Ontology

Edited by T. Parent (Nazarbayev University)
About this topic
Summary Following Quine, ontology is here understood as the study of what there is. (Re: neo-Aristotelian ontology, the study of what grounds what, see the "Fundamentality" category.) Our focus is on the existence of the most generic things that populate many philosophers' ontologies, e.g., objects, properties, natural kinds, states-of-affairs, events, etc. We often talk of these things without thinking twice, but the existence of such entities can seem odd on reflection. For instance, it is natural to say that red roses and red firetrucks have something in common, the property of being red. But does this mean there is a single entity that is a constituent of *every* such rose and firetruck? A second example concerns composite objects: Suppose Abe Lincoln replaces the handle of his axe in 1825, and later in 1860 replaces the head. Does this mean he has owned more than one axe in his lifetime? In general, given a puzzling entity X, Realists about X will strive to minimize such oddities--whereas Anti-Realists often try to preserve ordinary talk of X, despite excluding X from their ontology. Questions about ontology can also lead to questions about these questions. Thus, ontology often bleeds into metaontology, the study of the study of what there is. In recent years, the ontology literature has grown dramatically, especially on metaontology and on composition.
Key works Besides Quine 1953, the articles in Wasserman et al 2009 are central to current metaontology. Lewis 1990 is a classic on mereology; see also ch. 4 of Lewis 1986. Other key works on composition are Van Inwagen 1990, Sider 2001, and the selections in Rea 1997. Armstrong is the most important author on properties and universals; see Armstrong 1978 (two vols.) and Armstrong 1989. (These also are informative about Armstrong's influential view of states-of-affairs.) Lewis' critical studies of Armstrong are also must reads: Lewis 1983 and Lewis 1986. Some other important works in ontology are Meinong 1904, Benacerraf 1965, Quine 1968, Lewis & Lewis 1970, and Field 1980. An especially important, currently active ontologist is Thomasson; see especially Thomasson 1998 and Thomasson 2007.
Introductions Hofweber 2008, Rosen 2008, and Korman 2011 are especially recommended. Additional entries in the Stanford Encyclopedia are also relevant, e.g., "object," "properties," "intrinsic vs. extrinsic properties," "essential vs. accidental properties," "tropes," "natural kinds," etc. The pertinent chapters in Loux & Zimmerman 2003, Gale 2002, and Kim et al 2009 are also recommended.
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  1. Sublating Rationality: The Eucharist as an Existential Trial.Liran Shia Gordon - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy of Religion 13 (2).
    The Eucharist, as a pillar of Christian life and faith, stands at the center of the Mass. It bears multi-dimensional meanings and functions, each of which addresses a different aspect of Christian life and mindset. The study resonates dialectically between the Eucharist as a unique religious affirmation of faith and philosophical strategies that are developed to meet its challenges, particularly the rational frameworks by which the believer affirms that the consecrated bread and wine are Christ’s body and blood. On the (...)
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  2. Personal Identity and Its Properties.Eldar Sarajlic - 2021 - Philosophy and Public Issues - Filosofia E Questioni Pubbliche 10 (2):193-233.
    In this paper, I offer a conceptual framework for understanding and evaluating personal identity claims. I analyze ontological and political properties of personal identity separately, arguing that their conceptual (if not practical) separation is necessary for a proper evaluation of different identity claims. I use probability theory to bypass some of the logical difficulties in conceptualizing personal identity and discuss a case of transitional identification. Finally, I outline the guidelines for a justified liberal policy of recognition.
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  3. On Physics, Metaphysics, and Metametaphysics.Jonas R. Becker Arenhart & Raoni Wohnrath Arroyo - 2021 - Metaphilosophy 52 (2):1-25.
    Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (QM) works perfectly well for all practical purposes. Once one admits, however, that a successful scientific theory is supposed not only to make predictions but also to tell us a story about the world in which we live, a philosophical problem emerges: in the specific case of QM, it is not possible to associate with the theory a unique scientific image of the world; there are several images. The fact that the theory may be compatible with distinct (...)
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  4. The Entity of Man and Efficiency of Mind in Arab Culture.Abduljaleel Kadhim Alwali - 2021 - Elementary Education Online 20 (1):2633-2638.
