About this topic
Summary Very roughly, all variants of pantheism takes God to be an all-inclusive unity. If we assume ontological naturalism, this means that God is identical with the cosmos. This is not to say that each proper part of the universe is divine. Rather, the entire universe exhibits a range of qualities sufficient to ground our theological discourse. Exactly what the proper fundamental ontology must be for pantheism to be true is a matter of some dispute. While many associate pantheism with an ontological commitment to substance monism, pantheism does not imply any such commitment. A variety of different proposals have been offered both in the history of philosophy and in more recent work in philosophy of religion to account for how the cosmos can exhibit the right features to be described as divine. And there is no shortage of proposals of what qualities must be possessed for any such all-inclusive unity to be genuinely divine and the proper object of some religious attitudes.
Key works Pantheistic ideas are present not only in the history of philosophy in the West, but also in movements in many world religions. Focusing on philosophy, some (e.g., Baltzly 2003) have argued that the Stoics should be regarded as pantheists. But  Spinoza's Ethics (de Spinoza & Curley 1994:) is regarded by many as providing the first clear and systematic presentation and defense of pantheism. That said, some (e.g., Curley 1969)have denied that Spinoza is best understood as a pantheist (but see Guilherme 2008 for a reply to Curley). After Spinoza, among Anglophone philosophers, some philosophers leading up to today have expressed sympathy for pantheism (e.g., Edward Caird 1894, Josiah Royce 1901, T.L.S. Sprigge 2006, Grace  Jantzen 1984, John Leslie 2001, and Peter Forrest 2016). Perhaps one of the most interesting recent developments in the literature on pantheism has been philosophers considering the implications of panpsychism (in particular, cosmopsychism) for pantheism (Goff forthcoming). For an opinionated (and somewhat controversial) book-length survey of pantheism, including its commitments and implications (both theoretical and practical), see Levine 1994. For a recent collection of essays by analytic philosophers of religion on alternative conceptions of the divine, including both defenses and critiques of pantheism, see Buckareff & Nagasawa 2016.
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  1. added 2018-07-10
    Был ли бог стоиков личностью? (Was the Stoic God a Person?).Pavel Butakov - 2017 - ΣΧΟΛΗ: Ancient Philosophy and The Classical Tradition 11 (2):558-569.
    Peter Forrest claims that his “Personal Pantheist” conception of God is in agreement with the Stoic pantheism. The traditional interpretation, however, treats the Stoic God as the non-personal universal law. I demonstrate that arguments in favor of the personal interpretation typically imply either a personalist or an anthropocentric metaphysical foundation. I also argue that the Stoics were neither personalists nor anthropocentrists, therefore those arguments should be rejected.
  2. added 2018-02-16
    God, Mind, and Logical Space: A Revisionary Approach to Divinity.István Aranyosi - 2013 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    In God, Mind and Logical Space István Aranyosi takes the reader on a journey for the mind by revisiting the fundamental questions and the everlasting debates in philosophy of religion, ontology, and the philosophy of mind. The first part deals with issues in ontology, and the author puts forward a radical view according to which all thinkable objects and states of affairs have an equal claim to existence in a way that renders existence a relative notion. In the second part (...)
  3. added 2017-04-27
    Theistic Consubstantialism and Omniscience.Andrei A. Buckareff - 2018 - Religious Studies 54 (2):233-245.
    According to theistic consubstantialism, the universe and God are essentially made of the same stuff. If theistic consubstantialism is correct, then God possesses the essential power to have knowledge de se of the contents of the mind of every conscious being internal to God. If theistic consubstantialism is false, then God lacks this essential property. So either God is essentially corporeal and possesses greater essential epistemic powers than God would have otherwise or God is essentially incorporeal and has a diminished (...)
  4. added 2016-12-21
    Alternative Concepts of God: Essays on the Metaphysics of the Divine.Andrei Buckareff & Yujin Nagasawa (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    According to traditional Judeo-Christian-Islamic theism, God is an omniscient, omnipotent, and morally perfect agent. This volume shows that philosophy of religion needs to take seriously alternative concepts of the divine, and demonstrates the considerable philosophical interest that they hold.
  5. added 2016-10-21
    Michael P. Levine, Pantheism: A Non-Theistic Concept of Deity.D. Webster - forthcoming - Radical Philosophy.
  6. added 2016-10-21
    The Difficulty with Demarcating Panentheism.R. T. Mullins - 2016 - Sophia 55 (3):325-346.
