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221 found
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  1. Desocialization in and after the pandemic.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Social isolation (desocialization) implies a complete or almost complete lack of contact between an individual and society. This can be a problem for people of any age, although the symptoms may differ depending on the age group. Social isolation can include staying home for long periods of time, and lack of face-to-face communication with family, acquaintances, friends, or co-workers. Social isolation can lead to feelings of loneliness, fear of others or negative self-esteem. We cannot exist independently of our relationships with (...)
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  2. Aspects philosophiques des pandémies.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    De l'existentialisme d'Albert Camus et Sartre, au remplacement du rituel d'exclusion par le mécanisme disciplinaire de Michel Foucault, forme idéale de contrôle des autorités étatiques de toutes les formes de « désordre », et à la modernité virale et au bioinformationalisme. Et à propos de l'hypothèse Gaia, développée par James Lovelock et soutenue dans la pandémie actuelle par Bruno Latour. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.20639.18089.
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  3. Life and death in a pandemic.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    A brief retrospective of the COVID-19 virus that caused the current pandemic, its life cycle and its history. Reactions, measures and effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. A presentation of various philosophical approaches, with an emphasis on the philosophy of death, eco-psychoanalysis, and appeal to the philosophies of Sigmund Freud and Albert Camus. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.14848.25608.
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  4. Viața și moartea în pandemie.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    O scurtă retrospectivă a virusul COVID-19 care a cauzat actuala pandemie, a cilului său de viață și a istoriei sale. Reacții, măsuri și efecte ale pandemiei COVID-19. O prezentare a diverselor abordări filosofice, cu accent pe filosofia morții, ecopsihanaliză, și apel la filosofiile lui Sigmund Freud și Albert Camus. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.17900.59528.
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  5. Desocializarea în și după pandemie.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Izolarea socială (desocializarea) presupune o lipsă completă sau aproape completă de contact între un individ și societate. Aceasta poate fi o problemă pentru persoanele de orice vârstă, deși simptomele pot diferi în funcție de grupul de vârstă. Izolarea socială poate include șederea acasă pentru perioade îndelungate de timp, și lipsa comunicării față în față cu familia, cunoștințele, prietenii sau colegii de servici. Izolarea socială poate duce la sentimente de singurătate, frica de ceilalți sau stima de sine negativă. Nu putem exista (...)
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  6. A travers la pandémie, vers un nouveau communisme ?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Suite à la déclaration de la pandémie COVID-19, Slavoj Žižek a publié un livre intitulé « Pandemic!: COVID-19 Shakes the World », qui a déclenché une vague de réactions. Dans le livre, il présente comment les médias ont impitoyablement exploité ce sujet, accentuant la panique. De nombreuses études majeures ont prédit l'émergence d'une telle pandémie, mais ont été ignorées par tous les gouvernements, les déclarant exagérées. Žižek estime que la pandémie actuelle a conduit à la faillite du capitalisme « barbare (...)
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  7. Lumea după pandemia COVID-19.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    În cazul pandemiei COVID-19, există unele semne ale schimbării de paradigmă, inclusiv dispariția bruscă a ideologiei legate de „ziduri”: ”o tuse a fost suficientă pentru a face dintr-o dată imposibilă evitarea responsabilității pe care fiecare individ o are față de toate ființele vii pentru simplul fapt că este parte a acestei lumi, și a dorinței de a fi parte a ei”. Întregul este întotdeauna implicat în parte, pentru că totul este, într-un anumit sens, în tot și în natură nu există (...)
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  8. Désocialisation pendant et après la pandémie.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    L'isolement social (désocialisation) implique une absence totale ou presque totale de contact entre un individu et la société. Cela peut être un problème pour les personnes de tout âge, bien que les symptômes puissent différer selon le groupe d'âge. L'isolement social peut inclure le fait de rester à la maison pendant de longues périodes et le manque de communication face à face avec la famille, les connaissances, les amis ou les collègues. L'isolement social peut conduire à des sentiments de solitude, (...)
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  9. Biopolitique dans la pandémie COVID-19.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Le biopouvoir fait référence à la pratique des États-nations modernes à travers une explosion de techniques nombreuses et diverses pour parvenir à l'assujettissement des corps et au contrôle des populations. Foucault a utilisé le terme pour désigner spécifiquement les pratiques de santé publique, entre autres mécanismes de régulation. La biopolitique est un concept qui prend en compte la gestion de la vie et des populations d'une région gouvernée. La biopolitique produit une société disciplinaire généralisée et des contrôles réglementaires à travers (...)
