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  1. Ownership and Commodifiability of Synthetic and Natural Organs.Philip J. Nickel - manuscript
    The arrival of synthetic organs may mean we need to reconsider principles of ownership of such items. One possible ownership criterion is the boundary between the organ’s being outside or inside the body. What is outside of my body, even if it is a natural organ made of my cells, may belong to a company or research institution. Yet when it is placed in me, it belongs to me. In the future, we should also keep an eye on how the (...)
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  2. The Ongoing Charity of Organ Donation. Contemporary English Sunni Fatwas on Organ Donation and Blood Transfusion.Stefden Branden & Bert Broeckaert - forthcoming - Bioethics.
    Background: Empirical studies in Muslim communities on organ donation and blood transfusion show that Muslim counsellors play an important role in the decision process. Despite the emerging importance of online English Sunni fatwas, these fatwas on organ donation and blood transfusion have hardly been studied, thus creating a gap in our knowledge of contemporary Islamic views on the subject. Method: We analysed 70 English Sunni e-fatwas and subjected them to an in-depth text analysis in order to reveal the key concepts (...)
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  3. The Duty to Protect, Abortion, and Organ Donation.Emily Carroll & Parker Crutchfield - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics.
    Some people oppose abortion on the grounds that fetuses have full moral status and thus a right to not be killed. We argue that special obligations that hold between mother and fetus also hold between parents and their children. We argue that if these special obligations necessitate the sacrifice of bodily autonomy in the case of abortion, then they also necessitate the sacrifice of bodily autonomy in the case of organ donation. If we accept the argument that it is obligatory (...)
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  4. Opt-Out to the Rescue: Organ Donation and Samaritan Duties.Sören Flinch Midtgaard & Andreas Albertsen - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics.
    Deceased organ donation is widely considered as a case of easy rescue―that is, a case in which A may bestow considerable benefits on B while incurring negligent costs herself. Yet, the policy implications of this observation remain unclear. Drawing on Christopher H. Wellman’s samaritan account of political obligations, the paper develops a case for a so-called opt-out system, i.e., a scheme in which people are defaulted into being donors. The proposal’s key idea is that we may arrange people’s options in (...)
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  5. The Inviolateness of Life and Equal Protection: A Defense of the ‘Dead Donor’ Rule.Adam Omelianchuk - forthcoming - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics.
    There are increasing calls for rejecting the ‘dead donor’ rule and permitting ‘organ donation euthanasia’ in organ transplantation. I argue that the fundamental problem with this proposal is that it would bestow more worth on the organs than the donor who has them. What is at stake is the basis of human equality, which, I argue, should be based on an ineliminable dignity that each of us has in virtue of having a rational nature. To allow mortal harvesting would be (...)
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  6. Ethical Justifications for Organ Donation After Cardiac Death.Raquel Spencer - forthcoming - Think.
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  7. The Role of the Family in Deceased Organ Procurement: A Guide for Clinitians and Policymakers.Janet Delgado, Alberto Molina Pérez & David M. Shaw - 2019 - Transplantation 103 (5):e112-e118.
    Families play an essential role in deceased organ procurement. As the person cannot directly communicate his or her wishes regarding donation, the family is often the only source of information regarding consent or refusal. We provide a systematic description and analysis of the different roles the family can play, and actions the family can take, in the organ procurement process across different jurisdictions and consent systems. First, families can inform or update healthcare professionals about a person’s donation wishes. Second, families (...)
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  8. Kidney Sales and the Burden of Proof.Julian Koplin & Michael Selgelid - 2019 - Journal of Practical Ethics 7 (3):32-53.
    Janet Radcliffe Richards’ The Ethics of Transplants outlines a novel framework for moral inquiry in practical contexts and applies it to the topic of paid living kidney donation. In doing so, Radcliffe Richards makes two key claims: that opponents of organ markets bear the burden of proof, and that this burden has not yet been satisfied. This paper raises four related objections to Radcliffe Richards’ methodological framework, focusing largely on how Radcliffe Richards uses this framework in her discussion of kidney (...)
