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  1. added 2020-06-10
    Transplanting the Body: Preliminary Ethical Considerations.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2017 - The New Bioethics 23 (3):219-235.
    A dissociated area of medical research warrants bioethical consideration: a proposed transplantation of a donor’s entire body, except head, to a patient with a fatal degenerative disease. The seeming improbability of such an operation can only underscore the need for thorough bioethical assessment: Not assessing a case of such potential ethical import, by showing neglect instead of facing the issue, can only compound the ethical predicament, perhaps eroding public trust in ethical medicine. This article discusses the historical background of full-body (...)
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  2. added 2020-02-06
    Kidney Sales and the Burden of Proof.Julian Koplin & Michael Selgelid - 2019 - Journal of Practical Ethics 7 (3):32-53.
    Janet Radcliffe Richards’ The Ethics of Transplants outlines a novel framework for moral inquiry in practical contexts and applies it to the topic of paid living kidney donation. In doing so, Radcliffe Richards makes two key claims: that opponents of organ markets bear the burden of proof, and that this burden has not yet been satisfied. This paper raises four related objections to Radcliffe Richards’ methodological framework, focusing largely on how Radcliffe Richards uses this framework in her discussion of kidney (...)
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  3. added 2020-02-06
    Not a Defence of Organ Markets.Janet Radcliffe Richards - 2019 - Journal of Practical Ethics 7 (3):54-66.
    Selgelid and Koplin’s article ‘Kidney Sales and the Burden of Proof’ (K&S 2019) presents a series of detailed and persuasive arguments, intended to demolish my own arguments against the prohibition of organ selling. And perhaps they might succeed, if the case described by the authors were anything like the one I actually make. However, notwithstanding the extensive quotations and the detailed explanations of the way I supposedly argue, this account of my position comprehensively mistakes both the conclusions I reach and (...)
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  4. added 2020-02-03
    Transplantation Antigens Edited by Barry D. Kahan and Ralph A. Reisfeld.Frank Fitch - 1974 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 17 (2):289-290.
  5. added 2019-09-01
    Public Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Consent Policies for Organ Donation in Europe. A Systematic Review.Alberto Molina Pérez, David Rodríguez-Arias, Janet Delgado-Rodríguez, Myfanwy Morgan, Mihaela Frunza, Gurch Randhawa, Jeantine Reiger-Van de Wijdeven, Eline Schiks, Sabine Wöhlke & Silke Schicktanz - 2019 - Transplantation Reviews 33 (1):1-8.
    Background: Several countries have recently changed their model of consent for organ donation from opt-in to opt-out. We undertook a systematic review to determine public knowledge and attitudes towards these models in Europe. Methods: Six databases were explored between 1 January 2008 and 15 December 2017. We selected empirical studies addressing either knowledge or attitudes towards the systems of consent for deceased organ donation by lay people in Europe, including students. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were conducted by (...)
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  6. added 2019-09-01
    The Role of the Family in Deceased Organ Procurement: A Guide for Clinitians and Policymakers.Janet Delgado, Alberto Molina Pérez & David M. Shaw - 2019 - Transplantation 103 (5):e112-e118.
    Families play an essential role in deceased organ procurement. As the person cannot directly communicate his or her wishes regarding donation, the family is often the only source of information regarding consent or refusal. We provide a systematic description and analysis of the different roles the family can play, and actions the family can take, in the organ procurement process across different jurisdictions and consent systems. First, families can inform or update healthcare professionals about a person’s donation wishes. Second, families (...)
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  7. added 2019-06-06
    Ethics, Organ Donation and Tax: A Proposal.Thomas Søbirk Petersen & Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (8):451-457.
    Five arguments are presented in favour of the proposal that people who opt in as organ donors should receive a tax break. These arguments appeal to welfare, autonomy, fairness, distributive justice and self-ownership, respectively. Eight worries about the proposal are considered in this paper. These objections focus upon no-effect and counter-productiveness, the Titmuss concern about social meaning, exploitation of the poor, commodification, inequality and unequal status, the notion that there are better alternatives, unacceptable expense, and concerns about the veto of (...)
