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  1. added 2020-05-16
    A Part-Dependent Account of Biological Individuality: Why Holobionts Are Individuals and Ecosystems Simultaneously.Javier Suárez & Adrian Stencel - 2020 - Biological Reviews.
    Given one conception of biological individuality (evolutionary, physiological, etc.), can a holobiont – that is the host + its symbiotic (mutualistic, commensalist and parasitic) microbiome – be simultaneously a biological individual and an ecological community? Herein, we support this possibility by arguing that the notion of biological individuality is part‐dependent. In our account, the individuality of a biological ensemble should not only be determined by the conception of biological individuality in use, but also by the biological characteristics of the part (...)
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  2. added 2020-03-01
    The Principle of Life: from Aristotelian Psyche to Drieschian Entelechy.Agustin Ostachuk - 2016 - Ludus Vitalis 24 (45):37-59.
    Is life a simple result of a conjunction of physico-chemical processes? Can be reduced to a mere juxtaposition of spatially determined events? What epistemology or world-view allows us to comprehend it? Aristotle built a novel philosophical system in which nature is a dynamical totality which is in constant movement. Life is a manifestation of it, and is formed and governed by the psyche. Psyche is the organizational principle of the different biological levels: nutritive, perceptive and intelective. Driesch's crucial experiment provided (...)
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  3. added 2020-02-26
    The stability of traits conception of the hologenome: An evolutionary account of holobiont individuality.Javier Suárez - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (1):1-27.
    Bourrat and Griffiths :33, 2018) have recently argued that most of the evidence presented by holobiont defenders to support the thesis that holobionts are evolutionary individuals is not to the point and is not even adequate to discriminate multispecies evolutionary individuals from other multispecies assemblages that would not be considered evolutionary individuals by most holobiont defenders. They further argue that an adequate criterion to distinguish the two categories is fitness alignment, presenting the notion of fitness boundedness as a criterion that (...)
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  4. added 2020-02-12
    Essence in the Age of Evolution: A New Theory of Natural Kinds.Christopher J. Austin - 2018 - London, UK: Routledge.
    This book offers a novel defence of a highly contested philosophical position: biological natural kind essentialism. This theory is routinely and explicitly rejected for its purported inability to be explicated in the context of contemporary biological science, and its supposed incompatibility with the process and progress of evolution by natural selection. Christopher J. Austin challenges these objections, and in conjunction with contemporary scientific advancements within the field of evolutionary-developmental biology, the book utilises a contemporary neo-Aristotelian metaphysics of "dispositional properties", or (...)
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  5. added 2019-11-28
    Maschinen der Natur.Thomas Khurana - 2011 - Drehmomente.
    In seinem Neuen System (1695) führt Leibniz einen bemerkenswerten Ausdruck ein, in dem sich eine neue Konzeption des Verhältnisses von Natur und Kunst manifestiert. Er wirft den Modernen, die die natürlichen Dinge ganz nach dem Muster künstlicher Maschinen verstanden haben, vor, die natürlichen und künstlichen Dinge auf unangemessene Weise vermengt zu haben. Statt den Modernen aber nun entgegenzuhalten, dass die Dinge der Natur nicht den Charakter von Maschinen haben, führt Leibniz den zunächst überraschenden Begriff der »Maschinen der Natur« ein: Auch (...)
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  6. added 2019-10-28
    Biological Individuals.Robert A. Wilson & Matthew J. Barker - 2019 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 1 (1).
    The impressive variation amongst biological individuals generates many complexities in addressing the simple-sounding question what is a biological individual? A distinction between evolutionary and physiological individuals is useful in thinking about biological individuals, as is attention to the kinds of groups, such as superorganisms and species, that have sometimes been thought of as biological individuals. More fully understanding the conceptual space that biological individuals occupy also involves considering a range of other concepts, such as life, reproduction, and agency. There has (...)
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  7. added 2019-08-17
    Animalism, Abortion, and a Future Like Ours.Andrea Sauchelli - 2019 - Journal of Ethics 23 (3):317-332.
