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  1. added 2020-05-01
    Foucault and Kripke on the Proper Names of Authors.Christopher Mole - 2016 - Philosophy and Literature 40 (2):383-398.
    The semantic issues that Saul Kripke addressed in Naming and Necessity overlap substantially with those that were addressed by Michel Foucault in “What Is an Author?”. The present essay examines their area of overlap, with a view to showing that each of these works affords a perspective on the other, from which facets that are usually obscure can be brought into view. It shows that Foucault needs to take some assumptions from Kripke’s theory of naming in order to secure one (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-01
    Art and Desire: A Study of the Aesthetics of Fiction.Dabney Townsend - 1989 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 47 (4):389-390.
  3. added 2020-04-27
    The Promethean Form: A Poet's Ontological Metamorphosis in Emerson's "Self-Reliance" and "The Poet".Trent Michael Sanders - 2018 - Philosophy and Literature 42 (1):222-229.
    What does Emerson want for himself and for us, or, put another way, what does he do in his writings as a whole? Can we understand Emerson's writings today? One critic, F. O. Matthiessen, in his American Renaissance: Art and Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman, pithily remarks that some of Emerson's philosophical essays are "generally unreadable";1 Len Gougeon, however, argues that we can know something about Emerson. Gougeon suggests that Emerson emphasizes the individual and the American political (...)
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  4. added 2020-04-27
    Non-Fictional Narrators in Fictional Narratives.Christian Folde - 2017 - British Journal of Aesthetics 57 (4):389-405.
    This paper is about non-fictional objects in fictions and their role as narrators. Two central claims are advanced. In part 1 it is argued that non-fictional objects such as you and me can be part of fictions. This commonsensical idea is elaborated and defended against objections. Building on it, it is argued in part 2 that non-fictional objects can be characters and narrators in fictional narratives. As a consequence, three fundamental and popular claims concerning narrators are rejected. In particular, it (...)
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  5. added 2020-03-29
    Poesia, instante vertical e solidão na fenomenologia poética de Gaston Bachelard.Fernando Machado - 2016 - Ekstasis: Revista de Hermenêutica E Fenomenologia.
    O presente artigo ambiciona discutir dois conceitos importantes presentes na última fase da filosofia poética de Gaston Bachelard, onde o pensador adotou o método fenomenológico das imagens poéticas, são eles: solidão e instante vertical. Logo em seguida, demonstraremos de que modo esses dois conceitos que são, diga-se de passagem, um tanto quanto curiosos, se conectam e, em certa medida, autorizam o pensador a definir precisamente o que é essa poesia produzida pelo artista, bem como, o impacto de uma obra poética (...)
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  6. added 2020-03-29
    Tempo de solidão e de leitura para a construção do Ser do homem na fenomenologia poética de Gaston Bachelard.Fernando Machado - 2016 - Paralaxe 6:83-96.
    Pretendemos com esse artigo evidenciar de que modo Bachelard se ocupa da questão que versa sobre a constituição e reconstrução do Ser do homem por meio da poesia em seu pensamento fenomenológico final. Para tanto, exporemos brevemente que tipo de fenomenologia poética é essa almejada pelo autor, em seguida, destacaremos a importância a e primazia da temporalidade vertical cultivada pelos poetas e, por fim, mostrar de que maneira a partir “da solidão de um outro”, no caso, a do poeta, eu (...)
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  7. added 2020-03-06
    Realism and the Drama of Reference Strategies of Representation in Balzac, Flaubert, and James.Meili Steele - 1988 - University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    While most studies of reference focus on the relationship of the individual proposition to the world, this book looks at the problem of reference through the holistic lens of the practices and assumptions that inform the construction of literary worlds. Beginning with Balzac’s arguments for establishing his version of realism, Realism and the Drama of Reference then moves to Flaubert’s challenge to those realist norms and assumptions in its depiction of setting, narration, dialogue, and character. Henry James rejects the practices (...)
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  8. added 2019-09-25
    Функційність топоніма Москва в українському поетичному дискурсі.Yuliia Brailko - 2018 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 4:5-19.