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  8. added 2019-06-06
    Execution by Lethal Injection, Euthanasia, Organ‐Donation and the Proper Goals of Medicine.Jukka Varelius - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (3):140-149.
    ABSTRACTIn a recent issue of this journal, David Silver and Gerald Dworkin discuss the physicians' role in execution by lethal injection. Dworkin concludes that discussion by stating that, at that point, he is unable to think of an acceptable set of moral principles to support the view that it is illegitimate for physicians to participate in execution by lethal injection that would not rule out certain other plausible moral judgements, namely that euthanasia is under certain conditions legitimate and that organ‐donation (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Kidney for Sale by Owner: Human Organs, Transplantation, and the Market – By Mark J. Cherry.Jeremy C. Snyder - 2007 - Developing World Bioethics 7 (3):168-170.
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Earning Points for Moral Behavior: Organ Allocation Based on Reciprocity.An Ravelingien & André Krom - 2005 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (1):73-83.
    Anticipating the reevaluation of the Dutch organ procurement system, in late 2003 the Rathenau Institute published a study entitled ‘Gift or Contribution?’ In this study, the author, Govert den Hartogh, carries out a thorough moral analysis of the problem of organ shortage and fair allocation of organs. He suggests there should be a change in mentality whereby organ donation is no longer viewed in terms of charity and the volunteer spirit, but rather in terms of duty and reciprocity. The procurement (...)
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    Clear Thinking and Open Discussion Guide IOM's Report on Organ Donation.John T. Potts, Roger C. Herdman, Thomas L. Beauchamp & John A. Robertson - 1998 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 26 (2):166-168.
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    Rationales for Organ Donation: Charity or Duty?David A. Peters - 1986 - Journal of Medical Humanities 7 (2):106-121.
    Media appeals encouraging people to sign organ donor cards suggest that donating one's own organs after death or donating the organs of a deceased family member is an act of charity, i.e., something which it would be meritorious for people to do but not wrong to avoid. This paper argues to the contrary that posthumous organ donation is a moral duty, a duty of the type that rests at the base of recently enacted state “Good Samaritan” laws which require a (...)
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  13. added 2019-06-05
    Donation by Default? Examining Feminist Reservations About Opt-Out Organ Procurement.James Lindemann Nelson - 2010 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 3 (1):23-42.
    There is reason to believe that procuring organs from recently dead people who did not explicitly refuse to provide them—here referred to as “opt-out” arrangements—would ease growing shortages, thus extending the lives of many who otherwise would die soon. There is also a simple, apparently powerful argument—the “easy rescue requirement”—for believing that many people have strong moral reason to provide such life-extending support to others, thus bolstering the case for implementing opt-out systems. Here I consider two broad types of feminist (...)
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  14. added 2019-05-30
    BMBF-Klausurwoche „Organ Donation in Times of Donor Shortage. Interdisciplinary Discussion of Challenges and Solutions“: International Bioethics Workshop München, 25. Feb.–1. März 2013, Institut Für Ethik, Geschichte Und Theorie der Medizin, LMU München.Tobias Eichinger & Christoph Schmidt-Petri - 2014 - Ethik in der Medizin 26 (1):77-81.
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  15. added 2019-04-25
    Will More Organs Save More Lives? Cost‐Effectiveness and the Ethics of Expanding Organ Procurement.Govind Persad - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (6):684-690.
    The assumption that procuring more organs will save more lives has inspired increasingly forceful calls to increase organ procurement. This project, in contrast, directly questions the premise that more organ transplantation means more lives saved. Its argument begins with the fact that resources are limited and medical procedures have opportunity costs. Because many other lifesaving interventions are more cost‐effective than transplantation and compete with transplantation for a limited budget, spending on organ transplantation consumes resources that could have been used to (...)
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  16. added 2019-01-09
    Priority to Organ Donors: Personal Responsibility, Equal Access and the Priority Rule in Organ Procurement.Andreas Brøgger Albertsen - 2017 - Diametros 51:137-152.