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  9. Public Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Consent Policies for Organ Donation in Europe. A Systematic Review.Alberto Molina Pérez, David Rodríguez-Arias, Janet Delgado-Rodríguez, Myfanwy Morgan, Mihaela Frunza, Gurch Randhawa, Jeantine Reiger-Van de Wijdeven, Eline Schiks, Sabine Wöhlke & Silke Schicktanz - 2019 - Transplantation Reviews 33 (1):1-8.
    Background: Several countries have recently changed their model of consent for organ donation from opt-in to opt-out. We undertook a systematic review to determine public knowledge and attitudes towards these models in Europe. Methods: Six databases were explored between 1 January 2008 and 15 December 2017. We selected empirical studies addressing either knowledge or attitudes towards the systems of consent for deceased organ donation by lay people in Europe, including students. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were conducted by (...)
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  10. Will More Organs Save More Lives? Cost‐Effectiveness and the Ethics of Expanding Organ Procurement.Govind Persad - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (6):684-690.
    The assumption that procuring more organs will save more lives has inspired increasingly forceful calls to increase organ procurement. This project, in contrast, directly questions the premise that more organ transplantation means more lives saved. Its argument begins with the fact that resources are limited and medical procedures have opportunity costs. Because many other lifesaving interventions are more cost‐effective than transplantation and compete with transplantation for a limited budget, spending on organ transplantation consumes resources that could have been used to (...)
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  11. Not a Defence of Organ Markets.Janet Radcliffe Richards - 2019 - Journal of Practical Ethics 7 (3):54-66.
    Selgelid and Koplin’s article ‘Kidney Sales and the Burden of Proof’ (K&S 2019) presents a series of detailed and persuasive arguments, intended to demolish my own arguments against the prohibition of organ selling. And perhaps they might succeed, if the case described by the authors were anything like the one I actually make. However, notwithstanding the extensive quotations and the detailed explanations of the way I supposedly argue, this account of my position comprehensively mistakes both the conclusions I reach and (...)
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  12. A Liver for a Kidney: Ethics of Trans-Organ Paired Exchange.Emond J. Samstein B., de Melo-Martin I., Kapur S., Ratner L. - 2018 - American Journal of Transplantation 18 (5):1077-1082.
    Living donation provides important access to organ transplantation, which is the optimal therapy for patients with end-stage liver or kidney failure. Paired exchanges have facilitated thousands of kidney transplants and enable transplantation when the donor and recipient are incompatible. However, frequently willing and otherwise healthy donors have contraindications to the donation of the organ that their recipient needs. Trans-organ paired exchanges would enable a donor associated with a kidney recipient to donate a lobe of liver and a donor associated with (...)
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  13. The Ethics of Organ Tourism: Role Morality and Organ Transplantation.Marcus P. Adams - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (6):670-689.
    Organ tourism occurs when individuals in countries with existing organ transplant procedures, such as the United States, are unable to procure an organ by using those transplant procedures in enough time to save their life. In this paper, I am concerned with the following question: When organ tourists return to the United States and need another transplant, do US transplant physicians have an obligation to place them on a transplant list? I argue that transplant physicians have a duty not to (...)
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  14. Priority to Organ Donors: Personal Responsibility, Equal Access and the Priority Rule in Organ Procurement.Andreas Brøgger Albertsen - 2017 - Diametros 51:137-152.
    In the effort to address the persistent organ shortage it is sometimes suggested that we should incentivize people to sign up as organ donors. One way of doing so is to give priority in the allocation of organs to those who are themselves registered as donors. Israel introduced such a scheme recently and the preliminary reports indicate increased donation rates. How should we evaluate such initiatives from an ethical perspective? Luck egalitarianism, a responsibility-sensitive approach to distributive justice, provides one possible (...)
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  15. Transplanting the Body: Preliminary Ethical Considerations.Lantz Fleming Miller - 2017 - The New Bioethics 23 (3):219-235.
    A dissociated area of medical research warrants bioethical consideration: a proposed transplantation of a donor’s entire body, except head, to a patient with a fatal degenerative disease. The seeming improbability of such an operation can only underscore the need for thorough bioethical assessment: Not assessing a case of such potential ethical import, by showing neglect instead of facing the issue, can only compound the ethical predicament, perhaps eroding public trust in ethical medicine. This article discusses the historical background of full-body (...)