    In certain theological circles today, panentheism is all the rage. One of the most notorious difficulties with panentheism lies in figuring out what panentheism actually is. There have been several attempts in recent literature to demarcate panentheism from classical theism, neo-classical theism, open theism, and pantheism. I shall argue that these attempts to demarcate panentheism from these other positions fail. Then I shall offer my own demarcation.
  7. added 2016-10-21
    Мышление природы и природа мышления: Коген о Спинозе.Luca Bertolino - 2015 - Кантовский Сборник. Научный Журнал (3 (53)):48-65.
  8. added 2016-10-21
    Libertinaje en el siglo XVII.Gabriel Albiac - 2015 - Ingenium. Revista Electrónica de Pensamiento Moderno y Metodología En Historia de la Ideas 9:77-95.
    This article tries to draw the polemical genealogy of the term and concept of “libertinism”. Its sense, as it is forged in early Modernity, in the works of Calvin, and in the backgroud of the first Protestant Reformation, is merely contemptuous and, above all, it is due to a clearly critical strategy: the construction of a fictional enemy in confrontation with which it is possible to reinforce the basis of modern Christianism.
  9. added 2016-10-21
    Carl Schmitt and the Challenge of Spinoza’s Pantheism Between the World Wars.Rene Koekkoek - 2014 - Modern Intellectual History 11 (2):333-357.
  10. added 2016-10-21
    Mixing Bodily Fluids: Hobbes's Stoic God.Geoffrey Gorham - 2014 - Sophia 53 (1):33-49.
    The pantheon of seventeenth-century European philosophy includes some remarkably heterodox deities, perhaps most famously Spinoza’s deus-sive-natura. As in ethics and natural philosophy, early modern philosophical theology drew inspiration from classical sources outside the mainstream of Christianized Aristotelianism, such as the highly immanentist, naturalistic theology of Greek and Roman Stoicism. While the Stoic background to Spinoza’s pantheist God has been more thoroughly explored, I maintain that Hobbes’s corporeal God is the true modern heir to the Stoic theology. The Stoic and Hobbesian (...)
  11. added 2016-10-21
    How Radical Was the Enlightenment? What Do We Mean by Radical?Margaret C. Jacob - 2014 - Diametros 40:99-114.
    The Radical Enlightenment has been much discussed and its original meaning somewhat distorted. In 1981 my concept of the storm that unleashed a new, transnational intellectual movement possessed a strong contextual and political element that I believed, and still believe, to be critically important. Idealist accounts of enlightened ideas that divorce them from politics leave out the lived quality of the new radicalism born in reaction to monarchical and clerical absolutism. Taking the religious impulse seriously and working to defang it (...)
  12. added 2016-10-21
    The Legacy of Spinoza. The Enlightenment According to Jonathan Israel.Przemysław Gut - 2014 - Diametros 40:45-72.
    The aim of the paper is to present and analyze the interpretation of the Enlightenment which has recently been proposed by Jonathan Israel, with the focus on its philosophical aspect as opposed to the historical one. The paper consists of two parts. The task of the first part is reconstructive: it attempts to explore Israel’s most characteristic statements concerning the Enlightenment. The second and more extensive part has a polemical character: it endeavours to furnish the reader with an answer to (...)
  13. added 2016-10-21
    Further Considerations on the Politics of Religious Discourse: Naim Frashëri and His Pantheism in the Course of Nineteenth-Century Albanian Nationalism.Enika Abazi & Albert Doja - unknown
    In the standard tradition of both Albanian studies and Western scholarship, including either any interested religious and political activism or less 'interested' lay people, endeavours of historical and textual fact-finding have been relevant only to re-confirm and indeed perpetuate the very meaning of a myth, according to which the thinking of Naim Frashëri was formed and dominated by Bektashism and his 'Albanianism' had a Bektashi foundation. In an earlier paper this myth was shown to be unreliable by arguing that Frashëri's (...)
  14. added 2016-10-21
    Theologically-ethic historicism of B. pasternak.A. R. Zaytseva - 2013 - Liberal Arts in Russia 2 (5):493--500.
    This article devotes the relevant problem, which wasn’t examined in B. Pasternak’s works- the problem of historicism. The aim of the author – ideological and artistic quests of the poet which are connected with his Christian view of history as a part of universal history and artist’s place within. The article shows the opposition between two conceptions of B. Pasternak history: politico-social and all the Christian. The evolution of poet’s works is fully connected with this opposition. In first post-revolutionary decade (...)
