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1 — 50 / 108
  1. added 2019-01-11
    Death is a Biological Phenomenon.Don Marquis - 2018 - Diametros 55:20-26.
    John Lizza says that to define death well, we must go beyond biological considerations. Death is the absence of life in an entity that was once alive. Biology is the study of life. Therefore, the definition of death should not involve non-biological concerns.
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  2. added 2018-08-12
    First Principles in the Life Sciences: The Free-Energy Principle, Organicism, and Mechanism.Matteo Colombo & Cory Wright - forthcoming - Synthese:1-26.
    The free-energy principle claims that biological systems behave adaptively maintaining their physical integrity only if they minimize the free energy of their sensory states. Originally proposed to account for perception, learning, and action, the free-energy principle has been applied to the evolution, development, morphology, and function of the brain, and has been called a “postulate,” a “mandatory principle,” and an “imperative.” While it might afford a theoretical foundation for understanding the complex relationship between physical environment, life, and mind, its epistemic (...)
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  3. added 2018-03-11
    Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam’s Historia Insectorum Generalis and the Case of the Water Flea.Catherine Kendig - 2013 - Science and Education: Academic Journal of Ushynsky University 22 (8):1939-1961.
    Abstract: Hasok Chang (Sci Educ 20:317–341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science education. In this paper I describe the implementation of an integrated learning project that I initiated, organized, and structured to complement a course in history and philosophy of the life sciences (HPLS). The (...)
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  4. added 2017-12-19
    Organisms as Persisters.Subrena E. Smith - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (14).
    This paper addresses the question of what organisms are and therefore what kinds of biological entities qualify as organisms. For some time now, the concept of organismality has been eclipsed by the notion of individuality. Biological individuals are those systems that are units of selection. I develop a conception of organismality that does not rely on evolutionary considerations, but instead draws on development and ecology. On this account, organismality and individuality can come apart. Organisms, in my view, are as Godfrey-Smith (...)
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  5. added 2017-10-22
    On Biological Identity.Giovanni Boniolo & Massimiliano Carrara - 2004 - Biology and Philosophy 19 (3):443-457.
    In our paper, we propose a relativisticand metaphysically neutral identity criterionfor biological entities. We start from thecriterion of genidentity proposed by K. Lewinand H. Reichenbach. Then we enrich it to renderit more philosophical powerful and so capableof dealing with the real transformations thatoccur in the extremely variegated biologicalworld.
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  6. added 2017-08-19
    Evolution of Individuality: A Case Study in the Volvocine Green Algae.Erik R. Hanschen, Dinah R. Davison, Zachariah I. Grochau-Wright & Richard E. Michod - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (3).
    All disciplines must define their basic units and core processes. In evolutionary biology, the core process is natural selection and the basic unit of selection and adaptation is the individual. To operationalize the theory of natural selection we must count individuals, as they are the bearers of fitness. While canonical individuals have often been taken to be multicellular organisms, the hierarchy of life shows that new kinds of individuals have evolved. A variety of criteria have been used to define biological (...)
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  7. added 2017-08-07
    Stem Cell Lineages: Between Cell and Organism.Melinda Bonnie Fagan - 2017 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 9 (6).
    Ontologies of living things are increasingly grounded on the concepts and practices of current life science. Biological development is a process, undergone by living things, which begins with a single cell and (in an important class of cases) ends with formation of a multicellular organism. The process of development is thus prima facie central for ideas about biological individuality and organismality. However, recent accounts of these concepts do not engage developmental biology. This paper aims to fill the gap, proposing the (...)
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  8. added 2017-08-05
    Sechzehn Tage: Wann beginnt ein menschliches Leben?Berit Brogaard & Barry Smith - 2006 - In Guido Imaguire & Christine Schneider (eds.), Untersuchungen zur Ontologie. Munich: Philosophia. pp. 3-40.
    When does a human being begin to exist? We argue that it is possible, through a combination of biological fact and philosophical analysis, to provide a definitive answer to this question. We lay down a set of conditions for being a human being, and we determine when, in the course of normal fetal development, these conditions are first satisfied. Issues dealt with along the way include: modes of substance-formation, twinning, the nature of the intra-uterine environment, and the nature of the (...)
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  9. added 2017-07-01
    Selbstorganisation und Selbstgesetzgebung. Form und Grenze einer Analogie in der Philosophie Kants und Hegels.Thomas Khurana - 2011 - Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 16:9–27.
  10. added 2017-07-01
    Reflexives Leben: Biologie und Ästhetik um 1800. [REVIEW]Thomas Khurana - 2010 - Texte Zur Kunst 20:177-182.
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  11. added 2017-03-13
    Naturalismus und Biologie.Geert Keil - 2007 - In Ludger Honnefelder & Matthias C. Schmidt (eds.), Naturalismus als Paradigma. Berlin University Press. pp. 76-85.