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  16. Pluralistyczna Teoria Alokacji Narządów.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2017 - Diametros 51:65-89.
    Biomedical sciences cannot answer the question who should be saved from death if not everyone can be. This is an ethical issue. However, we face exactly this question when deliberating on the criteria for organ allocation. The main aim of this article is to formulate a pluralistic theory of just distribution of organs, which incorporates the tenets of utilitarianism, egalitarianism and sufficientarianism. Each constituent theory adopts a different value as a criterion for organ allocation. For utilitarianism it is a health (...)
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  17. Organ Markets and Disrespectful Demands.Simon Rippon - 2017 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (2):119-136.
    There is a libertarian argument for live donor organ markets, according to which live donor organ markets would be permitted if we simply refrained from imposing any substantive and controversial moral assumptions on people who reasonably disagree about morality and justice. I argue that, to the contrary, this endorsement of live donor organ markets depends upon the libertarians’ adoption of a substantive and deeply controversial conception of strong, extensive property rights. This is shown by the fact that these rights would (...)
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  18. Consent Ain’T Anything: Dissent, Access and the Conditions for Consent.Ezio Di Nucci - 2016 - Monash Bioethics Review 34 (1):3-22.
    I argue against various versions of the ‘attitude’ view of consent and of the ‘action’ view of consent: I show that neither an attitude nor an action is either necessary or sufficient for consent. I then put forward a different view of consent based on the idea that, given a legitimate epistemic context, absence of dissent is sufficient for consent: what is crucial is having access to dissent. In the latter part of the paper I illustrate my view of consent (...)
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  19. Nudging and the Ecological and Social Roots of Human Agency.Nicolae Morar & Daniel Kelly - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (11):15-17.
  20. Organ Donor Registration Policies and the Wrongness of Forcing People to Think of Their Own Death.Tomasz Żuradzki & Katarzyna Marchewka - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (11):35-37.
    MacKay and Robinson (2016) claim that some legal procedures that regulate organ donations (VAC, opt-in, opt-out) bypass people's rational capacities and thus are “potentially morally worse than MAC”, which only employs a very mild form of coercion. We provide a critique of their argumentation and defend the opposite thesis: MAC is potentially morally worse than the three other options.
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  21. A Promise Acceptance Model of Organ Donation.Alida Liberman - 2015 - Social Theory and Practice 41 (1):131-148.
    I aim to understand how the act of becoming an organ donor impacts whether it is permissible for a family veto to override an individual’s wish to donate. I argue that a Consent Model does not capture the right understanding of donor autonomy. I then assess a Gift Model and a Promise Model, arguing that both fail to capture important data about the ability to revoke one’s donor status. I then propose a Promise Acceptance Model, which construes becoming an organ (...)
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  22. The Moral Evaluation of Living Organ Donation and Trade in Human Organs in Light of Kant's Ethics.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2015 - Diametros 46:30-54.
    In the article I justify the acceptability of ex vivo transplantation and I provide the ethical evaluation of trafficking in human organs from the Kantian perspective. Firstly, I refer to passages of Kant's works, where he explicitly states that depriving oneself of one’s body parts for other purposes than self-preservation is not permitted. I explain that the negative ethical evaluation of the disposal of the body parts was given various justifications by Kant. Subsequently, I provide partial criticism of this justification, (...)
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  23. Ograniczanie niedoboru narządów. System Aktywnej Rejestracji Dawców jako alternatywa dla polskiej regulacji sprzeciwu.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2015 - Diametros 44:56-77.
    In the article I argue for replacing the opt-out system of organ donation, currently applied in Poland, with the Active Donor Registration system. The basic idea of the ADR system is to send a special form to all adult citizens, which would give them an opportunity to consent or dissent to the removal of organs, or to delegate their decision to their next of kin. Granting priority to declared donors – an additional assumption of ADR – would make it possible (...)
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  24. Deliberative Consultation as an Educational Tool for Teaching Bioethics in Japan: Case of Organ Donation.Sylwia Maria Olejarz - 2015 - Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine: An International Journal 6 (1-2):81-104.
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  25. Trust and the Duty of Organ Donation.Ben Almassi - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (6):275-283.