    In the effort to address the persistent organ shortage it is sometimes suggested that we should incentivize people to sign up as organ donors. One way of doing so is to give priority in the allocation of organs to those who are themselves registered as donors. Israel introduced such a scheme recently and the preliminary reports indicate increased donation rates. How should we evaluate such initiatives from an ethical perspective? Luck egalitarianism, a responsibility-sensitive approach to distributive justice, provides one possible (...)
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  17. added 2018-11-22
    Pluralistyczna Teoria Alokacji Narządów.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2017 - Diametros 51:65-89.
    Biomedical sciences cannot answer the question who should be saved from death if not everyone can be. This is an ethical issue. However, we face exactly this question when deliberating on the criteria for organ allocation. The main aim of this article is to formulate a pluralistic theory of just distribution of organs, which incorporates the tenets of utilitarianism, egalitarianism and sufficientarianism. Each constituent theory adopts a different value as a criterion for organ allocation. For utilitarianism it is a health (...)
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  18. added 2018-11-22
    Ograniczanie niedoboru narządów. System Aktywnej Rejestracji Dawców jako alternatywa dla polskiej regulacji sprzeciwu.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2015 - Diametros 44:56-77.
    In the article I argue for replacing the opt-out system of organ donation, currently applied in Poland, with the Active Donor Registration system. The basic idea of the ADR system is to send a special form to all adult citizens, which would give them an opportunity to consent or dissent to the removal of organs, or to delegate their decision to their next of kin. Granting priority to declared donors – an additional assumption of ADR – would make it possible (...)
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  19. added 2018-11-22
    The Moral Evaluation of Living Organ Donation and Trade in Human Organs in Light of Kant's Ethics.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2015 - Diametros 46:30-54.
    In the article I justify the acceptability of ex vivo transplantation and I provide the ethical evaluation of trafficking in human organs from the Kantian perspective. Firstly, I refer to passages of Kant's works, where he explicitly states that depriving oneself of one’s body parts for other purposes than self-preservation is not permitted. I explain that the negative ethical evaluation of the disposal of the body parts was given various justifications by Kant. Subsequently, I provide partial criticism of this justification, (...)
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  20. added 2018-11-22
    Problemy etyczne transplantologii. Perspektywa niedoboru narządów do przeszczepu.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2014 - Diametros 42:150-177.
    The article provides a critical overview of the Polish bioethics literature concerning the shortage of organs for transplantation. Problems related to this issue bear, to a considerable degree, on the attempt to answer the question how to increase the number of organs available in ethically acceptable ways. Polish authors have focused, in this respect, on the analysis and assessment of two solutions: an opt out system of acquiring organs and a system that allows the aquisition of organs on a “free (...)
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  21. added 2018-07-25
    Organ Markets and Disrespectful Demands.Simon Rippon - 2017 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (2):119-136.
    There is a libertarian argument for live donor organ markets, according to which live donor organ markets would be permitted if we simply refrained from imposing any substantive and controversial moral assumptions on people who reasonably disagree about morality and justice. I argue that, to the contrary, this endorsement of live donor organ markets depends upon the libertarians’ adoption of a substantive and deeply controversial conception of strong, extensive property rights. This is shown by the fact that these rights would (...)
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  22. added 2018-06-01
    A Liver for a Kidney: Ethics of Trans-Organ Paired Exchange.Emond J. Samstein B., de Melo-Martin I., Kapur S., Ratner L. - 2018 - American Journal of Transplantation 18 (5):1077-1082.
    Living donation provides important access to organ transplantation, which is the optimal therapy for patients with end-stage liver or kidney failure. Paired exchanges have facilitated thousands of kidney transplants and enable transplantation when the donor and recipient are incompatible. However, frequently willing and otherwise healthy donors have contraindications to the donation of the organ that their recipient needs. Trans-organ paired exchanges would enable a donor associated with a kidney recipient to donate a lobe of liver and a donor associated with (...)