    The entity of man and efficiency of mind are controversial issues in Arabic culture. There is no agreement among Muslim philosophers and theologians in defining man and the mind. In their analysis, they relied on translated Greek philosophical works and Arab cultural heritage and then added their thoughts. As a result, some scholars accused Asrab culture of sinking into dualism. To clarify the entity of man and mind, we should answer the following questions: Who is man? Is the function of (...)
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  5. Modal History Versus Counterfactual History: History as Intention.Vasil Penchev - 2021 - Philosophy of Science eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 14 (22):1-8.
    The distinction of whether real or counterfactual history makes sense only post factum. However, modal history is to be defined only as ones’ intention and thus, ex-ante. Modal history is probable history, and its probability is subjective. One needs phenomenological “epoché” in relation to its reality (respectively, counterfactuality). Thus, modal history describes historical “phenomena” in Husserl’s sense and would need a specific application of phenomenological reduction, which can be called historical reduction. Modal history doubles history just as the recorded history (...)
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  6. Бергсоновата концепция за нищото, отрицанието и небитието.Vasil Penchev - 1996 - Философия 5 (3):30-34.
    Разгледани са три ключови идеи на на Бергсон за негативна метафизика. Онтологичната основа не е битието, а нищото. Подходът на Бергсон оказва значително влияние на европейската философия през 20-ти век, например на основния труд на Сартр, "Битие и нищо". Проблемът за времето, също изследван от Бергсон, е непосредствено свързан с отношението на битие и нищо.
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  7. Studies in No-Self Physicalism.Feng Ye - manuscript
    This book develops and defends a version of physicalism in contemporary philosophy of mind, called ‘No-Self Physicalism’. No-Self Physicalism emphasizes that a subject of cognition is itself a physical entity, a human brain (and body). -/- The book first argues (in Chapters 1 and 2) that many contemporary philosophers who openly accept physicalism in fact (though perhaps unconsciously and/or implicitly) take the stance of a non-physical Subject in understanding and using core philosophical notions, such as conceptual representation, truth, analyticity, modality, (...)
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  8. Holistic and Conceptual Character of the Mental in Donald Davidson’s Work.Milos Bogdanovic - 2020 - Theoria 63 (e.g. 1):e.g. 123-142.
    In this paper, we will try to confront Quine’s and Davidson’s holistic position through Davidson’s thesis of the mental as a non-ontological category. In this regard, since Davidson came to this position through the thesis of the mental as a decidedly conceptual category, we will try to show how this approach does not, nevertheless, rule out the possibility of its interpretation in ontological terms. However, in what follows we will draw attention to the fact that the mental can be interpreted (...)
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  9. Foundations of Information Technology Based on Bunge’s Systemist Philosophy of Reality.Roman Lukyanenko, Veda C. Storey & Oscar Pastor - 2021 - Mεtascience 2:online.
    General ontology is a prominent theoretical foundation for information technology analysis, design, and development. Ontology is a branch of philosophy which studies what exists in reality. A widely used ontology in information systems, especially for conceptual modeling, is the BWW (Bunge–Wand–Weber), which is based on ideas of the philosopher and physicist Mario Bunge, as synthesized by Wand and Weber. The ontology was founded on an early subset of Bunge’s philosophy; however, many of Bunge’s ideas have evolved since then. An important (...)
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  10. Fysis в работите на Хайдегер за Хьолдерлин.Vasil Penchev - 2004 - Философия 13 (3):14-18.
    Хайдегер има цикъл статии, посветени на немския поет Хьолдерлин и обсъждащи отношението на философия и поезия. Една често срещана "дума" в тях е 'природа'. Нейни рзлични конотации в произведения на философа за поета са предмет на изследване.
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  11. Онтология, история и историческо време.Vasil Penchev - 2007 - In Валентин Канавров, Веселин Петров, Димитър Цацов, Любен Сивилов, Николай Турлаков & Христо Тодоров (eds.), ОНТОЛОГИЯТА ПРЕЗ ДВАДЕСЕТИ ВЕК. pp. 328-354.