    Marquis’ future-like-ours argument against the morality of abortion assumes animalism—a family of theories according to which we are animals. Such an assumption is theoretically useful for various reasons, e.g., because it provides the theoretical underpinning for a reply to the contraception-abstinence objection. However, the connection between the future-like-ours argument and one popular version of animalism can prove lethal to the former, or so I argue in this paper.
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  8. added 2019-06-05
    Sechzehn Tage: Wann Beginnt Ein Menschliches Leben?Barry Smith & Berit Brogaard - 2006 - In Guido Imaguire & Christine Schneider (eds.), Untersuchungen zur Ontologie. Munich: Philosophia. pp. 3-40.
    Der Abschluß der Gastrulation, der gleichzeitig auch den Anfang der Neurulation bedeutet, ist die zeitliche Grenze, die Beginn eines menschlichen Individuums markiert. Oft wird behauptet, daß jegliche natürliche Veränderung stetig ist. Wie ist es dann aber möglich, eine zeitliche Grenze auszuzeichnen, an der ein menschliches Lebewesen zu existieren beginnt? Man beachte, was geschieht, wenn wir vom Thema zeitlicher Unstetigkeit zum räumlichen übergehen. Lebewesen haben räumliche Grenzen (wie sie durch ihre Haut geformt wird). Die letzteren sind genuine Diskontinuitäten, auch angesichts der (...)
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  9. added 2019-03-08
    Scott Lidgard and Lynn K. Nyhart, Eds. Biological Individuality: Integrating Scientific, Philosophical, and Historical Perspectives. [REVIEW]Catherine Kendig - 2018 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 8 (2):475-480.
    Biologists, historians of biology, and philosophers of biology often ask what is it to be an individual, really. This book does not answer that question. Instead, it answers a much more interesting one: How do biologists individuate individuals? In answering that question, the authors explore why biologists individuate individuals, in what ways, and for what purposes. The cross-disciplinary, dialogical approach to answering metaphysical questions that is pursued in the volume may seem strange to metaphysicians who are not biologically focused, but (...)
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  10. added 2019-03-08
    Grounding Knowledge and Normative Valuation in Agent-Based Action and Scientific Commitment.Catherine Elizabeth Kendig - 2018 - In Hauke Riesch, Nathan Emmerich & Steven Wainwright (eds.), Philosophies and Sociologies of Bioethics: Crossing the Divides. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 41-64.
    Philosophical investigation in synthetic biology has focused on the knowledge-seeking questions pursued, the kind of engineering techniques used, and on the ethical impact of the products produced. However, little work has been done to investigate the processes by which these epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical forms of inquiry arise in the course of synthetic biology research. An attempt at this work relying on a particular area of synthetic biology will be the aim of this chapter. I focus on the reengineering of (...)
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  11. added 2019-01-11
    Death is a Biological Phenomenon.Don Marquis - 2018 - Diametros 55:20-26.
    John Lizza says that to define death well, we must go beyond biological considerations. Death is the absence of life in an entity that was once alive. Biology is the study of life. Therefore, the definition of death should not involve non-biological concerns.
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  12. added 2018-08-12
    First Principles in the Life Sciences: The Free-Energy Principle, Organicism, and Mechanism.Matteo Colombo & Cory Wright - forthcoming - Synthese:1-26.
    The free-energy principle claims that biological systems behave adaptively maintaining their physical integrity only if they minimize the free energy of their sensory states. Originally proposed to account for perception, learning, and action, the free-energy principle has been applied to the evolution, development, morphology, and function of the brain, and has been called a “postulate,” a “mandatory principle,” and an “imperative.” While it might afford a theoretical foundation for understanding the complex relationship between physical environment, life, and mind, its epistemic (...)
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  13. added 2018-03-11
    Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam’s Historia Insectorum Generalis and the Case of the Water Flea.Catherine Kendig - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (8):1939-1961.
    Abstract: Hasok Chang (Sci Educ 20:317–341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science education. In this paper I describe the implementation of an integrated learning project that I initiated, organized, and structured to complement a course in history and philosophy of the life sciences (HPLS). The (...)
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  14. added 2017-12-19
    Organisms as Persisters.Subrena E. Smith - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (14).