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  23. added 2017-11-18
    The Ethics of Organ Tourism: Role Morality and Organ Transplantation.Marcus P. Adams - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (6):670-689.
    Organ tourism occurs when individuals in countries with existing organ transplant procedures, such as the United States, are unable to procure an organ by using those transplant procedures in enough time to save their life. In this paper, I am concerned with the following question: When organ tourists return to the United States and need another transplant, do US transplant physicians have an obligation to place them on a transplant list? I argue that transplant physicians have a duty not to (...)
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  24. added 2017-09-04
    Trust and the Duty of Organ Donation.Ben Almassi - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (6):275-283.
    Several recent publications in biomedical ethics argue that organ donation is generally morally obligatory and failure to do so is morally indefensible. Arguments for this moral conclusion tend to be of two kinds: arguments from fairness and arguments from easy rescue. While I agree that many of us have a duty to donate, in this article I criticize these arguments for a general duty of organ donation and their application to organ procurement policy. My concern is that these arguments neglect (...)
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  25. added 2017-07-25
    Autonomy and Consent in Biobanks.Peter H. Schwartz - 2010 - The Physiologist 53 (1):1, 3-7.
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  26. added 2017-03-24
    Ownership and Commodifiability of Synthetic and Natural Organs.Philip J. Nickel - manuscript
    The arrival of synthetic organs may mean we need to reconsider principles of ownership of such items. One possible ownership criterion is the boundary between the organ’s being outside or inside the body. What is outside of my body, even if it is a natural organ made of my cells, may belong to a company or research institution. Yet when it is placed in me, it belongs to me. In the future, we should also keep an eye on how the (...)
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  27. added 2017-01-27
    Directed Organ Donation: Can Japan Maintain Fairness?Masayuki Yoshida - 2011 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 21 (3):99-104.
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  28. added 2017-01-27
    Patterns of Reasoning in Religious Positions on Organ Donation in Japan and Germany.Tobias Bauer - 2011 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 21 (1-2):60-67.
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  29. added 2017-01-15
    Deliberative Consultation as an Educational Tool for Teaching Bioethics in Japan: Case of Organ Donation.Sylwia Maria Olejarz - 2015 - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal 6 (1-2):81-104.
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  30. added 2017-01-15
    Solid Organ Donation Between Strangers.Lainie Friedman Ross - 2002 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 30 (3):440-445.
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  31. added 2017-01-15
    Ethics Consultation: Anencephaly and Organ Donation.James E. Reagan - 1995 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (4):398-400.
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  32. added 2016-12-12
    Why Markets in Proto-Deceptive Goods Should Be Restricted.James Stacey Taylor - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 65 (4):325-335.
    In recent years there has been much philosophical discussion over the question of whether the prohibitions on markets in such items as human body parts and gene sequences, and services such as human reproductive labor and sex, should be lifted. Yet despite the attention paid to this issue there are been surprisingly little discussion of the question of whether markets in certain items that are currently freely traded should be restricted or eliminated. In particular, there has been little discussion of (...)
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  33. added 2016-12-08
    Organ Donation Is Not Mutilation.Stoeppel Anthony & Pablo Requena - 2013 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 13 (3):427-436.
    The moral debate on living-donor organ transplantation historically focused on how to overcome the problem of the mutilation inherent in such a medical operation. In time, theologians began proposing justifications of LDOT that assumed that “mere removals” did not constitute mutilation. The example of mutilation as an “intrinsically evil act” in Veritatis splendor would seem to have closed the debate. Nevertheless, many theologians continue to address LDOT as a question of justifying a mutilation. The authors provide a brief summary of (...)
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  34. added 2016-12-08
    Donation After Cardiocirculatory Death: A Call for a Moratorium Pending Full Public Disclosure and Fully Informed Consent.Ari R. Joffe, Joe Carcillo, Natalie Anton, Allan deCaen, Yong Y. Han, Michael J. Bell, Frank A. Maffei, John Sullivan, James Thomas & Gonzalo Garcia-Guerra - 2011 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 6:17.