    В юдеа-християнската религиозна и философска традиция съществува отчетлива тенденция светът да се разбира като история. Тя може да се проследи през Августин чак до Хегел и Хайдегер. На тази основа може да се предложи едно нестрого разграничение между 'метафизика' и 'онтология': метафизиката предполага светът да се разбира като природа, fysis, докато онтологiqya - като (човешка) история. Тогава на емпиричната пропаст между физически исторически опит, на теоретичната бездна между науките физика и история, ще съответствува философската колизия между метафизика и онтология. Тънката (...)
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  12. Хайдегер за картината "Сикстинската мадона".Vasil Penchev - 2005 - Философия 14 (5):42-46.
    «Сикстинската мадона» основава и завършва зданието на църквата , казва Хайдегер . Тя е първото и последното и тя е , която придава зъвършеност. Сред сградата на съществуващото откритост и събраност може да й придаде възможност да се мисли цялостност, смисъл , облик и завършеност.
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  13. Съдбата на битието (Синоптичен поглед към четири текста от Хайдегер).Vasil Penchev - 2005 - Философия 14 (3):23-30.
    ,.Въпросът, gали и как, и в какВи граници е възможно твърgението ,.Бог е" като абсолютно постаВяне, сега обаче става и остаВа за Кант тайната поgбуgа, която поgкарВа цялото мислене на ,.Критика на чистия разум" и заgВижВа послеgващите главни работи" (Мартин Хайдегер). "Религиозният и философският абсолют, Deиs и Esse не могат ga не бьgат взаимосВързани. КакВа е тази взаимоВръзка от глеgна точка на битието и познанието? В простото тВърgение ,.Бог е", тази връзка се gостига; но нейният характер и преgстаВляВа истинският проблем (...)
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  14. The one, the true, the good… or not: Badiou, Agamben, and atheistic transcendentality.King-Ho Leung - 2021 - Continental Philosophy Review 54 (1):75-97.
    This article offers a reading of the “transcendental” character of Alain Badiou’s and Giorgio Agamben’s ontologies. While neither Badiou nor Agamben are “transcendental” philosophers in the Kantian sense, this article argues that their respective projects of ontology both recover aspects of the “classical” conception of the transcendentals. Not unlike how pre-modern philosophers conceived of oneness, truth and goodness as transcendental properties of all things, both Badiou’s and Agamben’s ontologies present various structures which can be universally predicated of all being. However, (...)
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  15. The Spectricity of Humanness.Zachary Isrow - forthcoming - Berlin, Germany: Walter De Gruyter.
    The question of humanness requires a philosophical anthropology and we need a revision of what philosophical anthropology means in light of contemporary efforts in speculative realism and object-oriented ontology. This is the main claim of the book which expands into the smaller supporting claims that 1) contemporary work in speculative realism indicates that Heidegger’s analytic of Dasein needs to be rethought in consideration of certain Kantian values 2) recent philosophical anthropology offers an incomplete look at the central concern of philosophical (...)
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  16. O Desperacji. Studium ontologiczne / On Despair. An Ontological Study (in Polish).Anton Marczyński - 2020 - In Mateusz Falkowski (ed.), Między historią idei a metafizyką. Warszawa, Polska: pp. 115-127.
    On Despair. An Ontological Study (in Polish).
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  17. Nomada wobec całości. (Meta)metafizyczna rozmowa Skargi z Heideggerem. - Przedmowa do "Tercetu metafizycznego" Barbary Skargi.Anton Marczyński - 2020 - In Marcin Pańków (ed.), Barbara Skarga, Tercet metafizyczny, II wydanie. Warszawa, Polska: pp. 11-27.
    Przedmowa do II wydania "Tercetu metafizycznego" Barbary Skargi / Preface to the 2nd ed. of the Barbara Skarga's "Metaphysical Tercet".
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  18. Gaps: When Not Even Nothing Is There.Charles Blattberg - 2021 - Comparative Philosophy 12 (1):31-55.
    A paradox, it is claimed, is a radical form of contradiction, one that produces gaps in meaning. In order to approach this idea, two senses of “separation” are distinguished: separation by something and separation by nothing. The latter does not refer to nothing in an ordinary sense, however, since in that sense what’s intended is actually less than nothing. Numerous ordinary nothings in philosophy as well as in other fields are surveyed so as to clarify the contrast. Then follows the (...)