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  10. L'éthique pendant la pandémie.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Les plus grandes institutions médicales et divers éthiciens préconisent une approche utilitariste en période de crise de santé publique, afin de maximiser les bénéfices pour la société, en conflit direct avec notre vision habituelle (kantienne) du respect des personnes en tant qu'individus. Un problème central de l'utilitarisme est qu'il n'y a pas de moyen clair d'évaluer les choix moraux, y compris dans les décisions médicales. En général, l'éthique médicale kantienne est respectée en médecine. Mais dans une pandémie, lorsque les ressources (...)
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  11. Dimensiuni sociale ale pandemiilor.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Virușii coabitează de cca. 300 milioane de ani cu oamenii. Uneori, virușii pot infecta oamenii pe scară largă. Dar, cum a fost posibilă actuala pandemie? Încălzirea globală determină fenomene meteorologice extreme care au dus la o creștere a bolilor infecțioase. Noul climat poate susține vectori epidemiologici pentru perioade mai lungi de timp, creând condiții mai favorabile replicării și apariția de noi vectori. În cazul bolilor infecțioase emergente, se consideră că există o graniță peste care s-a sărit deja. Virușii au, în (...)
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  12. Prin pandemie, spre un nou comunism?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    După declararea pandemiei COVID-19, Slavoj Žižek a publicat o carte numită „Pandemic!: COVID-19 Shakes the World”, care a declanșat un val de reacții. În carte, el prezintă modul în care media a exploatat fără milă acest subiect, accentuând panica. Multe studii majore au prezis apariția unei astfel de pandemii, dar au fost ignorate de toate guvernele, declarându-le ca fiind exagerate. Žižek crede că actuala pandemie a dus la falimentul actualului capitalism ”barbar”, întrebându-se dacă nu cumva drumul pe care îl va (...)
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  13. Biopolitics in the COVID-19 pandemic.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Biopower refers to the practice of modern nation-states through an explosion of numerous and diverse techniques for achieving the subjugation of bodies and the control of populations. Foucault used the term to refer specifically to public health practices, among other regulatory mechanisms. Biopolitics is a concept that takes into account the management of the life and populations of a governed region. Biopolitics produces a generalized disciplinary society and regulatory controls through population biopolitics. Giorgio Agamben states that what is manifesting in (...)
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  14. Dimensions sociales des pandémies.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Les virus coexistent pendant env. 300 millions d'années avec les humains. Parfois, les virus peuvent infecter les gens à grande échelle. Mais comment la pandémie actuelle a-t-elle été possible ? Le réchauffement climatique est à l'origine d'événements météorologiques extrêmes qui ont conduit à une augmentation des maladies infectieuses. Le nouveau climat peut soutenir les vecteurs épidémiologiques pendant de plus longues périodes, créant des conditions plus favorables à la réplication et à l'émergence de nouveaux vecteurs. Dans le cas des maladies infectieuses (...)
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  15. Social Dimensions of Pandemics.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    The viruses coexist for approx. 300 million years with the humans. Sometimes viruses can infect people on a large scale. But how was the current pandemic possible? Global warming is causing extreme weather events that have led to an increase in infectious diseases. The new climate can support epidemiological vectors for longer periods of time, creating more favorable conditions for replication and the emergence of new vectors. In the case of emerging infectious diseases, it is considered that there is a (...)
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  16. Biopolitica în pandemia COVID-19.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Bioputerea face referire la practica statelor naționale moderne prin o explozie de numeroase și diverse tehnici pentru realizarea subjugării corpurilor și controlul populațiilor. Foucault a folosit termenul pentru a se referi în mod specific la practicile de sănătate publică, printre alte mecanisme de reglementare. Biopolitica este un concept care ia în considerare administrarea vieții și a populațiilor unei regiuni guvernate. Biopolitica produce o societate disciplinară generalizată și controale de reglementare prin biopolitica populației. Giorgio Agamben afirmă că ceea ce se manifestă (...)
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  17. La vie et la mort pendant une pandémie.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Une brève rétrospective du virus COVID-19 qui a causé la pandémie actuelle, son cycle de vie et son histoire. Réactions, mesures et effets de la pandémie COVID-19. Une présentation des diverses approches philosophiques, avec un accent sur la philosophie de la mort, l'écopsychanalyse, et un appel aux philosophies de Sigmund Freud et Albert Camus. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.35853.36328 .
