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1 — 50 / 57
  1. added 2017-06-01
    The Manipulation of Chemical Reactions: Probing the Limits of Interventionism.Georgie Statham - 2017 - Synthese 194 (12):4815-4838.
    I apply James Woodward’s interventionist theory of causation to organic chemistry, modelling three different ways that chemists are able to manipulate the reaction conditions in order to control the outcome of a reaction. These consist in manipulations to the reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, and whether the kinetics or thermodynamics predominates. It is possible to construct interventionist causal models of all of these kinds of manipulation, and therefore to account for them using Woodward’s theory. However, I show that there is an alternate, (...)
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  2. added 2017-06-01
    Contrastive Causal Claims: A Case Study.Georgie Statham - 2017 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 68 (3):663-688.
    ABSTRACT Contrastive and deviant/default accounts of causation are becoming increasingly common. However, discussions of these accounts have neglected important questions, including how the context determines the contrasts, and what shared knowledge is necessary for this to be possible. I address these questions, using organic chemistry as a case study. Focusing on one example—nucleophilic substitution—I show that the kinds of causal claims that can be made about an organic reaction depend on how the reaction is modelled, and argue that paying attention (...)
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  3. added 2017-02-15
    The Vital Machine: A Study of Technology and Organic Life. [REVIEW]Andrew Pyle - 1993 - British Journal for the History of Science 26 (1):128-129.
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  4. added 2017-02-12
    Conventionalization of the Organic Sesame Network From Burkina Faso: Shrinking Into Mainstream. [REVIEW]Laurent C. Glin, Arthur P. J. Mol & Peter Oosterveer - 2013 - Agriculture and Human Values 30 (4):539-554.
    This research examines the structure and development of the organic sesame network from Burkina Faso to explain the declining trend in organic sesame export. The paper addresses particularly the question whether the organic sesame network is structurally (re)shaped as a conventional mainstream market or whether it still presents a real alternative to conventional sesame production and trade. It is found that over the last decade organic sesame is increasingly incorporated into mainstream market channels. But contrary to the well-known case of (...)
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  5. added 2017-02-12
    Participatory Organic Certification in Mexico: An Alternative Approach to Maintaining the Integrity of the Organic Label. [REVIEW]Erin Nelson, Laura Gómez Tovar, Rita Schwentesius Rindermann & Manuel Ángel Gómez Cruz - 2010 - Agriculture and Human Values 27 (2):227-237.
    Over the past two decades the growth of the organic sector has been accompanied by a shift away from first party, or peer review, systems of certification and towards third party certification, in which a disinterested party is responsible for the development of organic standards and the verification of producer compliance. This paper explores some of the limitations of the third party certification model and presents the case of Mexico as an example of how an alternative form of participatory certification (...)
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  6. added 2017-02-12
    Exploring the Conventionalization of Organic Dairy: Trends and Counter-Trends in Upstate New York. [REVIEW]Amy Guptill - 2009 - Agriculture and Human Values 26 (1-2):29-42.
    Stakeholders in traditional dairy-producing states in the upper Midwest and Northeast hope that the boom in the organic milk market will offer family-scale dairy farms a means to escape the cost-price squeeze of the conventional food system. However, recent trends in organic dairy raise questions about whether organic dairy is conventionalizing, which is to say it is coming to resemble the conventional sector as shown in disparities of power in the value chain that pressure all participants to adopt more industrial (...)
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  7. added 2017-02-12
    The Capitalist Composition of Organic: The Potential of Markets in Fulfilling the Promise of Organic Agriculture. [REVIEW]Patricia Allen & Martin Kovach - 2000 - Agriculture and Human Values 17 (3):221-232.
    Observers of agriculture and theenvironment have noted the recent remarkable growth ofthe organic products industry. Is it possible for thisgrowth in the organics market to contribute toprogressive environmental and social goals? From theperspective of green consumerism, the organics marketis a powerful engine for positive change because itpromotes greater environmental awareness andresponsibility among producers and consumers alike.Given its environmental benefits and its ability touse and alter capitalist markets, organic agricultureis currently a positive force for environmentalism.Still, there are contradictions between organic idealsand (...)
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  8. added 2017-02-07
    Response to Ingold.Derek Brereton - 2005 - Journal of Critical Realism 4 (2):426-434.