  12. added 2017-02-25
    Microorganisms as Scaffolds of Host Individuality: An Eco-Immunity Account of the Holobiont.Lynn Chiu & Gérard Eberl - unknown
    There is currently a great debate about whether the holobiont, i.e. a multicellular host and its residential microorganisms, constitutes a biological individual. We propose that resident microorganisms have a general and important role in the individuality of the host organism, not the holobiont. Drawing upon the Equilibrium Model of Immunity, we argue that microorganisms are scaffolds of immune capacities and processes that determine the constituency and persistence of the host organism. A scaffolding perspective accommodates the contingency and heterogeneity of resident (...)
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  13. added 2017-02-14
    Character Identification: The Role of the Organism.Gunter P. Wagner & Manfred D. Laubichler - 2001 - In G. P. Wagner (ed.), The Character Concept in Evolutionary Biology. Academic Press. pp. 143--165.
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  14. added 2017-02-12
    The Philosophy of Organism: A Comparative Study of A.M. Kirti Singh - 2009 - Akansha Pub. House.
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  15. added 2017-02-12
    The Encyclopedia as Organism.Peter France - 1998 - The European Legacy 3 (3):62-75.
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  16. added 2017-02-08
    The Organism is Dead. Long Live the Organism!Manfred D. Laubichler - 2000 - Perspectives on Science 8 (3):286-315.
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  17. added 2017-02-08
    The Organism.Rudolf Allers - 1941 - New Scholasticism 15 (3):286-289.
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  18. added 2017-02-03
    The Organism as a Whole and its Phyloanalytic Implications.Trigant Burrow - 1937 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 15 (4):259 – 278.
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  19. added 2017-02-01
    How the Choice of Experimental Organism Matters: Biological Practices and Discipline Boundaries.Richard M. Burian - 1992 - Synthese 92 (1):151-166.
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  20. added 2017-01-27
    On the Philosophy of Organism.Ralph Nelson - 2002 - Maritain Studies/Etudes Maritainiennes 18:45-56.
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  21. added 2017-01-26
    The Science and Philosophy of the Organism.E. S. Goodrich - 1929 - The Eugenics Review 21 (3):214.
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  22. added 2017-01-24
    Toward an Organismal, Integrative, and Iterative Phylogeography.David Buckley - 2009 - Bioessays 31 (7):784-793.
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  23. added 2017-01-22
    A Concept of the Organism, Emergent and Resultant.C. Lloyd Morgan - 1926 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 27:141 - 176.
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  24. added 2017-01-19
    The Organism in Development.Robert C. Richardson - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):321.
    Developmental biology has resurfaced in recent years, often without a clearly central role for the organism. The organism is pulled in divergent directions: on the one hand, there is an important body of work that emphasizes the role of the gene in development, as executing and controlling embryological change; on the other hand, there are more theoretical approaches under which the organism disappears as little more than an instance for testing biological generalizations. I press here for the ineliminability of the (...)
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  25. added 2017-01-19
    Note on the Structural Philosophy of Organism.L. L. Whyte - 1955 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 5 (20):332-334.
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  26. added 2017-01-19
    The Science and Philosophy of the Organism.Francis B. Sumner - 1910 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 7 (12):309-330.
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  27. added 2017-01-18
    Symposium "the Organism in Philosophical Focus"--An Introduction.Manfred D. Laubichler - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):259.
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  28. added 2017-01-18
    Eternal Objects and the Philosophy of Organism.George Gentry - 1946 - Philosophy of Science 13 (3):252-260.
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  29. added 2017-01-18
    Mechanism and Organism.C. Judson Herrick - 1929 - Journal of Philosophy 26 (22):589-597.
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  30. added 2017-01-17
    “Man-Machines and Embodiment: From Cartesian Physiology to Claude Bernard’s ‘Living Machine’”.Charles T. Wolfe & Philippe Huneman - forthcoming - In Justin E. H. Smith (ed.), Embodiment, Oxford Philosophical Concepts. Oxford University Press.
    A common and enduring early modern intuition is that materialists reduce organisms in general and human beings in particular to automata. Wasn’t a famous book of the time entitled L’Homme-Machine? In fact, the machine is employed as an analogy, and there was a specifically materialist form of embodiment, in which the body is not reduced to an inanimate machine, but is conceived as an affective, flesh-and-blood entity. We discuss how mechanist and vitalist models of organism exist in a more complementary (...)
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  31. added 2017-01-17
    A Contribution to the Theory of the Living Organism.James W. Papez & W. E. Agar - 1945 - Philosophical Review 54 (3):274.
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  32. added 2017-01-16
    Targeting the Organism: The Scientific and Cultural Context of Pascual Jordan's Quantum Biology, 1932-1947.Richard H. Beyler - 1996 - Isis 87 (2):248-273.
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  33. added 2017-01-16
    General Biology and Philosophy of Organism.H. T. C. & Ralph Stayner Lillie - 1946 - Journal of Philosophy 43 (17):475.
