions of the argument that have been advanced in recent philosophical literature, as well as of those historically important versions found in the work of St Anselm, Descartes, Leibniz, Hegel and others. A central thesis of the book is that (...)
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  10. Stephen Davis’s Objection to the Second Ontological Argument.Bashar Alhoch - 2016 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 80 (1):3-9.
    Stephen Davis has argued that the second ontological argument fails as a theistic proof because it ignores the logical possibility of what he calls an ontologically impossible being. By an “ontologically impossible being” he means a being that does not exist, logically-possibly exists, and would exist necessarily if it existed. In this brief essay, I argue, first, that even if an OIB is logically possible, its logical possibility is irrelevant to the OA at issue; and second, that an OIB is (...)
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  11. The Ontological Argument and Theological Education.Dayton Haskin - 1973 - New Blackfriars 54 (635):148-156.
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  12. XV.—The Ontological Argument for the Existence of God.Albert A. Cock - 1918 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 18 (1):363-384.
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  13. Hegel and the Ontological Argument for the Existence of God.Paul Redding & Paolo Diego Bubbio - 2014 - Religious Studies 50 (4):465-486.
    We reconstruct Hegel’s implicit version of the ontological argument in the light of his anti-representationalist idealist metaphysics. For Hegel, the ontological argument had been a peculiarly modern form of argument for the existence of God, presupposing a ‘representationalist’ account of the mind and its concepts. As such, it was susceptible to Kant’s famous refutation, but Kant himself had provided a model for an alternative conception of concept, one developed by Fichte with his notion of the I=I. We reconstruct an Hegelian (...)
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  14. The Ontological Argument (Cambridge Classic Philosophical Arguments Series).Graham Oppy (ed.) - forthcoming - Cambridge University Press.
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  15. Gödel's Ontological Argument: History, Modifications, and Controversies.Kordula Świętorzecka (ed.) - 2015 - Semper.
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  16. Essence and Realization in the Ontological Argument.Timothy G. McCarthy - 2016 - Faith and Philosophy 33 (1):5-24.
    A persistent complaint about modal forms of the ontological argument is that the characteristic modalized existence assumptions of these arguments are simply too close to the conclusion to be of much probative value in establish­ing it. I present an abstract form of the ontological argument in which the properties imputed to the divine nature by these assumptions are replaced by any of a wide class of properties of a sort I call “actualizing.” These include basic theistic attributes such as authorship, (...)
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  17. Godel's Ontological Argument: A Reply to Oppy.M. Gettings - 1999 - Analysis 59 (4):309-313.
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  18. The Greatest Possible Being Needn't Be Anything Impossible.Patrick Todd - 2015 - Religious Studies 51 (4):531-542.
    There are various argumentative strategies for advancing the claim that God does not exist. One such strategy is this. First, one notes that God is meant to have a certain divine attribute (such as omniscience). One then argues that having the relevant attribute is impossible. One concludes that God doesn't exist. For instance, Dennis Whitcomb's recent paper, ‘Grounding and omniscience’, proceeds in exactly this way. As Whitcomb says, ‘I'm going to argue that omniscience is impossible and that therefore there is (...)
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  19. New Aspects of Omnipotence and Necessity in Anselm.M. J. A. O'connor - 1968 - Religious Studies 4 (1):133.
    Anselm presented his ontological argument in three main forms. In Proslogion II he argued that the very concept of God implies his actual existence. In Reply to Gaunilo —the argument from aseity—he argued that the conception of God as an eternal existent rules out his conception as a merely possible existent. In Proslogion III he argued that the concept of God implies his actual existence as logically necessary. Each of these arguments has its traditional refutation. Against Proslogion II it is (...)
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  20. The Tension Between Direct Experience and Argument in Religion.John E. Smith - 1981 - Religious Studies 17 (4):487.
    There is an undercurrent to be detected in Anselm's record of the meditative experience that issued in the Ontological Argument and, although it points to a profound and perennial problem in the interpretation of religion, this undercurrent has been largely ignored. The Argument, as is well known, moves entirely within the medium of reflective meaning focused on the idea of God and, unlike the cosmological arguments of later theologians, it makes no appeal whatever to a principle of causality or to (...)
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  21. Contradictions Are Ontological Arguments.Yuval Steinitz - 1994 - Religious Studies 30 (4):505.