    This paper addresses the question of what organisms are and therefore what kinds of biological entities qualify as organisms. For some time now, the concept of organismality has been eclipsed by the notion of individuality. Biological individuals are those systems that are units of selection. I develop a conception of organismality that does not rely on evolutionary considerations, but instead draws on development and ecology. On this account, organismality and individuality can come apart. Organisms, in my view, are as Godfrey-Smith (...)
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  15. added 2017-10-22
    On Biological Identity.Giovanni Boniolo & Massimiliano Carrara - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):443-457.
    In our paper, we propose a relativisticand metaphysically neutral identity criterionfor biological entities. We start from thecriterion of genidentity proposed by K. Lewinand H. Reichenbach. Then we enrich it to renderit more philosophical powerful and so capableof dealing with the real transformations thatoccur in the extremely variegated biologicalworld.
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  16. added 2017-08-19
    Evolution of Individuality: A Case Study in the Volvocine Green Algae.Erik R. Hanschen, Dinah R. Davison, Zachariah I. Grochau-Wright & Richard E. Michod - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (3).
    All disciplines must define their basic units and core processes. In evolutionary biology, the core process is natural selection and the basic unit of selection and adaptation is the individual. To operationalize the theory of natural selection we must count individuals, as they are the bearers of fitness. While canonical individuals have often been taken to be multicellular organisms, the hierarchy of life shows that new kinds of individuals have evolved. A variety of criteria have been used to define biological (...)
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  17. added 2017-08-07
    Stem Cell Lineages: Between Cell and Organism.Melinda Bonnie Fagan - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (6).
    Ontologies of living things are increasingly grounded on the concepts and practices of current life science. Biological development is a process, undergone by living things, which begins with a single cell and (in an important class of cases) ends with formation of a multicellular organism. The process of development is thus prima facie central for ideas about biological individuality and organismality. However, recent accounts of these concepts do not engage developmental biology. This paper aims to fill the gap, proposing the (...)
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  18. added 2017-07-01
    Selbstorganisation und Selbstgesetzgebung. Form und Grenze einer Analogie in der Philosophie Kants und Hegels.Thomas Khurana - 2011 - Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 16:9–27.
    The paper investigates philosophical conceptions of the living that were articulated in Kantian and Hegelian philosophy. The paper argues that in Kant and post-Kantian philosophy the conception of the living serves as a hinge or joint in order to mediate between conceptions of the realm of nature and conceptions of the realm of freedom. In opposition to the Cartesian tradition that had tried to grasp living beings in terms of organized machines, Kant characterizes living beings not only as organized, but (...)
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  19. added 2017-07-01
    Reflexives Leben: Biologie Und Ästhetik Um 1800. [REVIEW]Thomas Khurana - 2010 - Texte Zur Kunst 20:177-182.
    Der Ausgangspunkt des Bandes Vita aesthetica: Szenarien ästhetischer Lebendigkeit , ist ein archäologischer Befund: Die Formationsphase der modernen Disziplin der Ästhetik (die das Erbe von Rhetorik, Poetik und Kunstkritik aufnimmt und verwandelt) und die Herausbildung der Biologie (die eine statisch und klassifikatorisch verstandene Naturgeschichte ablöst) fallen nicht nur zufällig in die selbe Zeit (das notorische „um 1800“). Vielmehr markieren sie den Umbruch in eine neue Ordnung des Wissens. Für diese neue Episteme ist ein neuer Begriff des Lebens kennzeichnend, der sich (...)
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  20. added 2017-03-13
    Naturalismus und Biologie.Geert Keil - 2007 - In Ludger Honnefelder & Matthias C. Schmidt (eds.), Naturalismus als Paradigma. Berlin University Press. pp. 76-85.
    Einleitung Sind wir heute alle Naturalisten? Drei Arten des Naturalismus in der theoretischen Philosophie Metaphysischer Naturalismus Scientia mensura-Naturalismus Analytischer Naturalismus Naturalismus mit oder ohne Leitwissenschaft Biologischer Naturalismus Evolutionärer Naturalismus .
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  21. added 2017-02-25
    Microorganisms as Scaffolds of Host Individuality: An Eco-Immunity Account of the Holobiont.Lynn Chiu & Gérard Eberl - 2016 - Biology and Philosophy 31 (6):819-837.