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  18. Ethics in the pandemic.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    The largest medical institutions and various ethicists advocate a utilitarian approach in times of public health crises, to maximize benefits for society, in direct conflict with our usual (Kantian) view of respect for people as individuals. A central problem with utilitarianism is that there is no clear way to evaluate moral choices, including in medical decisions. In general, in medicine is respected the Kantian medical ethics. But in a pandemic, when resources are poor, deep choices of life and death must (...)
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  19. Through the pandemic, towards a new communism?Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic, Slavoj Žižek published a book called "Pandemic!: COVID-19 Shakes the World", which triggered a wave of reactions. In the book, he presents how the media ruthlessly exploited this subject, accentuating the panic. Many major studies have predicted the emergence of such a pandemic, but have been ignored by all governments, declaring them to be exaggerated. Žižek believes that the current pandemic has led to the bankruptcy of the current "barbaric" capitalism, wondering if the (...)
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  20. Philosophical aspects of pandemics.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    From the existentialism of Albert Camus and Sartre, to the replacement of the exclusion ritual with the disciplinary mechanism of Michel Foucault, an ideal form of control of state authorities of all forms of "disorder", and viral modernity and bioinformationalism. And about the Gaia hypothesis, developed by James Lovelock and supported in the current pandemic by Bruno Latour. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34967.80801.
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  21. Aspecte filosofice ale pandemiilor.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    De la existențialismul lui Albert Camus și Sartre, la înlocuirea ritualului de excludere cu mecanismul disciplinar al lui Michel Foucault, o formă ideală de control al autorităților statului a tuturor formelor de ”dezordine”, și modernitatea virală și bioinformaționalism. Și despre ipoteza Gaia, dezvoltată de James Lovelock și susținută în actuala pandemie de Bruno Latour. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.31276.49284.
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  22. Etica în pandemie.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Cele mai mari instituții medicale și diverși eticieni pledează pentru o abordare utilitaristă în perioadele de crize de sănătate publică, pentru a maximiza beneficiile pentru societate, în conflict direct cu viziunea noastră obișnuită (kantiană) privind respectul față de persoane ca indivizi. O problemă centrală a utilitarismului este că nu există nicio modalitate clară de a evalua alegerile morale, inclusiv în deciziile medicale. În general, în medicină se respectă etica medicală kantiană. Dar în pandemie, când resursele sunt sărace, trebuie făcute alegeri (...)
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  23. The world after the COVID-19 pandemic.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    In the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, there are some signs of a shift of paradigm, including the sudden disappearance of the wall ideology: a cough was enough to suddenly make it impossible to avoid the responsibility that each individual has towards all living beings for the simple fact that it is part of this world, and of the desire to be part of it. The whole is always involved in part, because everything is, in a sense, in everything and (...)
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  24. Coronavirus and Conspiracy Theory (فيروس كورونا: نظرية المؤامرة.Salah Osman - manuscript
    لا أحبذ عادةً نظرية المؤامرة في معالجة أية ظاهرة طارئة أو حدث مؤثر، لكن الحُجج التي تسوقها النظرية فيما يتعلق بجائحة كورونا جديرة بالقراءة المتأنية والتأمل والنقاش، أو على الأقل جديرة بالمعرفة، لاسيما وأن من يتبناها كتابٌ كبار مثل البريطانيين «ديفيد آيك»، و«فيرنون كولمان» (الأول له أكثر من عشرين كتابًا في نظريات التلاعب بالعقول، والثاني له أكثر من مائة كتاب في الصحة العامة والسياسة وحقوق الحيوان). مؤدي النظرية باختصار أن فيروس كورونا جزءٌ من خطة تحويها أجندة سياسية – اقتصادية دولية (...)
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  25. Coronavirus (COVID-19): Philosophical Reflections (1) كوفيد-19 ... مقاربات فلسفية.Salah Osman - manuscript
    تأملات فلسفية حول تفشي فيروس كورونا (كوفيد-19) وأبعاده الاجتماعية والسياسية والدينية والعلمية.