    Many believe that the ethical problems of donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) have been "worked out" and that it is unclear why DCD should be resisted. In this paper we will argue that DCD donors may not yet be dead, and therefore that organ donation during DCD may violate the dead donor rule. We first present a description of the process of DCD and the standard ethical rationale for the practice. We then present our concerns with DCD, including the following: (...)
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  35. added 2016-12-08
    Organ Sales and Moral Distress.Eduardo Rivera-Lopez - 2006 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (1):41-52.
  36. added 2016-12-08
    Directed Altruistic Living Organ Donation: Partial but Not Unfair.Medard T. Hilhorst - 2005 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (1-2):197-215.
    Arguments against directed altruistic living organ donation are too weak to justify a ban. Potential donors who want to specify the non-related person or group of persons to receive their donated kidney should be accepted. The arguments against, based on considerations of motivation, fairness and (non-)anonymity (e.g. those recently cited by an advisory report of the Dutch Health Council), are presented and discussed, as well as the Dutch Governments response. Whereas the Government argues that individuals have authority with regard to (...)
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  37. added 2016-12-08
    The Kindness of Strangers: Organ Transplantation in a Capitalist Age.Thomas Anthony Shannon - 2001 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 11 (3):285-303.
    : The topic of organ transplantation is examined from the perspective of three authors: Robert Bellah, Jeremy Rifkin, and Margaret Jane Radin. Introduced by reflections on the development of the justification of organ transplantation within the Roman Catholic community and the various themes raised by the historical study in Richard Titmuss's The Gift Relationship, the paper examines how and in what ways the possible commodification of organs will affect our society and the impacts this may have on the supply of (...)
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  38. added 2016-12-08
    The Give and Take of Organ Procurement.D. K. Martin & E. Meslin - 1994 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (1):61-78.
    Scientific developments of the last 20 years have made the transplantation of cadaveric solid organs a viable and expected treatment alternative for patients suffering from various forms of End Stage Organ Disease. Of the number of organs that could be utilized for this, only a small percentage of them are actually made available. North American legislation explicitly categorizes the transfer of cadaveric organs as an anatomical or tissue “gift”. The concept of the gift is mediated by transculturally consistent unwritten, but (...)
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  39. added 2016-12-05
    Is the Adoption of More Efficient Strategies of Organ Procurement the Answer to Persistent Organ Shortage in Transplantation?Bernard Teo & Bernard Tea - 1992 - Bioethics 6 (2):113-139.
  40. added 2016-10-28
    Organ Donor Registration Policies and the Wrongness of Forcing People to Think of Their Own Death.Tomasz Żuradzki & Katarzyna Marchewka - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (11):35-37.
    MacKay and Robinson (2016) claim that some legal procedures that regulate organ donations (VAC, opt-in, opt-out) bypass people's rational capacities and thus are “potentially morally worse than MAC”, which only employs a very mild form of coercion. We provide a critique of their argumentation and defend the opposite thesis: MAC is potentially morally worse than the three other options.
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  41. added 2016-08-06
    Nudging and the Ecological and Social Roots of Human Agency.Nicolae Morar & Daniel Kelly - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (11):15-17.
  42. added 2016-06-13
    Consent Ain’T Anything: Dissent, Access and the Conditions for Consent.Ezio Di Nucci - 2016 - Monash Bioethics Review 34 (1):3-22.
    I argue against various versions of the ‘attitude’ view of consent and of the ‘action’ view of consent: I show that neither an attitude nor an action is either necessary or sufficient for consent. I then put forward a different view of consent based on the idea that, given a legitimate epistemic context, absence of dissent is sufficient for consent: what is crucial is having access to dissent. In the latter part of the paper I illustrate my view of consent (...)
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  43. added 2015-12-29
    Claims About Surrogate Decision-Making Accuracy Require Empirical Evidence.Adam Feltz & Taylor Abt - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (10):41-43.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 10, Page 41-43, October 2012.
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  44. added 2015-12-21
    Ethics, Law and Society, Vol. V.N. Wrigley, A., Priaulx (ed.) - 2013 - Ashgate.