    Although ontological arguments had provoked many objections, most of them boil down to the claim that a purely conceptual analysis must be devoid of factual content. Thus, instead of rebutting each of these objections separately, this paper intends to convince those who deny ontological arguments to admit the existence, from their own perspectives, of at least negative ontological arguments. The paper argues that conceptual contradictions constitute arguments of this type, showing what necessarily does not exist.
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  22. Necessity and the Ontological Argument.Joel I. Friedman - 1980 - Erkenntnis 15 (3):301-331.
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  23. Rethinking the Ontological Argument: A Neoclassical Theistic Response.Daniel A. Dombrowski - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    In recent years, the ontological argument and theistic metaphysics have been criticised by philosophers working in both the analytic and continental traditions. Responses to these criticisms have primarily come from philosophers who make use of the traditional, and problematic, concept of God. In this volume, Daniel A. Dombrowski defends the ontological argument against its contemporary critics, but he does so by using a neoclassical or process concept of God, thereby strengthening the case for a contemporary theistic metaphysics. Relying on the (...)
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  24. Simple Defense of the Ontological as Argument.Brian Lang - unknown
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  25. A Review Of Modern Examinations Of The Ontological Argument. [REVIEW]David Paul - unknown - Proceedings of the Heraclitean Society 13.
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  26. An Introduction to the Doctrines in the Ontological Argument/Theological Arguments.S. Maqami - unknown - Kheradnameh Sadra Quarterly 19.
    Philosophers speculations embrace many arguments for knowledge of God. These methods of cognition, from a particular point of view, have been logically classified under" a priori' and * a posteriori.' ones.Here the author has tried to expound, what it is well-known as the argument of righteous ones, as the a priori argument; and yet we are better to call this argument as "ontological argument".In this article, the ontological arguments, such as those of Saint Anselm, Descartes, Leibniz, and Kant's critique on (...)
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  27. Goedel's Ontological Argument.Randolph Rubens Goldman - 2000 - Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    Godel wrote an ontological argument, which he worked on sporadically for thirty years. Godel was allegedly enthralled by the argument and believed it to be a satisfactory logical investigation in favor of the existence of God. The argument was later revised by C. Anthony Anderson. Although the argument itself is a formal one given in a third order modal logic with a property abstraction operator, the formal semantics for the argument have never been worked out. The focus of most of (...)
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  28. Plantinga's Modal Argument for the Existence of God.William Bruce Johnston - 1980 - Dissertation, State University of New York at Albany
    In this thesis we explore this argument, paying attention to the modal doctrines which Plantinga employs in his statement of the argument, and upon which its validity depends. We examine the roots of his argument, especially in relation to the criticisms which Kant raised against Ontological Arguments generally, and finally we show that, even if the argument commends itself as valid, that it is difficult, if not impossible, to show that it is sound, thus justifying the position of Leibniz that (...)
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  29. Problem : The Function of Faith in the Ontological Argument.Henry G. Wolz - 1951 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 25:151.
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  30. 'Perfection' in the Ontological Argument.Leroy T. Howe - 1972 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 46:58.
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  31. The Ontological Argument: An Exercise in Logical Analysis.Ronald Robert Basham - 1974 - Dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
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  32. Existence and Necessity: Some New Considerations on the Ontological Argument for the Existence of God.Donald Rex Gregory - 1972 - Dissertation, Vanderbilt University
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  33. The Many-Faced Argument. Recent Studies on the Ontological Argument for the Existence of God.John Hick & Arthur C. Mcgill - 1969 - Religious Studies 5 (1):123-125.
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  34. Language-Games and the Ontological Argument: DONALD F. HENZE.Donald F. Henze - 1968 - Religious Studies 4 (1):147-152.
    ‘Generally speaking, the errors in religion are dangerous; those in philosophy only ridiculous.’—Hume, Treatise , I, iv, 7. Several years have elapsed since Professor Malcolm's astonishing revival of St Anselm's ontological argument . The first shock-wave of criticism has likewise passed, having been absorbed by now into the bound volumes of the periodical literature. This note is not intended to add much weight to the common conclusion of that impressive body of criticism, for, though interesting and important logical issues remain (...)
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  35. Existence as a Perfection: A Reconsideration of the Ontological Argument: LEROY T. HOWE.Leroy T. Howe - 1968 - Religious Studies 4 (1):78-101.
    Anselm's two ‘ontological’ arguments rest upon three fundamental assertions: The idea of God is the idea of a being than which nothing more perfect is conceivable. Whatever exists in the understanding and outside the understanding is more perfect than whatever exists in the understanding alone. Whatever cannot be conceived not to exist is more perfect than whatever can be conceived not to exist.