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  9. added 2017-02-07
    Return to the Organic.Laurence Piper - 2004 - Theoria 51 (103):122-140.
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  10. added 2017-01-25
    Organic and Tight.James Cummings, Matthew Foreman & Ernest Schimmerling - 2009 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 160 (1):22-32.
    We define organic sets and organically stationary sequences, which generalize tight sets and tightly stationary sequences respectively. We show that there are stationary many inorganic sets and stationary many sets that are organic but not tight . Working in the Constructible Universe, we give a characterization of organic and tight sets in terms of fine structure . We answer a related question posed in [J. Cummings, M. Foreman, M. Magidor, Canonical structure in the universe of set theory: Part two, Ann. (...)
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  11. added 2017-01-19
    Paper Tools in Experimental Cultures.Ursula Klein - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (2):265-302.
    The paper studies various functions of Berzelian formulas in European organic chemistry prior to the mid-nineteenth century from a semiotic, historical and epistemological perspective. I argue that chemists applied Berzelian formulas as productive 'paper tools' for creating a chemical order in the 'jungle' of organic chemistry. Beginning in the late 1820s, chemists applied chemical formulas to build models of the binary constitution of organic compounds in analogy to inorganic compounds. Based on these formula models, they constructed new classifications of organic (...)
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  12. added 2017-01-18
    Leibniz's Model for Analyzing Organic Phenomena.François Duchesneau - 2003 - Perspectives on Science 11 (4):378-409.
  13. added 2017-01-16
    Some Recollections of Gap Jumping. Derek H. R. BartonFrom Design to Discovery. Donald J. CramSteroids Made It Possible. Carl DjerassiFrom Cologne to Chapel Hill. Ernest L. ElielEnjoying Organic Chemistry. Egbert HavingaExplorations with Sugars: How Sweet It Was. Raymond U. LemieuxMy 132 Semesters of Chemistry Studies: Studium Chymiae Nec Nisi Cum Morte Finitur. Vladimir Prelog, Otto Theodor Benfey, David GinsburgThe Right Place at the Right Time. John D. Roberts. [REVIEW]William B. Jensen - 1992 - Isis 83 (4):685-687.
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  14. added 2017-01-16
    Essays on the History of Organic Chemistry in the United States, 1875-1955. Dean Stanley Tarbell, Ann Tracy Tarbell.Robert E. Kohler - 1987 - Isis 78 (3):453-454.
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  15. added 2017-01-16
    P. D. And the Bartlett Group at Harvard 1934-1974: A Group Autobiography on the Occasion of the Bartlett Symposium on Physical Organic Chemistry, Fort Worth, Texas, August 14-16, 1975. [REVIEW]Albert B. Costa - 1977 - Isis 68 (3):500-501.
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  16. added 2017-01-16
    Reduction in Electron Irradiation Damage to Organic Compounds by Conducting Coatings.S. M. Salih & V. E. Cosslett - 1974 - Philosophical Magazine 30 (1):225-228.
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  17. added 2017-01-16
    From Organic Chemistry to Macromolecules: A Scientific Autobiography Based on My Original Papers. Hermann Staudinger, Magda Staudinger.George B. Kauffman - 1972 - Isis 63 (3):461-463.
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  18. added 2017-01-16
    On the Possibility of an Organic Magnet.Herbert A. Poul - 1972 - Philosophical Magazine 26 (3):593-600.
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  19. added 2017-01-16
    History of the Use of Graphic Formulas in Organic Chemistry.Howard S. Mason - 1943 - Isis 34 (4):346-354.
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  20. added 2017-01-16
    The Kinetics of the Oxidation of Organic Compounds by Potassium Permanganate.L. M. Hill & F. C. Tompkins - 1943 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 30 (3):201-206.
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  21. added 2017-01-16
    The Kinetics of the Oxidation of Organic Compounds by Potassium Permanganate.L. M. Hill & F. C. Tompkins - 1942 - Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 29 (4):309-317.
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  22. added 2017-01-16
    A Missing Chapter in the History of Organic Chemistry: The Link Between Elementary Analysis by Dry-Distillation and Combustion.M. Nierenstein - 1934 - Isis 21 (1):123-130.
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  23. added 2017-01-14
    Speculation on the Relationship Between Organic and Atmospheric Evolution.Daniel L. Gilbert - 1960 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 4 (1):58-71.