    У статті наведено результати дослідження функційного призначення топоніма Москва в українському поетичному дискурсі від давньої доби до сьогодні. Визначено, що найважливіша його функція – ідеологічна, вона є різновекторною та безпосередньо пов’язана з авторською оцінкою. Конотації власної назви Москва детерміновані інтерлінгвальними чинниками та мають великий діапазон – від максимально меліоративних до максимально пейоративних.
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  9. added 2019-09-07
    Un coup de dès jamais n'abolira le hasard.Mitsou Ronat & Tibor Papp - 1981 - Paris, France: Change errant.
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  10. added 2019-08-01
    The Romantic Fragment.Paul Bali - manuscript
    contents: -/- 1. the Romantic fragment 2. life would want to die, a little 3. pain itself is the meaning, in Nietzsche 4. martyrs do not underrate the body 5. inwardly, an Actor prepares 5b. brother, bro: it's only you that overhears you 5c. J is like Hamlet / Herzog / Holden Caulfield / Raskolnikov 5d. they take him to a basement and they feed him METH 6. a surface is revealed / the depths are all inferred 6b. my Self (...)
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  11. added 2019-07-05
    Оповідка: від ритуалу до метажанрових новацій.Mariya Shuvalova - 2018 - NaUKMA Researh Papers. Literary Studies 1:135-142.
  12. added 2019-07-04
    Стосунки з Богом у поезії Миколи Вінграновського.Svitlana Bohdan - 2018 - NaUKMA Researh Papers. Literary Studies 1:44-48.
    Статтю присвячено сакральним мотивам у поезії М. Вінграновського. Розглянуто правопис слова «Бог» у ранніх і пізніших поезіях автора, вказано на тексти з релігійною образністю і тематикою (зокрема проаналізовано неопубліковані рукописи). Наведено свідчення сучасників поета про його стосунки з Богом. Зроблено спробу показати, що засвідчена заангажованість М. Вінграновського в релігійний дискурс дає підстави розгортати інтерпретацію його поезій також і в межах цього дискурсу, зокрема – в аспекті поєднання однини і множини на мовному рівні, а також в аспекті відчуття загальної всеєдності як (...)
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  13. added 2019-06-20
    The Ontology of Graphically-Fixed Literature.Bradley Elicker - 2020 - British Journal of Aesthetics 60 (1):13-26.
    Typically, literature is defined ontologically as linguistically-fixed texts consisting of specific words and word order. However, some have noted that this condition is too strict for linguistically-fluid works such as the Iliad where the words and word order differ in their various instances. I argue that it is not strict enough for some works of literature, such as pattern poetry and the novels of Irvin Welsh and Mark Z. Danielewski, that have a further ontological condition. In that the graphic features (...)
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  14. added 2019-06-05
    The Literary Work of Art.Translated with an Introduction by George G. Grabowicz, Foreword by David M. Levin.Barry Smith - 1975 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 6 (2):141-144.
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  15. added 2019-05-18
    Amie L. Thomas Son, Fiction and Metaphysics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1999, Pp. 187. Isbn: 0-521-64080-6. £35.00. [REVIEW]Maria Elisabeth Reicher - 1999 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 57 (1):325-344.
    The aim of this book is to investigate the nature and ontological status of fictional characters on the one hand (i. e., entities like Sherlock Holmes, Hamlet, or Anna Karenina) and literary works on the other. The overall question is: What kinds of objects are fictional characters and literary works, and how are they related to our everyday world? Thomasson advocates a realist, non-reductionist theory of fictitious objects whose main principles are: Fictional characters exist – just as literary works exist. (...)
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  16. added 2019-02-05
    On the Varieties of Abstract Objects.James E. Davies - 2019 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 97 (4):809-823.
    I reconcile the spatiotemporal location of repeatable artworks and impure sets with the non-location of natural numbers despite all three being varieties of abstract objects. This is possible because, while the identity conditions for all three can be given by abstraction principles, in the former two cases spatiotemporal location is a congruence for the equivalence relation featuring in the relevant principle, whereas in the latter it is not. I then generalize this to other ‘physical’ properties like shape, mass, and causal (...)
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  17. added 2018-07-24
    The Menard Case and the Identity of a Literary Work of Art.Tomas Hribek - 2013 - In Tomas Koblizek, Petr Kot'átko & Martin Pokorný (eds.), Text + Work: The Menard Case. Praha, Česko: pp. 6-34.