  15. added 2016-10-21
    Pantheism for the Unsuperstitious: Philosophical Rhetoric in the Work of John Toland.Tom van Malssen - 2013 - International Journal of Philosophy and Theology 74 (4):274-290.
  16. added 2016-10-21
    Lessing: la muerte desde el panteísmo helenista.Iván Fernández Frías - 2012 - Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 37 (1):81-105.
    Partiendo de la crítica a la metafísica dualista entre vida/otra vida propia del cristianismo desde Pablo de Tarso, el presente artículo pretende demostrar cómo Lessing reexamina la concepción de la muerte siguiendo la tradición del panteísmo helenista (Bruno, Spinoza, Leibniz…). La teoría lessingniana sobre la muerte cristaliza en una antropología de carácter optimista que permite el continuo perfeccionamiento del individuo y de la humanidad toda, evitando el sentimiento de culpa y miedo que emana desde la escatología cristiana.
  17. added 2016-10-21
    11. Marianna Bacinetti Florenzi Waddington. Remarks on Pantheism: The Infinite, the Finite, God, and Man.Rebecca Copenhaver & Brian P. A. Copenhaver - 2012 - In Rebecca Copenhaver & Brian P. A. Copenhaver (eds.), From Kant to Croce: Modern Philosophy in Italy 1800-1950. University of Toronto Press. pp. 422-428.
  18. added 2016-10-21
    Spinozist Pantheism and the Truth of "Sense Certainty": What the Eleusinian Mysteries Tell Us About Hegel's Phenomenology.Brady Bowman - 2012 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (1):85-110.
    The Opening Chapter of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, called "Sense Certainty," is brief: 283 lines or about seven and a half pages in the critical edition of Hegel's works . Just over half the text is devoted to a series of thought experiments1 that focus on "the Here" and "the Now" as the two basic forms of immediate sensuous particularity Hegel calls "the This." The chapter's main goal is to demonstrate that, in truth, the object of sense certainty is precisely (...)
  19. added 2016-10-21
    10. Marianna Bacinetti Florenzi Waddington. Pantheism as the Foundation of the True and the Good.Rebecca Copenhaver & Brian P. A. Copenhaver - 2012 - In Rebecca Copenhaver & Brian P. A. Copenhaver (eds.), From Kant to Croce: Modern Philosophy in Italy 1800-1950. University of Toronto Press. pp. 418-421.
  20. added 2016-10-21
    American Naturalism on Pantheism 1.Martin O. Yalcin - 2011 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 32 (2):156 - 179.
    American naturalists all agree that traditional theism, with its belief in a supernatural personal god who is absolutely transcendent to nature, is inconsistent with the view that nature is all that there is. Yet despite the rejection of the traditional God of theism, some naturalists have found pantheism, with its belief in a divinity thoroughly immanent to nature, congenial. Nonetheless, no philosophically rigorous and systematic juxtaposition of the metaphysical and ethical commitments of pantheism with those of naturalism has been undertaken. (...)
  21. added 2016-10-21
    A Contemporary Metaphysical Controversy.Freya Mathews - 2010 - Sophia 49 (2):231-236.
    I argue that a metaphysical controversy, comparable with the ‘pantheism controversy’ of the late 18th century, is being played out today in the world-wide clash between religion and science, in which one side adheres to a strict materialism and the other admits phenomena of inspiritment as having a place in ontology. Just as the pantheism controversy was resolved, to some degree, via the concept of panentheism, so the solution to the contest between science and religion today might be pointing us (...)
  22. added 2016-10-21
    How Reinhold Helped Hegel Understand the German Enlightenment and Grasp the Pantheism Controversy.Jeffrey Reid - 2010 - In George Digiovanni (ed.), Karl Leonhard Reinhold and the Enlightenment. Springer.
  23. added 2016-10-21
    Suturing the Body Corporate (Divine and Human) in the Brahmanic Traditions.Ellen Stansell - 2010 - Sophia 49 (2):237-259.
    In this discussion, we ponder the discourse about the ‘body of the Divine’ in the Indian tradition. Beginning with the Vedas, we survey the major eras and thinkers of that tradition, considering various notions of the Supreme Divine Being it produced. For each, we ask: is the Divine embodied? If so, then in what way? What is the nature of the body of the Divine, and what is its relationship to human bodies? What is the value of the body of (...)