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  24. added 2016-12-08
    Scientific Understanding and Synthetic Design.William Mark Goodwin - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):271-301.
    Next SectionOne of the indisputable signs of the progress made in organic chemistry over the last two hundred years is the increased ability of chemists to manipulate, control, and design chemical reactions. The technological expertise manifest in contemporary synthetic organic chemistry is, at least in part, due to developments in the theory of organic chemistry. By appealing to a notable chemist's attempts to articulate and codify the heuristics of synthetic design, this paper investigates how understanding theoretical organic chemistry facilitates progress (...)
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  25. added 2016-12-08
    Structural Formulas and Explanation in Organic Chemistry.W. M. Goodwin - 2008 - Foundations of Chemistry 10 (2):117-127.
    Organic chemists have been able to develop a robust, theoretical understanding of the phenomena they study; however, the primary theoretical devices employed in this field are not mathematical equations or laws, as is the case in most other physical sciences. Instead it is diagrams, and in particular structural formulas and potential energy diagrams, that carry the explanatory weight in the discipline. To understand how this is so, it is necessary to investigate both the nature of the diagrams employed in organic (...)
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  26. added 2015-04-06
    Introduction: Atomism and Organic Chemistry in Context: Essays in Honour of Alan J. Rocke.Peter J. Ramberg & Mary Jo Nye - 2015 - Annals of Science 72 (2):149-152.
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  27. added 2015-04-05
    God and the Organic: Emerging Notions of God in Process and Feminist Theology.Vaughan Durkee Mcternan - 1998 - Dissertation, The Iliff School of Theology and University of Denver
    "Organic" has become a central term in twentieth century cultural discourse. It connotes change, evolution, multi-faceted and multi-layered interrelatedness, and flexible responsiveness. It has become a new paradigm through which contemporary society interprets the world. Notions of the organic have increasingly appeared in theology providing focal concepts, models and metaphors for interpreting God and God-world relations. Process and feminist theologians such as Charles Hartshorne, John Cobb, Delwin Brown, Marjorie Suchocki, Sallie McFague, Catherine Keller, and Rosemary Ruether all construct theologies in (...)
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  28. added 2015-04-05
    C. K. Ingold At University College London: Educator and Department Head.Gerrylynn K. Roberts - 1996 - British Journal for the History of Science 29 (1):65-82.
    The outstanding scientific work of Christopher Kelk Ingold was the focus of considerable discussion, celebration and evaluation during the year of the centenary of his birth. In addition to understanding his prolific and highly original scientific output as a pioneer in the application of physical methods to organic chemistry and, indeed, as a founder of physical organic chemistry, it is also important to examine other aspects of Ingold's career, in particular his role in shaping the institutional context in which he (...)
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  29. added 2015-03-28
    Organic Chemistry and High Technology, 1850–1950.Anthony S. Travis, Willem J. Hornix, Robert Bud & John J. Beer - 1992 - British Journal for the History of Science 25 (1):1-4.
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  30. added 2015-03-26
    Experiments, Models, Paper Tools: Cultures of Organic Chemistry in the Nineteenth Century. [REVIEW]Ana Carneiro - 2006 - British Journal for the History of Science 39 (1):135-136.
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  31. added 2015-03-26
    Free Radicals in the European Periphery: ‘Translating’ Organic Chemistry From Zurich to Barcelona in the Early Twentieth Century.Agustí Nieto-Galan - 2004 - British Journal for the History of Science 37 (2):167-191.
    In 1915, after acquiring first-hand knowledge of the new free radical chemistry at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Antonio García Banús became professor of organic chemistry at the University of Barcelona and created his own research group, which was to last from 1915 until 1936. He was a gifted teacher and a prolific writer who attempted to introduce international scientific standards into his local environment. This paper analyses the bridges that Banús built between the experimental culture of (...)
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  32. added 2015-03-26
    Essays on the History of Organic Chemistry in the United States, 1875–1955. [REVIEW]A. J. Rocke - 1988 - British Journal for the History of Science 21 (1):130-131.
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  33. added 2015-03-26
    Essays on the History of Organic Chemistry. [REVIEW]Noel Coley - 1988 - British Journal for the History of Science 21 (3):368-368.
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  34. added 2015-03-25
    Organic Synthesis and the Unification of Chemistry—A Reappraisal.John Brooke - 1971 - British Journal for the History of Science 5 (4):363-392.