    There is currently a great debate about whether the holobiont, i.e. a multicellular host and its residential microorganisms, constitutes a biological individual. We propose that resident microorganisms have a general and important role in the individuality of the host organism, not the holobiont. Drawing upon the Equilibrium Model of Immunity, we argue that microorganisms are scaffolds of immune capacities and processes that determine the constituency and persistence of the host organism. A scaffolding perspective accommodates the contingency and heterogeneity of resident (...)
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  22. added 2017-02-14
    Character Identification: The Role of the Organism.Gunter P. Wagner & Manfred D. Laubichler - 2001 - In G. P. Wagner (ed.), The Character Concept in Evolutionary Biology. Academic Press. pp. 143--165.
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  23. added 2017-02-12
    The Philosophy of Organism: A Comparative Study of A.M. Kirti Singh - 2009 - Akansha Pub. House.
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  24. added 2017-02-12
    The Encyclopedia as Organism.Peter France - 1998 - The European Legacy 3 (3):62-75.
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  25. added 2017-02-08
    The Organism is Dead. Long Live the Organism!Manfred D. Laubichler - 2000 - Perspectives on Science 8 (3):286-315.
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  26. added 2017-02-08
    The Organism.Rudolf Allers - 1941 - New Scholasticism 15 (3):286-289.
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  27. added 2017-02-03
    The Organism as a Whole and its Phyloanalytic Implications.Trigant Burrow - 1937 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 15 (4):259 – 278.
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  28. added 2017-02-01
    How the Choice of Experimental Organism Matters: Biological Practices and Discipline Boundaries.Richard M. Burian - 1992 - Synthese 92 (1):151-166.
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  29. added 2017-01-27
    On the Philosophy of Organism.Ralph Nelson - 2002 - Maritain Studies/Etudes Maritainiennes 18:45-56.
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  30. added 2017-01-26
    The Science and Philosophy of the Organism.E. S. Goodrich - 1929 - The Eugenics Review 21 (3):214.
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  31. added 2017-01-24
    Toward an Organismal, Integrative, and Iterative Phylogeography.David Buckley - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (7):784-793.
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  32. added 2017-01-19
    The Organism in Development.Robert C. Richardson - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):321.
    Developmental biology has resurfaced in recent years, often without a clearly central role for the organism. The organism is pulled in divergent directions: on the one hand, there is an important body of work that emphasizes the role of the gene in development, as executing and controlling embryological change; on the other hand, there are more theoretical approaches under which the organism disappears as little more than an instance for testing biological generalizations. I press here for the ineliminability of the (...)
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  33. added 2017-01-19
    Note on the Structural Philosophy of Organism.L. L. Whyte - 1955 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 5 (20):332-334.
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  34. added 2017-01-19
    The Science and Philosophy of the Organism.Francis B. Sumner - 1910 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 7 (12):309-330.
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  35. added 2017-01-18
    Symposium "the Organism in Philosophical Focus"--An Introduction.Manfred D. Laubichler - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):259.
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  36. added 2017-01-18
    Eternal Objects and the Philosophy of Organism.George Gentry - 1946 - Philosophy of Science 13 (3):252-260.
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  37. added 2017-01-18
    Mechanism and Organism.C. Judson Herrick - 1929 - Journal of Philosophy 26 (22):589-597.
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  38. added 2017-01-17
    “Man-Machines and Embodiment: From Cartesian Physiology to Claude Bernard’s ‘Living Machine’”.Charles T. Wolfe & Philippe Huneman - forthcoming - In Justin E. H. Smith (ed.), Embodiment, Oxford Philosophical Concepts. Oxford University Press.
    A common and enduring early modern intuition is that materialists reduce organisms in general and human beings in particular to automata. Wasn’t a famous book of the time entitled L’Homme-Machine? In fact, the machine is employed as an analogy, and there was a specifically materialist form of embodiment, in which the body is not reduced to an inanimate machine, but is conceived as an affective, flesh-and-blood entity. We discuss how mechanist and vitalist models of organism exist in a more complementary (...)