  24. added 2016-10-21
    On the Relations of Theism to Pantheism.Francis William Newman - 2009 - The Works of Francis William Newman on Religion 8:213-221.
  25. added 2016-10-21
    Pantheism and Illuminism.Cristina Paoletti - 2008 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 63 (1):121-123.
  26. added 2016-10-21
    Coleridge and the Crisis of Reason.Richard Berkeley - 2007 - Palgrave.
    Coleridge and the Crisis of Reason examines Coleridge's understanding of the Pantheism Controversy - the crisis of reason in German philosophy - and reveals the context informing Coleridge's understanding of German thinkers. It challenges previous accounts of Coleridge's philosophical engagements, forcing a reconsideration of his reading of figures such as Schelling, Jacobi and Spinoza. This exciting new study establishes the central importance of the contested status of reason for Coleridge's poetry, accounts of the imagination and later religious thought.
  27. added 2016-10-21
    Divine Omnipresence and Maximal Immanence: Supernaturalism Versus Pantheism.Robert Oakes - 2006 - American Philosophical Quarterly 43 (2):171 - 179.
  28. added 2016-10-21
    Dieu de la Nature: La Question du Panthéisme Dans l'Idéalisme Allemand.Christophe Bouton (ed.) - 2005 - G. Olms.
  29. added 2016-10-21
    „The One and the Many and Kinds of Distinctness: The Possibility of Monism or Pantheism in the Young Leibniz “.Mark Kulstad - 2005 - In Donald Rutherford J. A. Cover (ed.), Leibniz: Nature and Freedom. Oxford University Press. pp. 20--43.
  30. added 2016-10-21
    Salomon Maimon and the Rise of Spinozism in German Idealism.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2004 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 42 (1):67-96.
    : In this paper I explore one issue in the history of German Idealism which has been widely neglected in the existing literature. I argue that Salomon Maimon was the first to suggest that Spinoza's pantheism was a radical religious (or 'acosmistic') view rather than atheism. Following a discussion of the historical context of Maimon's engagement with Spinoza, I point out the main Spinozistic element of Maimon 's philosophy: the view of God as the material cause of the world, or (...)
  31. added 2016-10-21
    “Naturadeus”, a Metaphor of the Perfect Diamond.Marko Uršič - 2004 - Acta Analytica 19 (33):221-239.
    In this essay, the author outlines his re-construction of Spinoza’s ontological monism by re-presenting the system of Ethica, ordine geometrico demonstrata , in an “intuitive” model of the Perfect Diamond, called NATURADEUS. So, for example, ordo et connexio idearum et rerum , is presented to the inner eye in the forms of two parallel structures, of rays and of facets within the NATURADEUS, respectively. The conceptual background of the proposed model is mostly analytic, the author essays to develop some ideas (...)
  32. added 2016-10-21
    The Problem of the Enlightenment: Strauss, Jacobi, and the Pantheism Controversy.David Janssens - 2003 - Review of Metaphysics 56 (3):605 - 631.
  33. added 2016-10-21
    Pantheism and Platonic Creation: Reply to Robin Collins.John Leslie - 2003 - Philosophia Christi 5 (2):575-580.
  34. added 2016-10-21
    Pantheism.Ann Thomson - 2003 - In Alan Charles Kors (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment. Oxford University Press. pp. 3--236.
  35. added 2016-10-21
    My Passage From Panentheism to Pantheism.Robert S. Corrington - 2002 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 23 (2):129 - 153.
  36. added 2016-10-21
    A Pilgrim's Progress: From the Westminster Shorter Catechism to Naturalistic Pantheism.J. Edward Barrett - 2002 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 23 (2):154 - 172.
  37. added 2016-10-21
    The Importance Of The Pantheism-Controversy For The Development Of Hegel's Thought.Peter Jonkers - 2002 - Hegel-Jahrbuch 4 (1):272-278.
  38. added 2016-10-21
    Berkeley's Pantheistic Discourse.Stephen H. Daniel - 2001 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 49 (3):179-194.
    Berkeley's immaterialism has more in common with views developed by Henry More, the mathematician Joseph Raphson, John Toland, and Jonathan Edwards than those of thinkers with whom he is commonly associated (e.g., Malebranche and Locke). The key for recognizing their similarities lies in appreciating how they understand St. Paul's remark that in God "we live and move and have our being" as an invitation to think to God as the space of discourse in which minds and ideas are identified. This (...)