    Proclaiming Louis Pasteur as the “Founder of Stereochemistry”, the distinguished Scottish chemist, Crum Brown, addressing a late nineteenth-century audience of Edinburgh savants, drew attention—as Pasteur had incessantly done—to the intimate relationship between living organisms and the optical activity of compounds sustaining them. It seemed to Crum Brown “that we must go very much further down in the scale of animate existence than Buridan's ass, before we come to a being incapable of giving practical expression to a distinct preference for one (...)
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  35. added 2015-03-24
    The Quiet Revolution: Hermann Kolbe and the Science of Organic Chemistry.Alan J. Rocke & T. H. Levere - 1995 - Annals of Science 52 (4):421-421.
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  36. added 2015-03-24
    Chemistry of Organic Fluorine Compounds II.B. E. Smart, M. Hudlicky & A. E. Pavlath - 1995 - A Critical Review 187:979.
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  37. added 2015-03-23
    A Proposal for Extending the Currently Employed Structural Formulae in Chemistry Into Space, Together With a Related Remark on the Relationship Between Optical Activating Power and Chemical Constitution of Organic Compounds.; a Paper on the History of the First Publication of the Pamphlet in Dutch is by PJ Ramberg and GJ Somsen.J. H. van‘T. Hoff - 2001 - Annals of Science 58:51.
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  38. added 2015-03-23
    Organic Time.Douwe Tiemersma - 1996 - In Douwe Tiemersma & Henk Oosterling (eds.), Time and Temporality in Intercultural Perspective. Rodopi. pp. 4--161.
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  39. added 2015-03-23
    The Cognitive Status of the Reconstruction of Mechanisms in Modern Organic Chemistry. The Reconstruction of the Mechanism of the Acidic Hydrolysis of Nucleosides.Ewa Zielonacka-Lis - 1994 - In Dag Prawitz & Dag Westerståhl (eds.), Logic and Philosophy of Science in Uppsala. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 483--498.
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  40. added 2015-03-21
    Producing the Natural Fiber Naturally: Technological Change and the US Organic Cotton Industry. [REVIEW]Mrill Ingram - 2002 - Agriculture and Human Values 19 (4):325-336.
    Organic cotton productionboomed in the early 1990s only to fall steeplymid-decade. Production is currently rising, butslowly, and has yet to reach previous levels.This is in marked contrast to the steady growthin organic food production during the 1990s.Why, when other areas of organic productionexperienced steady growth, did organic cottonexperience a boom and bust? A study of thecotton production and processing industryreveals a long and heavily industrializedproduction chain that has presented numerouschallenges to growers and processors trying tointroduce an organic product. In addition, (...)
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  41. added 2015-03-20
    Revolution in Organic Chemistry and its Implication in Biogenesis.Harold J. Morowitz, Vijayasarathy Srinivasan & Eric Smith - 2009 - Complexity 14 (6):7-8.
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  42. added 2015-03-20
    Why Was a Fuzzy Model so Successful in Physical Organic Chemistry?F. Michael Akeroyd - 2000 - Hyle 6 (2):161 - 173.
    This paper examines a facet of the rise of the Hughes-Ingold Theory of Nucleophilic Substitution in Organic Chemistry 1933-1942, arguing that the SN1/SN2 model of reaction mechanism used by Hughes and Ingold is an example of a fuzzy model. Many real world 'Fuzzy Logic' Controlling Devices gave better results compared to classical logic controlling devices in the period 1975-1985. I propose that the adoption of fuzzy principles in the Hughes-Ingold program 1933-1940 led to scientific advance at a time when the (...)
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  43. added 2015-03-17
    Visual Representations in Science.William Goodwin - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (3):372-390.
    This paper evaluates a general argument for the conclusion that visual representations in science must play the role of truth bearers if they are to figure as legitimate contributors to scientific arguments and explanations. The argument is found to be unsound. An alternative approach to assessing the role of visual representations in science is exemplified by an examination of the role of structural formulas in organic chemistry. Structural formulas are found not to play the role of truth bearers; nonetheless, they (...)
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  44. added 2014-04-02
    Sustaining a Controversy: The Non-Classical Ion Debate.William Goodwin - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (4):787-816.