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  39. added 2017-01-17
    A Contribution to the Theory of the Living Organism.James W. Papez & W. E. Agar - 1945 - Philosophical Review 54 (3):274.
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  40. added 2017-01-16
    Targeting the Organism: The Scientific and Cultural Context of Pascual Jordan's Quantum Biology, 1932-1947.Richard H. Beyler - 1996 - Isis 87 (2):248-273.
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  41. added 2017-01-16
    General Biology and Philosophy of Organism.H. T. C. - 1946 - Journal of Philosophy 43 (17):475.
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  42. added 2017-01-16
    Some Basic Implications of a Concept of Organism for Psychology.W. W. Martin - 1945 - Psychological Review 52 (6):333-343.
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  43. added 2017-01-16
    VII.—A Concept of the Organism, Emergent and Resultant.C. Lloyd Morgan - 1926 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 27 (1):141-176.
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  44. added 2017-01-14
    General Biology and Philosophy of Organism. [REVIEW]T. C. H. - 1946 - Journal of Philosophy 43 (17):475-476.
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  45. added 2017-01-03
    Biological Autonomy: Can a Universal and Gradable Conception Be Operationalized?: Bernd Rosslenbroich: On the Origin of Autonomy: A New Look at the Major Transitions in Evolution ; Springer, Cham, 2014, Xii + 297 Pp, $129 Hbk, ISBN 978-3-319-04140-7.Argyris Arnellos - 2016 - Biological Theory 11 (1):11-24.
    In On the Origin of Autonomy; A New look at the Major Transitions in Evolution, Bernd Rosslenbroich argues that an increase of the relative autonomy of individual organisms is one of the central large-scale patterns in evolution. I begin by presenting how Rosslenbroich understands the notion of autonomy in biology and how he correlates its increase to different sets of morphological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of various biological systems. I briefly discuss his view of directionality in evolution with respect to (...)
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  46. added 2016-12-08
    How the Choice of Experimental Organism Matters: Epistemological Reflections on an Aspect of Biological Practice.Richard M. Burian - 1993 - Journal of the History of Biology 26 (2):351-367.
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  47. added 2016-12-08
    The Problem of the Organic Individual: Ernst Haeckel and the Development of the Biogenetic Law.Ruth G. Rinard - 1981 - Journal of the History of Biology 14 (2):249-275.
  48. added 2016-08-16
    The Organism as Ontological Go-Between: Hybridity, Boundaries and Degrees of Reality in its Conceptual History.Charles T. Wolfe - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:151-161.
    The organism is neither a discovery like the circulation of the blood or the glycogenic function of the liver, nor a particular biological theory like epigenesis or preformationism. It is rather a concept which plays a series of roles, sometimes masked, often normative, throughout the history of biology. Indeed, it has often been presented as a key-concept in life science and its ‘theorization’, but conversely has also been the target of influential rejections: as just an instrument of transmission for the (...)
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  49. added 2016-07-25
    The Ethics of Eating as a Human Organism.Caleb Ward - 2016 - In Mary C. Rawlinson & Caleb Ward (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Food Ethics. Routledge. pp. 48-58.
    Conventional ethics of how humans should eat often ignore that human life is itself a form of organic activity. Using Henri Bergson’s notions of intellect and intuition, this chapter brings a wider perspective of the human organism to the ethical question of how humans appropriate life for nutriment. The intellect’s tendency to instrumentalize living things as though they were inert seems to subtend the moral failures evident in practices such as industrial animal agriculture. Using the case study of Temple Grandin’s (...)
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  50. added 2016-05-05
    En Kropslig Kultur Historie - om omverdens relationen".Maria Brincker - 2012 - In E. O. Pedersen & A.-M. S. Christensen (eds.), Mennesket - En Introduktion Til Filosofisk Antropologi. Systime. pp. 197-216.
    This chapter deals with the way our psychology and actions a scaffolded by their environment but also the tensions that can appear between individual and environment, both at the level of biology and culture. The chapter is grounded in an analysis of the early 20th century theoretical biologist Jacob von Uexkull and his notion of "Umwelt" or "surround world". But also raises the question of whether organisms fit their environment as neatly as Uexkull and many later thinkers have proposed or (...)
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