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  18. added 2018-01-19
    Multilevel Poetry Translation as a Problem-Solving Task.Pedro Ata & Joao Queiroz - 2016 - Cognitive Semiotics 9 (2):139-147.
    Poems are treated by translators as hierarchical multilevel systems. Here we propose the notion of “multilevel poetry translation” to characterize such cases of poetry translation in terms of selection and rebuilding of a multilevel system of constraints across languages. Different levels of a poem correspond to different sets of components that asymmetrically constrain each other (e. g., grammar, lexicon, syntactic construction, prosody, rhythm, typography, etc.). This perspective allows a poem to be approached as a thinking-tool: an “experimental lab” which submits (...)
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  19. added 2017-10-30
    The Truth About Fiction.Josef Seifert & Barry Smith - 1994 - In Kunst Und Ontologie: Für Roman Ingarden zum 100. Geburtstag. Amsterdam: Rodopi. pp. 97-118.
    Ingarden distinguishes four strata making up the structure of the literary work of art: the stratum of word sounds and sound-complexes; the stratum of meaning units; the stratum of represented objectivities (characters, actions, settings, and so forth); and the stratum of schematized aspects (perspectives under which the represented objectivities are given to the reader). It is not only works of literature which manifest this four-fold structure but also certain borderline cases such as newspaper articles, scientific works, biographies, and so forth. (...)
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  20. added 2016-11-22
    Narrative and Essayistic Temporalities.E. Di Bona - 2015 - In Ch Wampole S. Ercolino (ed.), Narration and Reflection, Special Issue of Compar(a)ison: An International Journal of Comparative Literature. Peter Lang. pp. 49-62.
    The issues of this essay concern whether there are ways of experiencing time that are specific to narration and whether such ways can also be applied to the experience of time in reflection. In order to tackle these issues, we shall compare and contrast the experience of time in life with both the temporal experiences of narration and the temporal experiences of reflection. We shall begin, then, with a discussion on what the “experience of time” is, in the attempt of (...)
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  21. added 2016-10-30
    What Instances of Novels Are.Alexey Aliyev - 2017 - Philosophia 45 (1):163-183.
    The consensus is that novels can be fully appreciated only through an experiential engagement with their well-formed instances. But what are the entities that serve as such instances? According to the orthodox view, these entities are primarily inscriptions—concrete texts written or printed on something or displayed on the screen of some electronic device. In this paper, I argue that this view is misguided, since well-formed instances of a novel must manifest certain sonic properties, but such properties cannot be manifested by (...)
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  22. added 2016-10-01
    Unlocking the Traumatic Through the Psychedelic in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest.Mongia Besbes - 2016 - Journal of Advances in Humanities and Social Sciences 3 (2):156-167.
    This is an attempt to investigate the causal relationship existing between the psychedelic literary genre in fiction and the application of trauma theory in the study of One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest. Trauma theory, which is a psychological theory in essence; has been widely linked to the study of literature since traumatic responses take narrative forms. Scientifically, many studies have proven that the psychedelic trip leads to a deepened exploration of the unconscious tracing latent emotional traumas. Henceforth, I am (...)
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  23. added 2016-03-09
    Penser la création littéraire avec Paul Ricœur.Marjolaine Deschênes - 2013 - Fabula/Les Colloques.
    Philosophie de la vivification et de la fragilité, l’œuvre de Paul Ricœur est fertile pour qui veut penser la création littéraire. Cette pratique d’écriture, Ricœur l’envisage comme un procès complexe où l’écrivain s’individualise et s’altère d’un seul geste. Nous le verrons, l’écriture est à ses yeux distanciation, geste d’appropriation médiatisé. Cet écartèlement entre le propre et l’impropre fait la spécificité de l’écriture littéraire, où s’entrelacent la rationalité et l’irrationalité, le savoir et le non-savoir. Après avoir exposé ces vues, je les (...)
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  24. added 2016-03-03
    Editoriale–L'estetica all 'opera. Focus Genette'.Filippo Fimiani & Pierre-Henry Frangne - 2011 - Aisthesis: Pratiche, Linguaggi E Saperi Dell’Estetico 4 (1).