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  36. Hartshorne's Arguments Against Empirical Evidence for Necessary Existence: An Evaluation: GALEN A. JOHNSON.Galen A. Johnson - 1977 - Religious Studies 13 (2):175-187.
    Is experiential evidence irrelevant to acceptance or rejection of belief in the existence of a Divine Being? Charles Hartshorne answers that it is indeed irrelevant, and this answer has an initial and, for me, continuing surprising ring to it. Specifically, Hartshorne makes two distinguishable claims: the traditional allegedly a posteriori arguments, the teleological and cosmological, are in fact incompatible with empiricist methodology and are disguised ontological arguments; the conception of God as necessary being demands that belief in such a being's (...)
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  37. Malcolm on the Ontological Argument: JAMES E. TOMBERLIN.James E. Tomberlin - 1972 - Religious Studies 8 (1):65-70.
    In a recent symposium on Descartes' ontological argument, Norman Malcolm has restated a rather ingenious version of St Anse1m's ontological argument. 1 The purpose of the present paper is to assess the merits of this particular version of the ontological argument.
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  38. The Ontological Argument and the Motivational Centres of Lives: ALEXANDER R. PRUSS.Alexander R. Pruss - 2010 - Religious Studies 46 (2):233-249.
    Assuming S5, the main controversial premise in modal ontological arguments is the possibility premise, such as that possibly a maximally great being exists. I shall offer a new way of arguing that the possibility premise is probably true.
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  39. ‘Meaning’, Experience and the Ontological Argument: ALBERT W. WALD.Albert W. Wald - 1979 - Religious Studies 15 (1):31-39.
    There is a theory about knowledge of the meanings of words which has been held by philosophers as different as existentialists and crude empiricists. 1 It may be called the empiricist theory, and is stated thus: If anyone fully understands the meaning of ‘ x ’, then the object denoted by ‘ x ’ must have been experienced or ‘encountered’ by that person.
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  40. Causal Necessity and the Ontological Argument: JAMES M. HUMBER.James M. Humber - 1974 - Religious Studies 10 (3):291-300.
    The ontological argument appears in a multiplicity of forms. Over the past ten or twelve years, however, the philosophical community seems to have been concerned principally with those versions of the proof which claim that God is a necessary being. In contemporary literature, Professors Malcolm and Hartshorne have been the chief advocates of this view, both men holding that God must be conceived as a necessary being and that, as a result, his existence is able to be demonstrated a priori (...)
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  41. Existing by Convention: KENNETH G. FERGUSON.Kenneth G. Ferguson - 1992 - Religious Studies 28 (2):185-194.
    Ever since the Proslogion was first circulated , critics have been bemused by St Anselm's brazen attempt to establish a matter of fact, namely, God's existence, from the simple analysis of a term or concept. Yet every critic who has proposed to ‘write the obituary’ of the Ontological Argument has found it to be remarkably resilient . At the risk of adding to a record of failures, I want to venture a new method for attacking this durable argument. Neither the (...)
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  42. The Ontological Argument in Modern Debate.Joseph Palmer Frary - 1972 - Dissertation, Fordham University
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  43. A Serious Look at the Ontological Argument.Robert J. Richman - 1976 - Ratio (Misc.) 18 (1):85.
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  44. Alvin Plantinga's Modal Argument:: Formalization Problem and the Concept of Existence.Julia Gorbatova - 2010 - Analytica 4:16-25.
    This article deals with a modal version of the ontological argument, proposed by the American philosopher Alvin Plantinga in the 70's of last century. This approach to the formulation of the modal argument has been very productive and still causes concern, both among ordinary believers, and among philosophers and theologians. In the article special attention is paid to the following questions: formalization of the modal argument, the consequences of such a formalization, criticism of Kant and the modal version of the (...)
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  45. God and Logic in the Ontological Argument.John Joseph Thomas - 1973 - Dissertation, University of Miami
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  46. Predicating Existence and the Ontological Argument.George Roy Landrum - 1971 - Dissertation, Wayne State University
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  47. Some Aspects of the Ontological Argument.Henry Smits - 1971 - Dissertation, University of Missouri - Columbia
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  48. An Emotivist Analysis of the Ontological Argument.Rem B. Edwards - 1967 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 48 (1):25.
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  49. The Ontological Argument for the Existence of God.Charles G. Werner - 1965 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 46 (2):269.
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  50. The Ontological Argument for God.Paul J. W. Miller - 1961 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 42 (3):337.
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