    Several recent publications in biomedical ethics argue that organ donation is generally morally obligatory and failure to do so is morally indefensible. Arguments for this moral conclusion tend to be of two kinds: arguments from fairness and arguments from easy rescue. While I agree that many of us have a duty to donate, in this article I criticize these arguments for a general duty of organ donation and their application to organ procurement policy. My concern is that these arguments neglect (...)
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  26. Living Organ Donation, Beneficient Helping, & the Kantian Concept of Partial Self-Murder.Archimedes C. Articulo - 2014 - Open Journal of Philosophy 4 (4):502-509.
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  27. Ethics Without Borders? Why The United States Needs an International Dialogue on Living Organ Donation.M. Aulisio, Nicole M. Deming, Donna L. Luebke, Miriam Weiss, Rachel Phetteplace & Stuart J. Youngner - 2014 - In Akira Akabayashi (ed.), The Future of Bioethics: International Dialogues. Oxford University Press.
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  28. Would It Be Ethical to Use Motivational Interviewing to Increase Family Consent to Deceased Solid Organ Donation?Isra Black & Lisa Forsberg - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (1):63-68.
    We explore the ethics of using motivational interviewing, an evidence-based, client-centred and directional counselling method, in conversations with next of kin about deceased solid organ donation. After briefly introducing MI and providing some context around organ transplantation and next of kin consent, we describe how MI might be implemented in this setting, with the hypothesis that MI has the potential to bring about a modest yet significant increase in next of kin consent rates. We subsequently consider the objection that using (...)
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  29. BMBF-Klausurwoche „Organ Donation in Times of Donor Shortage. Interdisciplinary Discussion of Challenges and Solutions“: International Bioethics Workshop München, 25. Feb.–1. März 2013, Institut Für Ethik, Geschichte Und Theorie der Medizin, LMU München.Tobias Eichinger & Christoph Schmidt-Petri - 2014 - Ethik in der Medizin 26 (1):77-81.
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  30. All the More Reason: Why Julian Koplin Should Support a Trial of Incentives for Organ Donation.Benjamin Hippen - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (10):31-33.
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  31. Organ Sales: Exploitative at Any Price?Rob Lawlor - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (4):194-202.
    In many cases, claims that a transaction is exploitative will focus on the details of the transaction, such as the price paid or conditions. For example, in a claim that a worker is exploited, the grounds for the claim are usually that the pay is not sufficient or the working conditions too dangerous. In some cases, however, the claim that a transaction is exploitative is not seen to rely on these finer details. Many, for example, claim that organ sales would (...)
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  32. Problemy etyczne transplantologii. Perspektywa niedoboru narządów do przeszczepu.Piotr Grzegorz Nowak - 2014 - Diametros 42:150-177.
    The article provides a critical overview of the Polish bioethics literature concerning the shortage of organs for transplantation. Problems related to this issue bear, to a considerable degree, on the attempt to answer the question how to increase the number of organs available in ethically acceptable ways. Polish authors have focused, in this respect, on the analysis and assessment of two solutions: an opt out system of acquiring organs and a system that allows the aquisition of organs on a “free (...)
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  33. Imposing Options on People in Poverty: The Harm of a Live Donor Organ Market.Simon Rippon - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (3):145-150.
    A prominent defence of a market in organs from living donors says that if we truly care about people in poverty, we should allow them to sell their organs. The argument is that if poor vendors would have voluntarily decided to sell their organs in a free market, then prohibiting them from selling makes them even worse off, at least from their own perspective, and that it would be unconscionably paternalistic to substitute our judgements for individuals' own judgements about what (...)
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  34. Organ Markets and Harms: A Reply to Dworkin, Radcliffe Richards and Walsh.Simon Rippon - 2014 - Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (3):155-156.
    In my recent article in the Journal of Medical Ethics, I attacked the Laissez Choisir Argument in defence of letting individuals choose whether to sell kidneys or other organs as living donors, and I argued that such transactions should generally remain prohibited.1 The LC Argument arises as a response to a prohibitionist claim that I endorse: organ sales should be banned to protect potential poverty-stricken vendors, even if a free market could provide great benefits to potential organ recipients. The LC (...)