    This article examines a scientific controversy that raged for twenty years in physical organic chemistry during the second half of the twentieth century. After explaining what was at stake in the non-classical ion debate, I attempt—by examining the methodological reflections of some of the participants—a partial explanation of what sustained this controversy, particularly during its early stages. Instead of suggesting a breakdown of scientific method or the unavoidable historical contingency of scientific development, the endurance of this controversy instead reveals the (...)
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  45. added 2014-03-27
    The Foundations of Modern Organic Chemistry: The Rise of the Highes and Ingold Theory From 1930–1942. [REVIEW]F. Michael Akeroyd - 2000 - Foundations of Chemistry 2 (2):99-125.
    The foundations of modern organic chemistry were laid by the seminal work of Hughes and Ingold. The rise from being an interesting alternative hypothesis in 1933 to being the leading theory (outside the USA) in 1942 was achieved by a multiplicity of methods. This include:the construction of a new scientific notation, the rationalisation of some seemingly contradictory reported data, the refutation of the experimental work of one of their persistent critics, the use of conceptual arguments and also the achievement of (...)
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  46. added 2014-03-26
    Berzelian Formulas as Paper Tools in Early Nineteenth-Century Chemistry.Ursula Klein - 2001 - Foundations of Chemistry 3 (1):7-32.
    This paper studies the semiotic,epistemological and historical aspects of Berzelianformulas in early nineteenth-century organicchemistry. I argue that Berzelian formulas wereenormously productive `paper tools' for representingchemical reactions of organic substances, and forcreating different pathways of reactions. Moreover, myanalysis of Jean Dumas's application of Berzelianformulas to model the creation of chloral from alcoholand chlorine exemplifies the role played by chemicalformulas in conceptual development (the concept ofsubstitution). Studying the dialectic of chemists'collectively shared goals and tools, I argue thatpaper tools, like laboratory instruments, areresources (...)
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  47. added 2014-03-24
    Markovnikov's Rule in History and Pedagogy.Robert C. Kerber - 2002 - Foundations of Chemistry 4 (1):61-72.
    In 1870–75 Markovnikov enunciatedan empirical Rule which generalized theregiochemical outcome of addition reactions tounsymmetrical alkenes. This Rule remaineduseful for about 75 years, until suchreactions came to be better understood inmechanistic terms. Thereafter the Rule couldbe deduced from principles of relativecarbocation stabilization and ceased to servean independent purpose. Nevertheless, mostorganic textbooks continue to cite it (oftenin a historically inaccurate, anachronisticway), thereby distracting student attentionfrom the underlying principles. This paperadvocates doing away with the Rule in organicchemistry textbooks and classrooms.
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  48. added 2014-03-12
    Implementation and Innovation in Total Synthesis.William Goodwin - 2008 - Foundations of Chemistry 10 (3):177-186.
    This article investigates how understanding the theory of organic chemistry facilitates the total synthesis of organic compounds. After locating the philosophical significance of this question within the methodology or epistemology of applied science, I summarize the results of previous work on this issue—roughly that theoretical organic chemistry underwrites a sequence of heuristic policies that help to isolate plausible synthetic routes from the array of possibilities provided by structural or descriptive organic chemistry. While this prior account makes a solid start, it (...)
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  49. added 2014-03-10
    The Origin and Development of the Acidity Function.Richard Martin Pagni - 2009 - Foundations of Chemistry 11 (1):43-50.
    The acidity function is a thermodynamic quantitative measure of acid strength for non-aqueous and concentrated aqueous Brønsted acids, with acid strength being defined as the extent to which the acid protonates a base of known basicity. The acidity function, which was developed, both theoretically and experimentally, by Louis P. Hammett of Columbia University during the 1930s, has proven useful in the area of physical organic chemistry where it has been used to correlate rates of acid-catalyzed reactions and to quantitate the (...)
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  50. added 2011-05-31
    Instruments and Rules: R. B. Woodward and the Tools of Twentieth-Century Organic Chemistry.Leo B. Slater - 2002 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (1):1-33.
    The paper illustrates how organic chemists dramatically altered their practices in the middle part of the twentieth century through the adoption of analytical instrumentation — such as ultraviolet and infrared absorption spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy — through which the difficult process of structure determination for small molecules became routine. Changes in practice were manifested in two ways: in the use of these instruments in the development of ‘rule-based’ theories; and in an increased focus on synthesis, at the expense (...)
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1 — 50 / 57