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  26. الحياة المرنة: فن التعايش مع الخطر.Salah Osman - manuscript
    الأمن في الغالب خرافة؛ فلا وجود له في الطبيعة، ولا ينعم به بنو البشر ككل. تجنب الخطر ليس أكثر أمانًا على المدى الطويل من التعرض المباشر له، الحياة إما مغامرة جريئة، أو لا شيء»! مقولة للأديبة الأمريكية «هيلين كيلر»، تُقتبس عادةً في سياقات برامج التنمية البشرية؛ فلأن تُواجه الخطر وأنت حُر ٌخيرٌ لك من أن تلتمس الأمن وأنت ترزح تحت وطأة العبودية؛ ولأن تتجاوز مخاوفك التي تُحذرك من الخطر أكرم لك من أن تستسلم لحياتك البائسة عاجزًا! لكن المقولة – كغيرها (...)
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  27. Coronavirus Ethics (أخلاقيات كورونا).Salah Osman - manuscript
    لا تُخبرني عن الوقت في غرفة مليئة بالساعات! حسنًا، لكن ماذا لو كنت في هذه الغرفة وأنت عاجزٌ عن معرفة الوقت، أو كنت تعرفه لكنك لا تستطيع استثماره؟ تاريخٌ طويل لأخلاقيات البيولوجيا، وأخلاقيات الطب، وأخلاقيات المهنة، أصبح اليوم على المحك؛ آلاف المؤتمرات واللجان والمنشورات بدت وكأنها بلا نفع أو تأثير يُذكر اليوم! ففي خضم الأزمة الدولية الخانقة لفيروس كورونا أدرك كثيرون أن ثمة فرقًا هائلاً بين أن تقوم بالتنظير الأخلاقي وأن تلتمس تطبيقه؛ وأن لأخلاقيات الدول والحروب – أيًا كانت طبيعتها (...)
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  28. Coronavirus Pandemic: Philosophers in Lockdown جائحة كورونا ... فلاسفة في العُزلة.Salah Osman - manuscript
    كان يمشي في الأرض مرحًا، مُصعرًا خده للطبيعة، ومُنتشيًا برفاهيات حضاراته؛ أو يخطو فوق أديمها مهمومًا بضنك العيش، يعتصره ألم البحث عن قوت يومه، قبل أن يُفاجئه الفيروس التاجي ليقلب حياته رأسًا على عقب. إنه الإنسان، ذلك المجهول لنفسه، الجاهل بعلمه، المغرور بعقله، الضعيف بقوته، المتناقض مع ذاته، الفقير بثرواته الضخمة! فجأة باتت تعتمل بداخله مشاعر الحيرة والخوف والقلق، تؤرقه تساؤلات تسخر من عجزه الصارخ عن الإجابة عنها: ما أصل هذا الفيروس؟ هل هو نبتٌ طبيعي أم مؤامرة من بني جلدته؟ (...)
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  29. The Message of Coronavirus: Playing a Tight String between Science and Ploitics رسالة كورونا: عزفٌ على الوتر المشدود بين العلم والسياسة.Salah Osman - manuscript
    على مدى سنواتٍ طويلة، شغلتني إشكالية العلاقة بين العلم والسياسة، قراءةً وبحثًا وإشرافًا على أطروحات تُعالج هذه العلاقة وتأثيراتها على الكوكب المُثقل بنا وبما كسبت أيدينا. قد تبدو هذه العلاقة للوهلة الأولى علاقة اعتماد متبادل؛ فالبحوث والكشوف العلمية في حاجةٍ إلى تمويل، والتمويل يأتي من قبل الحكومات، أو من قبل أرباب رؤوس الأموال الذين يُهيمنون على سياسات الدول والحكومات؛ كما أن الدول والحكومات في حاجة إلى البحوث والكشوف العلمية لتنفيذ برامجها التنموية والانتصار لأيديولوجياتها. يُمكننا تمثيل هذه العلاقة بين العلم والسياسة (...)
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  30. فيروس كورونا: عندما تكون مواجهة المرض أسوأ من المرض.Salah Osman - manuscript
    كان من الطبيعي أن ينصب اهتمام العالم خلال الشهور الأخيرة على فيروس كورونا وكيفية تجاوز جائحته بأقل خسائر مُمكنة، فقد بلغ عدد قتلاه حتى اليوم (2 يونيو 2020) 380.265 شخص، وبات الاقتصاد في حالة فوضى يُرثى لها، وتقلصت حياة البشر وخُطتهم اليومية والمستقبلية بشكلٍ شبه كامل، وتعثرت الدراسة بالمدارس والجامعات، واضطرب الأداء الحكومي في أغلب بلدان العالم، ... إلخ. لكن تركيز الجميع على مشكلةٍ بعينها في عالمٍ يعج بالمشكلات من شأنه أن يُقوض كافة الجهود التي بُذلت أو تُبذل من أجل (...)