    This volume forms part of a series exploring key issues in ethics, law and society, published in association with the Cardiff Centre for Ethics, Law and Society. The collection is a celebration of the approach and values embraced within previous volumes in the series. The works collectively address new technological, social, and regulatory developments and the fresh ethical dilemmas these pose, but quite critically, also compel an urgent revisiting of social and legal issues that were once the subject of controversy (...)
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  45. added 2015-12-21
    Wanted Dead or Alive: Organ Donation and Ethical Limitations on Surrogate Consent for Non-Competent Living Donors.A. Wrigley - 2013 - In A. Wrigley (ed.), Ethics, Law and Society, Vol. V. Ashgate. pp. 209-234.
    People have understandable concerns over what happens to their bodies, both during their life and after they die. Consent to organ donation is often perceived as an altruistic decision made by individuals prior to their death so that others can benefit from use of their organs once they have died. More recently, live organ donation has also been possible, where an individual chooses to donate an organ or body tissue that will not result in their death (such as a kidney). (...)
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  46. added 2015-12-21
    Introduction.Nicolette Michelle Priaulx & Anthony Wrigley - 2013 - In Nicky Priaulx and Anthony Wrigley (ed.), Ethics, Law and Society, Vol. V. Ashgate. pp. 3-6..
    The overall collection we present in Volume V constitutes a celebration of the approach and values embraced within previous volumes. While those acquainted with previous volumes of Ethics, Law & Society will note some marked differences in how we have gone about the work of editing, our hope is that the approach we bring is seen as enriching the work, and building on what has been a highly successful series. To a large degree, however, it has not been possible to (...)
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  47. added 2015-10-04
    Standing by Our Principles: Meaningful Guidance, Moral Foundations, and Multi-Principle Methodology in Medical Scarcity.Govind C. Persad, Alan Wertheimer & Ezekiel J. Emanuel - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):46 – 48.
    In this short response to Kerstein and Bognar, we clarify three aspects of the complete lives system, which we propose as a system of allocating scarce medical interventions. We argue that the complete lives system provides meaningful guidance even though it does not provide an algorithm. We also defend the investment modification to the complete lives system, which prioritizes adolescents and older children over younger children; argue that sickest-first allocation remains flawed when scarcity is absolute and ongoing; and argue that (...)
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  48. added 2015-09-24
    Causal Responsibility and Rationing in Medicine.Frank Dietrich - 2002 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 5 (1):113-131.
    The article addresses the issue of rationing health care services, a topic currently being hotly debated in many countries. The author argues that the aspect of causal responsibility ought to play a decisive role in the allocation of limited medical resources. Starting out from Ronald Dworkin's distinction between option luck and brute luck, the appropriate and meaningful uses of the term causal responsibility are clarified first. A discussion of the conditions which might justify giving lower priority to patients whose illnesses (...)
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  49. added 2015-09-15
    A Promise Acceptance Model of Organ Donation.Alida Liberman - 2015 - Social Theory and Practice 41 (1):131-148.
    I aim to understand how the act of becoming an organ donor impacts whether it is permissible for a family veto to override an individual’s wish to donate. I argue that a Consent Model does not capture the right understanding of donor autonomy. I then assess a Gift Model and a Promise Model, arguing that both fail to capture important data about the ability to revoke one’s donor status. I then propose a Promise Acceptance Model, which construes becoming an organ (...)
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  50. added 2015-08-13
    Would It Be Ethical to Use Motivational Interviewing to Increase Family Consent to Deceased Solid Organ Donation?Isra Black & Lisa Forsberg - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (1):63-68.
    We explore the ethics of using motivational interviewing, an evidence-based, client-centred and directional counselling method, in conversations with next of kin about deceased solid organ donation. After briefly introducing MI and providing some context around organ transplantation and next of kin consent, we describe how MI might be implemented in this setting, with the hypothesis that MI has the potential to bring about a modest yet significant increase in next of kin consent rates. We subsequently consider the objection that using (...)
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