    In the ontology of the artwork and its regimes of existence, Gérard Genette gives but little room to the theory and practice of restoration. However, restoration is seen in relation to the identity of the work itself and to its material and pragmatic temporality and anachronism. In the wake of Nelson Goodman, it is also understood as a form of actuation and implementaion of the aesthetic experience. Starting from these premises, the present essay intends to examine the relationship between Genette’s (...)
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  25. added 2016-03-01
    Repeatable Artwork Sentences and Generics.Shieva Kleinschmidt & Jacob Ross - 2013 - In Christy Mag Uidhir (ed.), Art and Abstract Objects. Oxford University Press. pp. 125.
    We seem to talk about repeatable artworks, like symphonies, films, and novels, all the time. We say things like, "The Moonlight Sonata has three movements" and "Duck Soup makes me laugh". How are these sentences to be understood? We argue against the simple subject/predicate view, on which the subjects of the sentences refer to individuals and the sentences are true iff the referents of the subjects have the properties picked out by the predicates. We then consider two alternative responses that (...)
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  26. added 2016-02-25
    6. Fiktion, Wahrheit, Referenz.Jan C. Werner - 2014 - In Tilmann Köppe & Tobias Klauk (eds.), Fiktionalität: Ein Interdisziplinäres Handbuch. De Gruyter. pp. 125-158.
  27. added 2015-11-27
    “But Is It Science Fiction?”: Science Fiction and a Theory of Genre.Simon J. Evnine - 2015 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 39 (1):1-28.
    If science fiction is a genre, then attempts to think about the nature of science fiction will be affected by one’s understanding of what genres are. I shall examine two approaches to genre, one dominant but inadequate, the other better, but only occasionally making itself seen. I shall then discuss several important, interrelated issues, focusing particularly on science fiction : what it is for a work to belong to a genre, the semantics of genre names, the validity of attempts to (...)
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  28. added 2015-09-27
    Irrecoverable Intentions and Literary Interpretation.Brian Rosebury - 1997 - British Journal of Aesthetics 37 (1):15-30.
    The paper explores the relevance of irrecoverable authorial intentions to the interpretation of texts. It suggests that the ways in which different conventions of discourse take account of the existence of irrecoverable intentions (i.e. of the failure of texts perfectly to represent their authors' intentions) can guide us to a criterion for distinguishing 'literary' from 'non-literary' texts, or 'literary'(aesthetically motivated) from 'non-literary' readings of texts.
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  29. added 2015-07-28
    Paradise on the Cheap. Ascriptivism About Ficta.Michele Paolini Paoletti - 2016 - In Mauro Antonelli & Marian David (eds.), Existence, Fiction, Assumption. Meinongian Themes and the History of Austrian Philosophy. Meinong Studies, vol. VI. de Gruyter. pp. 99-140.
    In this article I shall present a Meinong-inspired theory of fictional objects. This theory is based on two ideas: fictional objects are mental objects, i.e., they depend for their identity conditions on minded subjects thinking of them; they bear properties in two different ways, i.e., by instantiating properties and by having properties “ascribed” to them. In my perspective, ascription relations hold (at least) between an object, a property and a minded subject. After having presented some data about fictional discourse, I (...)
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  30. added 2015-06-25
    Kommunikative Absichten und die Ontologie des literarischen Werks.Maria E. Reicher - 2015 - In Jan Borkowski, Stefan Descher, Felicitas Ferder & Philipp David Heine (eds.), Literatur interpretieren: Interdisziplinäre Beiträge zur Theorie und Praxis. Mentis. pp. 191-217.
    In diesem Beitrag werden drei Thesen verteidigt: 1. Interpretationen literarischer Werke (im Sinne von Aussagen über die Bedeutung literarischer Werke) können richtig oder falsch sein. 2. Werke haben eine objektive Bedeutung, unabhängig von Interpretationen. 3. Die Bedeutung eines Werks wird wesentlich durch die kommunikativen Absichten der Autorin determiniert. Die Position, dass Werk- und Textbedeutungen durch tatsächliche Autorabsichten des echten Autors konstituiert werden – die Position des aktualen Intentionalismus – wird gegen eine Reihe von Einwänden und konkurrierenden Theorien verteidigt, nämlich gegen (...)