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  19. Vom Fehlen des Sinnes zum Sinn des Fehlens. Euripides, "Iphigenie bei den Taurern", vv. 218ff. ökonomisch gelesen.Sergiusz Kazmierski - 2021 - In Ivo De Gennaro, Sergiusz Kazmierski, Ralf Lüfter & Robert Simon (eds.), Ökonomie als Problem. Interdisziplinäre Beiträge zu einer Kritik ökonomischen Wissens. Freiburg-München: pp. 139-184.
    Ausgehend von den vv. 218ff. der Iphigenie bei den Taurern zeigt der Beitrag, wie in dem Drama die tragische Dimension des menschlichen Daseins als eine unwirtliche zu Tage tritt. Diese offenbart eine wirtliche Ökonomie, die diesem Dasein ein Fundament geben kann, das nicht zunächst nach dem ausgerichtet ist, was recht und billig erscheint, sondern, allem voran, im sinnstiftenden Reichtum eines tragischen Schicksals wurzelt, das dem Menschen sein Eigenes und Freies zu gewähren vermag.
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  20. Human Action as Text and the Quest for Justice: Contributions From Emmanuel Levinas and Paul Ricoeur Towards a Hermeneutic of Corporate Action.Avery Smith - 2017 - Dissertation,
    The purpose of this study is to develop a system of corporate ethics based on an understanding and interpretation of the ethical demand of human beings who are in relation with each other according to Emmanuel Levinas' teachings and the responsibility the human being has to and for herself and others whom she encounters based on Paul Ricoeur's teachings on human action, text and hermeneutics. While the philosophies to which we will be referring may not overtly present a normative ethic, (...)
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  21. Karla Jaspersa postneokantowski projekt metafizyki.Alicja Pietras - 2012 - Kwartalnik Filozoficzny 40 (1):25-40.
    Karl Jaspers’ Post-Neo-Kantian project of metaphysics. -/- In this paper I propose an interpretation of Karl Jaspers’ project of metaphysics as a form of Post-Neo-Kantianism. Jaspers makes Kantian philosophy one of the most important starting points of his own philosophical thinking. But, like Nicolai Hartmann and Martin Heidegger, he rejects the Neo-Kantian epistemological interpretation of Kant’s philosophy. Neo-Kantians claimed that Kant rejected metaphysics and wished to set up the theory of cognition as a new philosophia prima. In opposition to this, (...)
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  22. Objetividade Ética e a Morte da Ontologia em Putnam.Luca Nogueira Igansi - 2020 - Cognitio 21 (2):246-259.
    Rastrearemos a refutação da necessidade de fundamentos ontológicos para teorias éticas de Putnam analisando sua trajetória por autores como Quine, Moore e Wittgenstein. Partiremos do naturalismo epistemológico de Quine para estabelecer sua base coerentista pragmática. Então, investigaremos seu distanciamento da ontologia conforme sua perspectiva wittgensteiniana do conceitualismo mooreano e platônico. Caracterizando Heidegger como alvo primário de sua crítica a uma necessidade de ontologia, afasta-se mesmo de Quine ao abraçar uma relatividade conceitual inspirada na mereologia e em jogos de linguagem para (...)
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  23. Ontology and Anti-Platonism: Reconsidering Colin Gunton’s Trinitarian Theology.King-Ho Leung - 2020 - Neue Zeitschrift für Systematicsche Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 4 (62):419-440.
    This article offers a reading of Colin Gunton’s trinitarian theology in light of recent theological attempts to develop accounts of ‘new trinitarian ontologies’ in a strongly Christian Neo-Platonic vein. In particular, this article seeks to situate Gunton’s work within the broader context of late twentieth-century European thought by comparing his ‘trinitarian ontology’ to the anti-Platonic ontologies of Martin Heidegger and Gilles Deleuze. By way of considering the ‘anti-Platonic’ aspects of Gunton’s trinitarian theology, this article presents his theological project as a (...)
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  24. The Declaration of Interdependence! Feminism, Grounding and Enactivism.Anya Daly - 2021 - Human Studies 45 (1):43-62.