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  35. Persuading Bereaved Families to Permit Organ Donation.David Shaw & Bernice Elger - 2014 - Intensive Care Medicine 40:96-98.
    The annual UK potential donor audit captures families’ reasons for not consenting to donation of their deceased family members’ organs . Given that many families’ refusals and vetoes are based on false beliefs, cognitive bias and misunderstanding, it is incumbent upon doctors, nurses and transplant coordinators to invest sufficient time to facilitate informed consent or authorization. While such families are distressed, organ donation rates could be substantially improved if they were made aware of any mistaken beliefs, using recently suggested criteria (...)
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  36. Living Organ Procurement From the Mentally Incompetent: The Need for More Appropriate Guidelines.Kristof Van Assche, Gilles Genicot & Sigrid Sterckx - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (3):101-109.
    With the case of Belgium as a negative example, this paper will evaluate the legitimacy of using mentally incompetents as organ sources. The first section examines the underlying moral dilemma that results from the necessity of balancing the principle of respect for persons with the obligation to help people in desperate need. We argue for the rejection of a radical utilitarian approach but also question the appropriateness of a categorical prohibition. Section two aims to strike a fair balance between the (...)
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  37. Organ Donation Is Not Mutilation.Stoeppel Anthony & Pablo Requena - 2013 - The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly 13 (3):427-436.
    The moral debate on living-donor organ transplantation historically focused on how to overcome the problem of the mutilation inherent in such a medical operation. In time, theologians began proposing justifications of LDOT that assumed that “mere removals” did not constitute mutilation. The example of mutilation as an “intrinsically evil act” in Veritatis splendor would seem to have closed the debate. Nevertheless, many theologians continue to address LDOT as a question of justifying a mutilation. The authors provide a brief summary of (...)
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  38. The Dead Donor Rule: A Defense.Samuel C. M. Birch - 2013 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (4):426-440.
    Miller, Truog, and Brock have recently argued that the “dead donor rule,” the requirement that donors be determined to be dead before vital organs are procured for transplantation, cannot withstand ethical scrutiny. In their view, the dead donor rule is inconsistent with existing life-saving practices of organ transplantation, lacks a cogent ethical rationale, and is not necessary for maintenance of public trust in organ transplantation. In this paper, the second of these claims will be evaluated. (The first and third are (...)
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  39. Ethically Informed Pragmatic Conditions for Organ Donation After Cardiocirculatory Death: Could They Assist in Policy Development?Jeffrey Kirby - 2013 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 24:373-380.
    The modern practice of organ donation after cardiocirculatory death emerged in the 1990s as a response to the alarmingly wide gap between the number of transplantable organs available through organ donation after neurological death and the urgent organ transplantation needs of persons in end-organ failure. Various important ethical dimensions of DCD have been considered and debated by prominent organ donation/transplantation theorists and clinicians. In this article, consideration of some of these ethical elements provides a foundation for a proposed set of (...)
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  40. Introduction.Nicolette Michelle Priaulx & Anthony Wrigley - 2013 - In Nicky Priaulx and Anthony Wrigley (ed.), Ethics, Law and Society, Vol. V. Ashgate. pp. 3-6..
    The overall collection we present in Volume V constitutes a celebration of the approach and values embraced within previous volumes. While those acquainted with previous volumes of Ethics, Law & Society will note some marked differences in how we have gone about the work of editing, our hope is that the approach we bring is seen as enriching the work, and building on what has been a highly successful series. To a large degree, however, it has not been possible to (...)
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  41. The Interplay Between Religious Leaders and Organ Donation Among Muslims.Shoaib A. Rasheed & Aasim I. Padela - 2013 - Zygon 48 (3):635-654.
    Bioethics and health researchers often turn to Islamic jurisconsults (fuqahā’) and their verdicts (fatāwā) to understand how Islam and health intersect. Yet when using fatwā to promote health behavior change, researchers have often found less than ideal results. In this article we examine several health behavior change interventions that partnered with Muslim religious leaders aiming at promoting organ donation. As these efforts have generally met with limited success, we reanalyze these efforts through the lens of the theory of planned behavior, (...)
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  42. The Death Debates: A Call for Public Deliberation.David Rodríguez-Arias & Carissa Véliz - 2013 - Hastings Center Report 43 (5):34-35.