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  31. A Crisis of Confidence (أزمة ثقة).Salah Osman - manuscript
    لا تأخذ الأمر على محملٍ شخصي؛ فحين يتعلق الأمر بالمرض والموت، يتلاشى الاهتمام بما إذا كنت صديقي أو قريبي أو جاري أو شخصًا غريبًا عني؛ لا تعنيني الآن هويتك أو علمك أو سياستك، ولا يشغلني أين أو ماذا تعمل، أو ما إذا كنت تعمل أصلاً، ولا يختلف الأمر عندي سواء أكنت ترتدي قناعًا أو تحمل مسدسًا أو تُمسك قلمًا! في الوقت الحالي، أنا لا أثق بك؛ فأنت بالنسبة لي حاملٌ محتملٌ لفيروس قاتل!
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  32. Basic Reproduction Number: why is Social Isolation Necessary (رقم التكاثر: لماذا أصبح العزل الاجتماعي ضروريًا؟).Salah Osman - manuscript
    في علم الأوبئة، يمثل رقم التكاثر الأساسي عدد الحالات التي تُنتجها حالة واحدة مُصابة خلال فترة العدوى بين مجموعة غير مُصابة،. وبصفة عامة، إذا كان رقم التكاثر أقل من (1)، فإن فرصة العدوى ستتضاءل حتى يختفي المرض تمامًا، أما إن كان أكبر من (1)، فإن كل شخص مُصاب سوف ينقل العدوى إلى شخصٍ آخر على الأقل، مع الوضع في الاعتبار عدم تجانس المجتمعات من حيث نمط الحياة. وتتراوح التقديرات الحالية لعدد التكاثر الأساسي لفيروس كورونا المستجد (أو كوفيد-19) بين 2 و3، (...)
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  33. Is Extinction Risk Mitigation Uniquely Cost-Effective? Not in Standard Population Models.Gustav Alexandrie & Maya Eden - forthcoming - In Jacob Barrett, Hilary Greaves & David Thorstad (eds.), Essays on Longtermism. Oxford University Press.
    What socially beneficial causes should philanthropists prioritize if they give equal ethical weight to the welfare of current and future generations? Many have argued that, because human extinction would result in a permanent loss of all future generations, extinction risk mitigation should be the top priority given this impartial stance. Using standard models of population dynamics, we challenge this conclusion. We first introduce a theoretical framework for quantifying undiscounted cost-effectiveness over the long term. We then show that standard population models (...)
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  34. On the Uses and Abuses of Celebrity Epistemic Power.Alfred Archer, Mark Alfano & Matthew Dennis - forthcoming - Social Epistemology.
    The testimonies of celebrities affect the lives of their many followers who pay attention to what they say. This gives celebrities a high degree of epistemic power, which has come under close scrutiny during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper investigates the duties that arise from this power. We argue that celebrities have a negative duty of testimonial justice not to undermine trust in authoritative sources by spreading misinformation or directing attention to untrustworthy sources. Moreover, celebrities have a general imperfect duty (...)
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  35. An ethical analysis of vaccinating children against COVID-19: benefits, risks, and issues of global health equity [version 2; peer review: 1 approved, 1 approved with reservations].Rachel Gur-Arie, Steven R. Kraaijeveld & Euzebiusz Jamrozik - forthcoming - Wellcome Open Research.
    COVID-19 vaccination of children has begun in various high-income countries with regulatory approval and general public support, but largely without careful ethical consideration. This trend is expected to extend to other COVID-19 vaccines and lower ages as clinical trials progress. This paper provides an ethical analysis of COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children. Specifically, we argue that it is currently unclear whether routine COVID-19 vaccination of healthy children is ethically justified in most contexts, given the minimal direct benefit that COVID-19 vaccination (...)
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  36. Saving Animals, Saving Ourselves: Why Animals Matter for Pandemics, Climate Change, and Other Catastrophes; By Jeff Sebo. [REVIEW]Kyle Johannsen - forthcoming - Utilitas.
  37. A lay perspective on prioritization for intensive care in pandemic times: Vaccination status matters.Philipp Sprengholz, Lars Korn, Lisa Felgendreff, Sarah Eitze & Cornelia Betsch - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092210944.