    This paper explores the issue whether feminism needs a metaphysical grounding, and if so, what form that might take to effectively take account of and support the socio-political demands of feminism; addressing these demands I further propose will also contribute to the resolution of other social concerns. Social constructionism is regularly invoked by feminists and other political activists who argue that social injustices are justified and sustained through hidden structures which oppress some while privileging others. Some feminists, Stanford encyclopedia of (...)
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  25. Dynamis and Energeia in Aristotle's Metaphysics.Hikmet Unlu - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (1):1-15.
    This paper offers an interpretation of Aristotle’s concepts of dynamis and energeia (commonly translated as potentiality and actuality), and of the thematic progression of Metaphysics IX. I first raise the question of where motion fits in Aristotle’s categories and argue that the locus of motion in the system of categories are the categories of doing and suffering, in which case dynamis and energeia in respect of motion can also be understood as the dynamis and energeia of doing and suffering. Next, (...)
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  26. Bunge and Harman on the General Theory of Objects.Martìn Orensanz - 2021 - Mεtascience 2:online.
    Although there are significative differences between the philosophies of Mario Bunge and Graham Harman, there are also some fundamental similarities. One of the core features that they have in common is that both of them claim that it is possible to develop a general theory of objects. The former believes that the theory in question is logical-mathematical, while the latter suggests that it is on-tological. Regardless, they agree that all objects have to be considered, no mat-ter if they are real (...)
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  27. Bemerkungen Zum Zoologischen Grundzug von Ökonomie Und Politik Bei Aristoteles.Sergiusz Kazmierski - 2016 - In Ivo De Gennaro, Sergiusz Kazmierski, Ralf Lüfter & Robert Simon (eds.), Wirtliche Ökonomie. Philosophische und dichterische Quellen [Hospitable Economics. Philosophical and Poetic Sources], Volume II, Elementa Œconomica 1.2. Nordhausen, Deutschland: pp. 185-209.
    Wie an Politik I 2 in Verbindung mit anderen Passagen aus dem Corpus Aristotelicum, v.a. aus seinen zoologischen Schriften, gezeigt werden kann, ist die besondere Fähigkeit des Menschen, sich mitzuteilen, nicht ohne seine spezifische Zoologie denkbar. Ebensowenig ist daher die besondere menschliche Art, Haus- und Staatswesen zu bilden, ohne seine zoologischen Besonderheiten vorstellbar. Die menschliche Fähigkeit, sich mitteilen zu können, weist so in seine spezifische Art des Mitseins und eröffnet dadurch das, was er mitzuteilen vermag, z.B. Recht und Unrecht. Im (...)
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  28. Die Anaximanderauslegung Heideggers und der Anfang des abendländischen Denkens.Sergiusz Kazmierski - 2011 - Dissertation, University of Freiburg
    Die bisherige Beschäftigung mit der Anaximanderauslegung Heideggers beschränkt sich auf Zeitschriften- und Buchbeiträge in Sammelwerken. Der nun vorliegende monographische Band schließt dahingehend zum einen diese Lücke in der Heideggerforschung, indem er vor allem der „Holzwege“-Abhandlung „Der Spruch des Anaximander“ als einem Zeugnis der genannten Auseinandersetzung systematisch wie kommentierend nachdenkt. Dabei wird das Verständnis Heideggers nicht als ein sekundäres historisches beleuchtet, sondern sein Gedankengang ebenso wie derjenige des Spruchs selbst als primärer geschichtlicher des abendländischen Denkens bedacht. Gerade in diesem Ansatz und (...)
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  29. Das ökonomische Verfahren und die Zukunft.Sergiusz Kazmierski - 2015 - In Ivo De Gennaro, Sergiusz Kazmierski & Ralf Lüfter (eds.), Ökonomie und Zukunft. Bozen: pp. 117-122.
    Der Kurzbeitrag behandelt das Problem des quellen- und zukunftsorientierten Fragens im Zusammenhang der heutigen ökonomischen Professionalisierung. Dabei untersucht er im Ausgang vom Begriff der Geltung den einheitlichen, ontologischen Grundzug heutiger ökonomischer Verfahrensweisen. Es wird deutlich, dass dem gegenwärtigen gültigen Ökonomisieren die Leugnung der Faktizität von Sein und Zeit zugrundeliegt, womit eine Seins- und Zukunftslosigkeit einhergeht, in der sich jede zukunftsoffene Fragebahn wiederfindet.