    In this issue of the Report, James L. Bernat proposes an innovative and sophisticated distinction to justify the introduction of permanent cessation as a valid substitute standard for irreversible cessation in death determination. He differentiates two approaches to conceptualizing and determining death: the biological concept and the prevailing medical practice standard. While irreversibility is required by the biological concept, the weaker criterion of permanence, he claims, has always sufficed in the accepted standard medical practice to declare death. Bernat argues that (...)
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  43. Improving the Organ Donor Card System in Switzerland.David Shaw - 2013 - Swiss Medical Weekly 143:w13835.
    This paper analyses the current organ donor card system in Switzerland and identifies five problems that may be partially responsible for the country’s low deceased organ donation rates. There are two minor issues concerning the process of obtaining a donor card: the Swisstransplant website understates the prospective benefits of donation, and the ease with which donor cards can be obtained raises questions regarding whether any consent to donation provided is truly informed. Furthermore, there are two major practical problems that might (...)
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  44. Lessons From the German Organ Scandal.David Shaw - 2013 - Journal of the Intensive Care Society 14 (3):200-1.
    Doctors at four German hospitals have been suspended from their posts following internal investigations which alleged that they had been manipulating the organ transplant allocation system in order to help their patients get donor livers more quickly. It is alleged that doctors exaggerated the severity of their patients’ conditions so that they would be accorded higher priority for receiving organs, but there may also have been manipulation of medical records, deception of patients and potential harm to patients both within Germany (...)
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  45. Knowledge and Attitude of ICU Nurses, Students and Patients Towards the Austrian Organ Donation Law.Vanessa Stadlbauer, Peter Steiner, Martin Schweiger, Michael Sereinigg, Karl-Heinz Tscheliessnigg, Wolfgang Freidl & Philipp Stiegler - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):32.
    A survey on the knowledge and attitudes towards the Austrian organ donation legislation (an opt-out solution) of selected groups of the Austrian population taking into account factors such as age, gender, level of education, affiliation to healthcare professions and health related studies was conducted.
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  46. ‘Elective’ Ventilation.Trevor Stammers - 2013 - The New Bioethics 19 (2):130-140.
    The demand for organs prompted the first use of elective ventilation in the UK in the 1990s. Recently the shortfall in supply of organs has once again prompted calls for elective ventilation to be instituted even in patients who are not brain dead. This paper proposes that the term ‘elective’ ventilation is a misnomer and the term non-therapeutic ventilation (NTV) should be used instead. It is further argued that the practice of NTV in cases of severe stroke is unethical and (...)
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  47. Wanted Dead or Alive: Organ Donation and Ethical Limitations on Surrogate Consent for Non-Competent Living Donors.A. Wrigley - 2013 - In A. Wrigley (ed.), Ethics, Law and Society, Vol. V. Ashgate. pp. 209-234.
    People have understandable concerns over what happens to their bodies, both during their life and after they die. Consent to organ donation is often perceived as an altruistic decision made by individuals prior to their death so that others can benefit from use of their organs once they have died. More recently, live organ donation has also been possible, where an individual chooses to donate an organ or body tissue that will not result in their death (such as a kidney). (...)
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  48. Ethics, Law and Society, Vol. V.N. Wrigley, A., Priaulx (ed.) - 2013 - Ashgate.
    This volume forms part of a series exploring key issues in ethics, law and society, published in association with the Cardiff Centre for Ethics, Law and Society. The collection is a celebration of the approach and values embraced within previous volumes in the series. The works collectively address new technological, social, and regulatory developments and the fresh ethical dilemmas these pose, but quite critically, also compel an urgent revisiting of social and legal issues that were once the subject of controversy (...)
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  49. Living Organ Donation.Laura Altobelli, Sherri Bauman, Janice Flynn, Andy Heath, Joseph Jacobs, Tim Joos, Amy K. Lewensten, Donna L. Luebke, Sarah A. McDaniel, Donald Olenick, Laurie E. Post & Vicky Young - 2012 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 2 (1):7-37.
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  50. Could Premortem Organ Retrieval Be Lawful?Norman L. Cantor - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (6):12-13.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 6, Page 12-13, June 2012.
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