  39. added 2016-10-21
    Is Hegelian Monism One of the Sources of Pantheism and Impersonalism?Piama P. Gaidenko - 1999 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 38 (1):28-41.
    Monism is a doctrine that claims to deduce the entire system of knowledge from one first principle. It must be a system of a mutually connected propositions that are obtained by a methodologically reliable unfolding of one original proposition accepted as self-evident and unquestionable. Modern philosophy in its rationalist version, beginning with Descartes, tends precisely to this kind of monistic construction of the system of knowledge from a first principle. The striving toward monism is demonstrated most clearly in Spinoza's and (...)
  40. added 2016-10-21
    “Impersonalismus” Und Die “Werdende Vernunft der Wahrheit” in Solov'evs Spätphilosophie.Peter Ehlen - 1999 - Studies in East European Thought 51 (3):155-175.
    Is Solovyov''s philosophy pantheistic, is the individual absorbed by the absolute? Ehlen investigates Solovyov''s late Teoretieskaja filosofija (1897--99). Results: 1. According to Solovyov philosophy necessarily strives for unconditional truth. 2. Descartes could not prove the unconditional certainty of the substantiality of the human Ego. 3. The unconditional certainty, which we have with regard to the factual contents of our conscience is unable to base metaphysics. 4. The logical form of thinking is unconditional. 5. By searching for a truth, which meets (...)
  41. added 2016-10-21
    Pantheism Vs. Theism: A Re-Appraisal.Lewis S. Ford - 1997 - The Monist 80 (2):286 - 306.
  42. added 2016-10-21
    Pantheism as Panpsychism.K. Pfeifer - 1997 - Conceptus: Zeitschrift Fur Philosophie 30 (77):181-190.
  43. added 2016-10-21
    Pantheism in Matej Bel's manuscript'Miscellanea Scientifica'+ Spinoza's Influence on 18th-Century Slovak Philosopher.M. Vyvijalova - 1997 - Filozofia 52 (3).
  44. added 2016-10-21
    Pantheism, Trinitarian Theism and the Idea of Unity: Reflections on the Christian Concept of God: Douglas Hedley.Douglas Hedley - 1996 - Religious Studies 32 (1):61-77.
    Modern analytic philosophy of religion has become increasingly interested in the dogmatic substances of Christian theology. I argue that the doctrine of the Trinity provides an instance of the importance of dogmatic formulation for an appreciation of the philosophical aspect of the Christian concept of God. The starting point of mydiscussion is the recent defence of pantheism by Michael Levine, and his discussion of Neoplatonist and German Idealist models of deity. Both metaphysical theism and the alleged Neoplatonic metaphysical genealogy of (...)
  45. added 2016-10-21
    Pantheism: A Non-Theistic Concept of Deity. [REVIEW]David Webster - 1996 - Radical Philosophy 75.
  46. added 2016-10-21
    Michael P. Levine. Pantheism. A Non-Theistic Concept of Deity. Pp. Xii + 388. . £45.00. [REVIEW]Mark Wynn - 1996 - Religious Studies 32 (2):285.
  47. added 2016-10-21
    Pantheism, Trinitarian Theism and the Idea of Unity: Reflections on the Christian Concept of God.Douglas Hedley - 1996 - Religious Studies 32 (1):61 - 77.
    Modern analytic philosophy of religion has become increasingly interested in the dogmatic substances of Christian theology. I argue that the doctrine of the Trinity provides an instance of the importance of dogmatic formulation for an appreciation of the philosophical aspect of the Christian concept of God. The starting point of my discussion is the recent defence of pantheism by Michael Levine, and his discussion of Neoplatonist and German Idealist models of deity. Both metaphysical theism and the alleged Neoplatonic metaphysical generalogy (...)
  48. added 2016-10-21
    LEVINE, MICHAEL P. Pantheism: A Non-Theistic Concept of Deity. [REVIEW]Paul Helm - 1995 - Philosophy 70:129.
  49. added 2016-10-21
    Transcendence in Theism and Pantheism.Michael P. Levine - 1992 - Sophia 31 (3):89-123.
  50. added 2016-10-21
    Pantheism From John Scottus Eriugena to Nicholas of Cusa in Nicholas of Cusa.Dermot Moran - 1990 - New Scholasticism 64 (1):131-152.
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