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  30. Away with Dispositional Essences in Trope Theory.Jani Hakkarainen & Markku Keinänen - 2021 - In Ludger Jansen & Petter Sandstad (eds.), Neo-Aristotelian Perspectives on Formal Causation. London, UK, New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 106-123.
    A specific variety of formal causation is dispositional essentialism. This chapter argues that dispositional essentialism is incompatible with any trope bundle theory committed to the primitive identity of tropes, such as Keith Campbell’s account and the authors’ own Strong Nuclear Theory. Dispositional essentialism would render at least some tropes identity-dependent on other tropes, while all tropes must be considered identity-independent existents in these trope theories. Furthermore, dispositional essentialism relies on the problematic notion of dispositional essence, and it remains unclear whether (...)
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  31. Ontología analítica contemporánea: el legado del debate Carnap-Quine.G. A. Flórez Vega & René J. Campis C. - 2018 - In Roger De Jesús Sepúlveda Fernández (ed.), Estudios filosóficos en ciencia, tecnología y sociedad. Barranquilla: Universidad del Atlántico. pp. 135-148.
    El debate que se gestó alrededor del concepto de existencia en manos de Willard Van Orman Quine y Rudolf Carnap, dio al siglo XX un cúmulo de aportes significativos a la ontología. La postura realista, con algunas variantes, de Quine y el criterio anti-realista de Carnap, otorga insumos para pensar de mejor forma cómo se intenta dar descripciones acerca del inmobiliario del mundo. Conocer este debate es importante, ya que, se expone los alcances y limitaciones que implican las explicaciones ontológicas (...)
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  32. Review of Butler (1998): Internal Affairs. [REVIEW]Yaron M. Senderowicz - 2001 - Pragmatics and Cognition 9 (1):147-155.
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  33. Perspective in Life.Alexander Eick - manuscript
    Perspective reconciles the jump between understanding an individual’s conciseness exists and understanding the possibilities of something else. The reconciliation follows that in a universe within the mind there is no line between falsity and fact, and thus everything must be true; as we live in every mind, every thought must be true; if every thought is true, its validity is before its fallacies; validity first spurs better living. With validity first, working backward, it can be discerned that even if the (...)
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  34. Mathematics for Cognitive Science.Venkata Rayudu Posina - manuscript
    That the state-of-affairs of cognitive science is not good is brought into figural salience in "What happened to cognitive science?" (Núñez et al., 2019). We extend their objective description of 'what's wrong' to a prescription of 'how to correct'. Cognitive science, in its quest to elucidate 'how we know', embraces a long list of subjects, while ignoring Mathematics (Fig. 1a, Núñez et al., 2019). Mathematics is known for making the unknown to be known (cf. solving for unknowns). This acknowledgement naturally (...)
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  35. Rechtsontologie. Eine Untersuchung über Entstehung, Existenz und Begründung von Recht.Ferreira Leite de Paula - 2020 - Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer.
    Die Rechtsontologie ist eine Analyse der Existenzweise des Rechts und seiner kausalen und rechtfertigenden Verhältnisse mit anderen Seinsbereichen, vor allem Natur und Kultur. Es wird dargestellt, wie Rechtsnormen und -begriffe in Kausalzusammenhängen mit der menschlichen biologischen Natur und mit der darauf aufbaudenden Kultur existieren. Berücksichtigt werden geistige, materielle, soziale, institutionelle und normative Aspekte der Existenz von Rechtsordnugen und des Naturrechts. Grundkategorien der Ontologie und Epistemologie wie Ursache, Grund, Motiv, Argument, Bewusstsein und Zweck werden hinsichtlich ihrer Bedeutung für die Rechtsphilosophie ausführlich (...)
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  36. Being Unfolded: Edith Stein on the Meaning of Being by Thomas Gricoski. [REVIEW]Robert McNamara - forthcoming - ID: International Dialogue, A Multidisciplinary Journal of World Affairs.
    Being Unfolded: Edith Stein on the Meaning of Being, Thomas Gricoski (Washington, DC: The Catholic University of America Press, 2020), pp. xxi + 268, $75.00.