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  31. added 2014-11-17
    La subjetivización de la estética y el valor cognitivo del arte según Gadamer.Pedro Karczmarczyk - 2007 - Analogía Filosófica: Revista de Filosofía, Investigación y Difusión (1):127-173.
    En este trabajo analizamos la reivindicación gadameriana del valor cognitivo de arte como un ejemplo de un modo de conocimiento que permite concebir de mejor manera la comprensión que tiene lugar en las ciencias del espíritu. Dicha reivindicación presupone el desconocimiento del valor cognitivo del arte operado por la subjetivización de la estética con Kant y una vuelta a los presupuestos de la tradición humanista. Por ello en la introducción presentamos en esquema los conceptos humanistas de tacto, gusto, sentido común (...)
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  32. added 2014-08-18
    Deferenza testuale.Barry Smith - 1999 - Divus Thomas 24 (3):92-116.
    Works of philosophy written in English have spawned a massive secondary literature dealing with ideas, problems or arguments. But they have almost never given rise to works of ‘commentary’ in the strict sense, a genre which is however a dominant literary form not only in the Confucian, Vedantic, Islamic, Jewish and Scholastic traditions, but also in relation to more recent German-language philosophy. Yet Anglo-Saxon philosophers have themselves embraced the commentary form when dealing with Greek or Latin philosophers outside their own (...)
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  33. added 2014-04-02
    Borges on Language and Translation.Jon Stewart - 1995 - Philosophy and Literature 19 (2):320-329.
  34. added 2014-03-30
    Aristotle on the Philosophical Nature of Poetry.J. M. Armstrong - 1998 - Classical Quarterly 48 (2):447-455.
    In Poetics chapter 9, Aristotle famously claims that poetry is more philosophical than history. What does this mean? I argue that he is talking about the metaphysics of events. Poets seek causal coherence among the events in their stories. Historians must report what happened whether or not the events of history exhibit causal coherence. This makes the poet's job more philosophical than the historian's, for the poet is seeking a unified plot -- an action-type -- that serves as the backbone (...)
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  35. added 2014-03-24
    Genre Fiction and "the Origin of the Work of Art".Nancy J. Holland - 2002 - Philosophy and Literature 26 (1):216-223.
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  36. added 2014-03-24
    Work and Object.Peter Lamarque - 2002 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 102 (2):141–162.
    The paper considers what kinds of things are musical, literary, pictorial and sculptural works, how they relate to physical objects or abstract types, and what their identity and survival conditions are. Works are shown to be cultural objects with essential intentional and relational properties. These essential properties are connected to conditions of production and conditions of reception, of both a generic and work-specific kind. It is argued that work-identity is value-laden, whereby essential to the survival of a work is the (...)
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  37. added 2014-03-20
    Defending Author-Essentialism.Jeffrey Goodman - 2005 - Philosophy and Literature 29 (1):200-208.
    Creationism is the view that fictional individuals such as Sherlock Holmes are contingently existing abstracta that come about due to the intentional activities of authors. Author-essentialism is the stronger thesis that the author responsible for bringing a fictional individual into existence at a time is essential to the existence of that individual. Takashi Yagisawa has recently attacked this view on the following grounds: author-essentialists rely on an ontological parallelism between fictional individuals and whole works of fiction, but this parallelism fails (...)
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  38. added 2014-03-20
    Roman Ingarden: Ontological Foundations for Literary Theory.Barry Smith - 1979 - In John Odmark (ed.), Language, Literature and Meaning I: Problems of Literary Theory. Amsterdam: Benjamins. pp. 373-390.
    The paper seeks to apply the work of the Polish phenomenologist Roman Ingarden to certain problems in literary theory; contrasts the notions of ontological and epistemological incompleteness of the represented objects of a literary work and considers the question of the nature of such objects. The paper concludes by analyzing some of the degrees of freedom possessed by the readings of literary work in relation to the work itself.
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  39. added 2014-03-06
    The Phenomenological Ontology of Literature.Xiaomang Deng - 2010 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (4):621-630.