    During a pandemic, demand for intensive care often exceeds availability. Experts agree that allocation should maximize benefits and must not be based on whether patients could have taken preventive measures. However, intensive care units are often overburdened by individuals with severe COVID-19 who have chosen not to be vaccinated to prevent the disease. This article reports an experiment that investigated the German public's prioritization preferences during the fourth wave of the coronavirus pandemic. In a series of scenarios, participants were asked (...)
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  38. Betting against pandemics: Ethical implications of the “COVID Claimania” in Taiwan, 2020‐2022.Ming-Jui Yeh & Yi-Zheng Liao - forthcoming - Developing World Bioethics.
    Among measures tackling the impacts of the COVID‐19 pandemic, the selling of private insurance policies covering individual infection is overlooked by the ethics literature. To record the “COVID Claimania” in Taiwan and to assess its ethical implications, we collected 38 policies from 10 insurers sold between January 2020 and May 2022 and found that their risk calculation of the COVID‐19 prevalence ranged from 0.5% to 11.08%. In reality, the prevalence by the end of 2022 was 37% in Taiwan. Selling private (...)
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  39. Institutional Responsibility is Prior to Personal Responsibility in a Pandemic.Ben Davies & Julian Savulescu - 2024 - Journal of Value Inquiry 58 (2):215-234.
    On 26 January 2021, while announcing that the country had reached the mark of 100,000 deaths within 28 days of COVID-19, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson said that he took “full responsibility for everything that the Government has done” as part of British efforts to tackle the pandemic. The force of this statement was undermined, however, by what followed: -/- What I can tell you is that we truly did everything we could, and continue to do everything that we can, (...)
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  40. Gain-of-function research and model organisms in biology.Nicholas G. Evans & Charles H. Pence - 2024 - Journal of Medical Ethics 50 (3):201-206.
    So-called ‘gain-of-function’ (GOF) research is virological research that results in a virus substantially more virulent or transmissible than its wild antecedent. GOF research has been subject to ethical analysis in the past, but the methods of GOF research have to date been underexamined by philosophers in these analyses. Here, we examine the typical animal used in influenza GOF experiments, the ferret, and show how despite its longstanding use, it does not easily satisfy the desirable criteria for ananimal model. We then (...)
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  41. Separating the Signal from the Noise in Public Health Messaging: The UK’s COVID-19 Experience.Gah-Kai Leung - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (4):99-101.
    Spitale, Germani, and Biller-Andorno’s (2024) PHERCC matrix sets out a useful and systematic framework for risk and crisis communication in public health emergencies. A problem in ensuring effective messaging is the extent to which the messaging environment is *quiet* or *noisy*: in other words, whether or not a message has to *compete with other messages* at the same time. I use the example of the UK’s experience during COVID-19, which was marked by tensions between the devolved regional governments—and consequently divergent (...)
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  42. How to Balance Lives and Livelihoods in a Pandemic.Matthew D. Adler, Richard Bradley, Marc Fleurbaey, Maddalena Ferranna, James Hammitt, Remi Turquier & Alex Voorhoeve - 2023 - In Julian Savulescu & Dominic Wilkinson (eds.), Pandemic Ethics: From Covid-19 to Disease X. Oxford University Press. pp. 189-209.
    Control measures, such as “lockdowns”, have been widely used to suppress the COVID-19 pandemic. Under some conditions, they prevent illness and save lives. But they also exact an economic toll. How should we balance the impact of such policies on individual lives and livelihoods (and other dimensions of concern) to determine which is best? A widely used method of policy evaluation, benefit–cost analysis (BCA), answers these questions by converting all the effects of a policy into monetary equivalents and then summing (...)
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  43. Why ethical frameworks fail to deliver in a pandemic: Are proposed alternatives an improvement?Chris Degeling, Jane Williams, Gwendolyn L. Gilbert & Jane Johnson - 2023 - Bioethics 37 (8):806-813.
    In the past decade, numerous ethical frameworks have been developed to support public health decision‐making in challenging areas. Before the COVID‐19 pandemic began, members of the authorship team were involved in research programmes, in which the development of ethical frameworks was planned, to guide (a) the use of new technologies for emerging infectious disease surveillance; and (b) the allocation of scarce supplies of pandemic influenza vaccine. However, as the pandemic evolved, significant practical challenges emerged that led to our questioning the (...)