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  37. Calculus CL - From Baroque Logic to Artificial Intelligence.Jens Lemanski - 2020 - Logique Et Analyse 249:111-129.
    In the year 1714, Johann Christian Lange published a baroque textbook about a logic machine, supposed to simulate human cognitive abilities such as perception, judgement, and reasoning. From today’s perspective, it can be argued that this blueprint is based on an inference engine applied to a strict ontology which serves as a knowledge base. In this paper, I will first introduce Lange’s approach in the period of baroque logic and then present a diagrammatic modernization of Lange’s principles, entitled Calculus CL. (...)
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  38. Calculus CL as a Formal System.Jens Lemanski & Ludger Jansen - 2020 - In Ahti Veikko Pietarinen, Peter Chapman, Leonie Bosveld-de Smet, Valeria Giardino, James Corter & Sven Linker (eds.), Diagrammatic Representation and Inference. Diagrams 2020. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 12169. 2020. 93413 Cham, Deutschland: pp. 445-460.
    In recent years CL diagrams inspired by Lange’s Cubus Logicus have been used in various contexts of diagrammatic reasoning. However, whether CL diagrams can also be used as a formal system seemed questionable. We present a CL diagram as a formal system, which is a fragment of propositional logic. Syntax and semantics are presented separately and a variant of bitstring semantics is applied to prove soundness and completeness of the system.
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  39. Quantifier Variance.Eli Hirsch & Jared Warren - 2019 - In The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Relativism. New York: pp. 349-357.
    Quantifier variance is a well-known view in contemporary metaontology, but it remains very widely misunderstood by critics. Here we briefly and clearly explain the metasemantics of quantifier variance and distinguish between modest and strong forms of variance (Section I), explain some key applications (Section II), clear up some misunderstandings and address objections (Section III), and point the way toward future directions of quantifier-variance-related research (Section IV).
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  40. The History and Philosophy of Taxonomy as an Information Science.Catherine Kendig & Joeri Witteveen - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (3):1-9.
    We undeniably live in an information age—as, indeed, did those who lived before us. After all, as the cultural historian Robert Darnton pointed out: ‘every age was an age of information, each in its own way’ (Darnton 2000: 1). Darnton was referring to the news media, but his insight surely also applies to the sciences. The practices of acquiring, storing, labeling, organizing, retrieving, mobilizing, and integrating data about the natural world has always been an enabling aspect of scientific work. Natural (...)
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  41. Book Review: G. Guru and S. Sarukkai, Experience, Caste and the Everyday Social. [REVIEW]Srajana Kaikini - 2020 - Journal of Sociology 1.
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  42. Ontologie contemporaine : Structure, Identité et Métaontologie.Yann Schmitt & Frédéric Nef - 2017 - Paris, France: Vrin.
    -/- Avec des textes de D. Armstrong, M.Esfeld, K. Fine, D. Lewis, H. Mellot, K. Mulligan, M. Rea, P. Unger, P. van Inwagen, D. Zimmerman. L’ontologie est la partie de la métaphysique qui traite de l’être en général, et non d’un être en particulier, et son domaine d’enquête excède même le monde actuel puisqu’elle porte sur l’ensemble du possible, sur les objets possibles et réels ainsi que sur leurs propriétés ou sur leurs structures ultimes. Ce volume fournit les textes fondamentaux (...)
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  43. Transcendentality and Nothingness in Sartre's Atheistic Ontology.King-Ho Leung - 2020 - Philosophy 95 (4):471-495.
    This article offers a reading of Sartre's phenomenological ontology in light of the pre-modern understanding of ‘transcendentals’ as universal properties and predicates of all determinate beings. Drawing on Sartre's transcendental account of nothingness in his early critique of Husserl as well as his discussion of ‘determination as negation’ in Being and Nothingness, this article argues that Sartre's universal predicate of ‘the not’ (le non) could be understood in a similar light to the medieval scholastic conception of transcendentals. But whereas the (...)
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  44. Critical Social Work Education as Democratic Paideía: Inspiration From Cornelius Castoriadis to Educate for Democracy and Autonomy.Phillip Ablett & Christine Morley - 2020 - In Christine Morley, Phillip Ablett, Carolyn Noble & Stephen Cowden (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Critical Pedagogies for Social Work. London, UK: Routledge. pp. 176-188.