    Literary ontology is essentially a phenomenological issue rather than one of epistemology, sociology, or psychology. It is a theory of the phenomenological essence intuited from a sense of beauty, based on the phenomenological ontology of beauty, which puts into brackets the sociohistorical premises and material conditions of aesthetic phenomena. Beauty is the objectified emotion. This is the phenomenological definition of the essence of beauty, which manifests itself on three levels, namely emotion qua selfconsciousness, sense of beauty qua emotion, and sentiment (...)
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  40. added 2014-03-05
    Absurd Creation: An Existentialist View of Art?Guy Bennett-Hunter - 2009 - Philosophical Frontiers 4 (1):49-58.
    What are we to make of works of art whose apparent point is to convince us of the meaninglessness and absurdity of human existence? I examine, in this paper, the attempt of Albert Camus to provide philosophical justification of art in the face of the supposed fact of absurdity and note its failure as such with specific reference to Sartre’s criticism. Despite other superficial similarities, I contrast Camus’s concept of the absurd with that of his ‘existentialist’ colleagues, including Sartre, and (...)
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  41. added 2014-02-10
    Roman Ingarden's "the Literary Work of Art": Exposition and Analyses.Jeff Mitscherling - 1985 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 45 (3):351-381.
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  42. added 2013-05-10
    Art & Art-Attempts.Christy Mag Uidhir - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    Although few philosophers agree about what it is for something to be art, most, if not all, agree on one thing: art must be in some sense intention dependent. Art and Art-Attempts is about what follows from taking intention dependence seriously as a substantive necessary condition for something's being art. Christy Mag Uidhir argues that from the assumption that art must be the product of intentional action, along with basic action-theoretic account of attempts (goal-oriented intention-directed activity), follows a host of (...)
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  43. added 2013-04-08
    Philosophical Perspectives on Fictional Characters.Paisley Nathan Livingston & Andrea Sauchelli - 2011 - New Literary History 42 (2):337-360.
    This paper takes up a series of basic philosophical questions about the nature and existence of fictional characters. We begin with realist approaches that hinge on the thesis that at least some claims about fictional characters can be right or wrong because they refer to something that exists, such as abstract objects. Irrealist approaches deny such realist postulations and hold instead that fictional characters are a figment of the human imagination. A third family of approaches, based on work by Alexius (...)
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  44. added 2012-09-24
    Finding the Battle: History and the Individual in 'Les Conquérants' and 'La Condition Humaine’.Derek Allan - 1990 - Australian Journal of French Studies (2):173-181.
    Discusses the gulf between the individual and collective experience, and the way the gulf is bridged in two of Malraux's novels.
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  45. added 2012-07-30
    Art, Metaphysics, & the Paradox of Standards.Christy Mag Uidhir - 2013 - In Art & Abstract Objects. Oxford University Press.
    I consider the field of aesthetics to be at its most productive and engaging when adopting a broadly philosophically informative approach to its core issues (e.g., shaping and testing putative art theoretic commitments against the relevant standard models employed in philosophy of language, metaphysics, and philosophy of mind) and to be at its most impotent and bewildering when cultivating a philosophically insular character (e.g., selecting interpretative, ontological, or conceptual models solely for fit with pre-fixed art theoretic commitments). For example, when (...)
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  46. added 2011-11-28
    Story Size.Ben Blumson - 2015 - Philosophical Papers 44 (2):121-137.
    The shortest stories are zero words long. There is no maximum length.
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  47. added 2010-07-01
    The Fictionality of Plays.John Dilworth - 2002 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 60 (3):263–273.
    The category of works of fiction is a very broad and heterogeneous one. I do have a general thesis in mind about such works, namely, that they themselves are fictional, in much the same way as are the fictional events or entities that they are about. But a defense of such a broad thesis would provide an intractably complex topic for an introductory essay, so I shall here confine myself to a presentation of a similar thesis for narrative theatrical works (...)
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  48. added 2009-09-06
    The Problem of Polysemy and Identity in the Literary Text.Antony Easthope - 1985 - British Journal of Aesthetics 25 (4):326-339.
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  49. added 2009-08-20
    The Role of Titles in Identifying Literary Works.S. J. Wilsmore - 1987 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 45 (4):403-408.
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  50. added 2009-08-11
    Implications of Frege's Philosophy of Language for Literature.Karl Aschenbrenner - 1968 - British Journal of Aesthetics 8 (4):319-334.
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