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  44. Civil Liberties in a Lockdown: The Case of COVID-19.Samuel Director & Christopher Freiman - 2023 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 1 (6):1-24.
    In response to the spread of COVID-19, governments across the world have, with very few exceptions, enacted sweeping restrictive lockdown policies that impede citizens’ freedom to move, work, and assemble. This paper critically responds to the central arguments for restrictive lockdown legislation. We build our critique on the following assumption: public policy that enjoys virtually unanimous support worldwide should be justified by uncontroversial moral principles. We argue that that the virtually unanimous support in favor of restrictive lockdowns is not adequately (...)
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  45. ‘VaxTax’: a follow-up proposal for a global vaccine pandemic response fund.Federico Germani, Felicitas Holzer, Ivette Ortiz, Nikola Biller-Andorno & Julian W. März - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (3):160-164.
    Equal access to vaccines has been one of the key ethical challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most scholars consider the massive purchase and hoarding of vaccines by high-income countries, especially at the beginning of the pandemic, to be unjust towards the vulnerable living in low-income countries. A recent proposal by Andreas Albertsen of a vaccine tax has been put forward to remedy this problem. Under such a scheme, high-income countries would pay a contribution, conceptualised as a vaccine tax, dedicated to (...)
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  46. Positive biases and psychological functioning during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.Tricia Gower, Kimberly S. Chiew, David Rosenfield & Holly J. Bowen - 2023 - Cognition and Emotion 37 (6):1123-1131.
    Many individuals have experienced a multitude of chronic stressors and diminished psychological functioning during COVID-19. The current study examined whether biases towards positive social media or positive autobiographical memories was related to increases in psychological functioning during COVID-19. Participants were 1071 adults (Mage = 46.31; 58% female; 78% White) recruited from MTurk. Participants reported on their social media consumption and autobiographical recall, positive and negative affect, and dysphoria symptoms. Results indicated that, at the first assessment collected in the spring and (...)
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  47. Should infectious disease modelling research be subject to ethics review?Ben Green - 2023 - Philosophy, Ethics and Humanities in Medicine 18 (1):1-7.
    Should research projects involving epidemiological modelling be subject to ethical scrutiny and peer review prior to publication? Mathematical modelling had considerable impacts during the COVID-19 pandemic, leading to social distancing and lockdowns. Imperial College conducted research leading to the website publication of a paper, Report 9, on non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and COVID-19 mortality demand dated 16th March 2020, arguing for a Government policy of non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g. lockdowns, social distancing, mask wearing, working from home, furlough, school closures, reduced family interaction (...)
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  48. Health disparities from pandemic policies: reply to critics.Nancy S. Jecker - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (5):348-349.
    In ‘Does zero-COVID neglect health disparities?’ we made the case that strict zero-COVID policies implemented during the coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) pandemic raise health equity concerns so serious that these policies are not ethically sustainable.1 Zero-COVID, which has dominated many Pacific Rim societies, sets zero deaths from COVID-19 as a goal, and aims to reach it by forcefully containing transmission through short-term lockdowns, followed by stringent find, test, trace and isolate methods. Since the paper appeared in 2021, the Omicron variant (...)
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  49. 'Creatures in our bed': Pandemics, posthumanism and predatory nature in _World War Z_ (2013).Samiksha Laltha - 2023 - HTS Theological Studies 79 (3):1-6.
    This article provided a literary analysis of the film text World War Z (2013, dir. Marc Forster) with a specific focus on the pandemic depicted in the film and its relationship to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This discussion foregrounded the figure of the 'zombie' and the cultural anxieties that this literary figure represents. The pandemic in the film is brought about through an environmental crisis that mimics our own. Mother Earth and nature, personified as female, feature significantly in (...)
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  50. The Impact of Transmissible Microbes: How the Cystic Fibrosis Community Mobilized Against Cepacia.Rebecca Mueller - 2023 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 66 (1):89-106.
    Abstractabstract:Long before COVID-19 made social distancing familiar, people with cystic fibrosis (CF) already practiced such behaviors. CF is held up as a classic example of genetic disease, yet people with CF are also susceptible to bacteria from the environment and from other CF patients. Starting in the 1980s, a bacterial epidemic in the CF population highlighted clashing priorities of connection, physical safety, and environmental protection. Policymakers ultimately called for the physical separation of people with CF from one another via recommendations (...)
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