    The question of education for democratic ‘empowerment and liberation’, and how this might guide pedagogic practice is seldom raised and extremely challenging for social work education today. This chapter takes up the proposition that social work, through its educational practices, ‘can’ deliver on its promise of ‘democratic practice’ if democracy is understood as a process and not a predefined product. We argue that such a process and its embodiment in institutions cannot exist without the formation of radically democratic subjects, people (...)
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  45. How Humean is Bohumianism?Tomasz Bigaj & Antonio Vassallo - 2020 - Foundations of Physics (10):1-18.
    An important part of the influential Humean doctrine in philosophy is the supervenience principle (sometimes referred to as the principle of separability). This principle asserts that the complete state of the world supervenes on the intrinsic properties of its most fundamental components and their spatiotemporal relations (the so-called Humean mosaic). There are well-known arguments in the literature purporting to show that in quantum mechanics the Humean supervenience principle is violated, due to the existence of entangled states. Recently, however, arguments have (...)
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  46. Corona E Communis: Imunidade, Comunidade E o COVID-19.Maurício Fernando Pitta - 2020 - Voluntas: Revista Internacional de Filosofia 11:e32.
    Diante da pandemia do Novo Coronavírus, muitos foram os problemas levantados pela filosofia a partir do modo “imunitário” com o qual a civilização industrial lidou com a crise, e muito tem sido aventado sobre a necessidade de se repensar o sentido da noção de comunidades de apoio e de resistência. Exemplos disso não faltam; dentre os filósofos que abordaram a crise, encontram-se desde Giorgio Agamben a Paul B. Preciado, entre outros. Neste artigo, pretendemos partir da discussão sobre imunologia e paradigma (...)
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  47. What Ontological Arguments Don’T Show.Mylan Engel - 2020 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 88 (1):97-114.
    Daniel Dombrowski contends that: a number of versions of the ontological argument [OA] are sound; the deity whose existence is most well established by the OA is the deity picked out by Hartshorne’s neoclassical concept of God; skeptics who insist that the OA only shows that “if God exists, then God exists necessarily” are contradicting themselves, and the OA is worth a great deal since it effectively demonstrates the rationality of theism. I argue that theses and are clearly false and (...)
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  48. ‘I Am that I Am’ (Ex. 3.14): from Augustine to Abhishiktānanda—Holy Ground Between Neoplatonism and Advaita Vedānta.Daniel Soars - forthcoming - Sophia:1-20.
    We shall revisit a debate which has been going on at least since pioneering British Indologists like William Jones first encountered the ‘Brahmanic theology’ we now know as Vedānta, namely, the nature of the relationship—if any—between certain forms of ‘western’ and ‘Indian’ idealisms, and how these metaphysical systems have influenced Christian theology. Specifically, we look at the question of possible thematic and conceptual convergences between Neoplatonism and Advaita Vedānta, and argue that significant parallels can be found in their common conception (...)
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  49. Aristotle, Heidegger, and the Megarians.Hikmet Unlu - 2020 - Revue Roumaine de Philosophie 64 (1):125-140.
    This paper examines Aristotle’s analysis of unenacted capacities to show the role they play in his discovery of the concept of actuality. I first argue that Aristotle begins Metaphysics IX by focusing on active and passive capacities, after which I discuss Aristotle’s confrontation with the Megarians, the philosophers who maintain that a capacity is present only insofar as it is being enacted. Using Heidegger’s interpretation as a guide, I show that Aristotle’s rejection of the Megarian position leads him to propose (...)
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  50. Holiness in Excess: Between Holiness and Metaphysics in the Wake of Rowan Williams.Jonathan M. Platter - forthcoming - Heythrop Journal.
    Rowan Williams has consistently given expression to Christian faith in surprising and genera-tive ways, especially through the language of ‘excess’ and through contemplating the excess in the narrative and identity of Christ. By attending to the grammar of excess, this essay draws out elements of the metaphysics of holiness in dialogue with Williams. I ask how creaturely being can be sustained by the holiness which generates all things without leaving holiness so ubiq-uitous as to be either trivial or hidden. I (...)
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