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  34. added 2017-01-16
    Some Basic Implications of a Concept of Organism for Psychology.W. W. Martin - 1945 - Psychological Review 52 (6):333-343.
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  35. added 2017-01-16
    VII.—A Concept of the Organism, Emergent and Resultant.C. Lloyd Morgan - 1927 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 27 (1):141-176.
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  36. added 2017-01-14
    General Biology and Philosophy of Organism. [REVIEW]T. C. H. - 1946 - Journal of Philosophy 43 (17):475-476.
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  37. added 2017-01-03
    Biological Autonomy: Can a Universal and Gradable Conception Be Operationalized?Argyris Arnellos - 2016 - Biological Theory 11 (1):11-24.
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  38. added 2016-12-08
    How the Choice of Experimental Organism Matters: Epistemological Reflections on an Aspect of Biological Practice.Richard M. Burian - 1993 - Journal of the History of Biology 26 (2):351-367.
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  39. added 2016-12-08
    The Problem of the Organic Individual: Ernst Haeckel and the Development of the Biogenetic Law.Ruth G. Rinard - 1981 - Journal of the History of Biology 14 (2):249-275.
  40. added 2016-08-16
    The Organism as Ontological Go-Between: Hybridity, Boundaries and Degrees of Reality in its Conceptual History.Charles T. Wolfe - 2014 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48:151-161.
    The organism is neither a discovery like the circulation of the blood or the glycogenic function of the liver, nor a particular biological theory like epigenesis or preformationism. It is rather a concept which plays a series of roles, sometimes masked, often normative, throughout the history of biology. Indeed, it has often been presented as a key-concept in life science and its ‘theorization’, but conversely has also been the target of influential rejections: as just an instrument of transmission for the (...)
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  41. added 2016-07-25
    The Ethics of Eating as a Human Organism.Caleb Ward - 2016 - In Mary C. Rawlinson & Caleb Ward (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Food Ethics. Routledge. pp. 48-58.
    Conventional ethics of how humans should eat often ignore that human life is itself a form of organic activity. Using Henri Bergson’s notions of intellect and intuition, this chapter brings a wider perspective of the human organism to the ethical question of how humans appropriate life for nutriment. The intellect’s tendency to instrumentalize living things as though they were inert seems to subtend the moral failures evident in practices such as industrial animal agriculture. Using the case study of Temple Grandin’s (...)
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  42. added 2016-05-05
    En Kropslig Kultur Historie - om omverdens relationen".Maria Brincker - 2012 - In E. O. Pedersen & A.-M. S. Christensen (eds.), Mennesket - En Introduktion Til Filosofisk Antropologi. Systime. pp. 197-216.
    This chapter deals with the way our psychology and actions a scaffolded by their environment but also the tensions that can appear between individual and environment, both at the level of biology and culture. The chapter is grounded in an analysis of the early 20th century theoretical biologist Jacob von Uexkull and his notion of "Umwelt" or "surround world". But also raises the question of whether organisms fit their environment as neatly as Uexkull and many later thinkers have proposed or (...)
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  43. added 2016-02-15
    Biological Explanations, Realism, Ontology, and Categories.Matthew J. Barker - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):617-622.
  44. added 2015-09-06
    The Logical Structure of the Linnaen Hierarchy.Roger C. Buck & David L. Hull - 1966 - Systematic Zoology 15 (2):97-111.
  45. added 2015-04-04
    A Contribution to the Theory of the Living Organism. [REVIEW]Alice R. Walker - 1943 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 21 (2-3):152.
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  46. added 2015-03-26
    Atom and Organism: A New Approach to Theoretical Biology. [REVIEW]A. R. E. - 1967 - Review of Metaphysics 20 (4):718-718.
  47. added 2015-03-24
    The Return of the Organism as a Fundamental Explanatory Concept in Biology.Daniel J. Nicholson - 2014 - Philosophy Compass 9 (5):347-359.
    Although it may seem like a truism to assert that biology is the science that studies organisms, during the second half of the twentieth century the organism category disappeared from biological theory. Over the past decade, however, biology has begun to witness the return of the organism as a fundamental explanatory concept. There are three major causes: (a) the realization that the Modern Synthesis does not provide a fully satisfactory understanding of evolution; (b) the growing awareness of the limits of (...)
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  48. added 2015-03-24
    Philosophy of Biology, Psychology, and Neuroscience-The Organism in Philosophical Focus-Ontological Butchery: Organism Concepts and Biological Generalizations.Manfred D. Laubichier & Jack A. Wilson - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3).
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  49. added 2015-03-24
    Philosophy of Biology, Psychology, and Neuroscience-The Organism in Philosophical Focus-Organism and Character Decomposition: Steps Towards an Integrative Theory of Biology.Manfred D. Laubichier, Manfred D. Laubichler & Gunter P. Wagner - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3).
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  50. added 2015-03-21
    The Concept of the Organism as an Integrated Whole.H. P. Wolvekamp - 1966 - Dialectica 20 (2):196-214.
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