About this topic
Summary Very roughly, all variants of pantheism takes God to be an all-inclusive unity. If we assume ontological naturalism, this means that God is identical with the cosmos. This is not to say that each proper part of the universe is divine. Rather, the entire universe exhibits a range of qualities sufficient to ground our theological discourse. Exactly what the proper fundamental ontology must be for pantheism to be true is a matter of some dispute. While many associate pantheism with an ontological commitment to substance monism, pantheism does not imply any such commitment. A variety of different proposals have been offered both in the history of philosophy and in more recent work in philosophy of religion to account for how the cosmos can exhibit the right features to be described as divine. And there is no shortage of proposals of what qualities must be possessed for any such all-inclusive unity to be genuinely divine and the proper object of some religious attitudes.
Key works Pantheistic ideas are present not only in the history of philosophy in the West, but also in movements in many world religions. Focusing on philosophy, some (e.g., Baltzly 2003) have argued that the Stoics should be regarded as pantheists. But  Spinoza's Ethics (de Spinoza & Curley 1994:) is regarded by many as providing the first clear and systematic presentation and defense of pantheism. That said, some (e.g., Curley 1969)have denied that Spinoza is best understood as a pantheist (but see Guilherme 2008 for a reply to Curley). After Spinoza, among Anglophone philosophers, some philosophers leading up to today have expressed sympathy for pantheism (e.g., Edward Caird 1894, Josiah Royce 1901, T.L.S. Sprigge 2006, Grace  Jantzen 1984, John Leslie 2001, and Peter Forrest 2016). Perhaps one of the most interesting recent developments in the literature on pantheism has been philosophers considering the implications of panpsychism (in particular, cosmopsychism) for pantheism (Goff forthcoming). For an opinionated (and somewhat controversial) book-length survey of pantheism, including its commitments and implications (both theoretical and practical), see Levine 1994. For a recent collection of essays by analytic philosophers of religion on alternative conceptions of the divine, including both defenses and critiques of pantheism, see Buckareff & Nagasawa 2016.
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  1. Further Considerations on the Politics of Religious Discourse: Naim Frashëri and His Pantheism in the Course of Nineteenth-Century Albanian Nationalism.Enika Abazi & Albert Doja - unknown
    In the standard tradition of both Albanian studies and Western scholarship, including either any interested religious and political activism or less 'interested' lay people, endeavours of historical and textual fact-finding have been relevant only to re-confirm and indeed perpetuate the very meaning of a myth, according to which the thinking of Naim Frashëri was formed and dominated by Bektashism and his 'Albanianism' had a Bektashi foundation. In an earlier paper this myth was shown to be unreliable by arguing that Frashëri's (...)
  2. Libertinaje en el siglo XVII.Gabriel Albiac - 2015 - Ingenium. Revista Electrónica de Pensamiento Moderno y Metodología En Historia de la Ideas 9:77-95.
    This article tries to draw the polemical genealogy of the term and concept of “libertinism”. Its sense, as it is forged in early Modernity, in the works of Calvin, and in the backgroud of the first Protestant Reformation, is merely contemptuous and, above all, it is due to a clearly critical strategy: the construction of a fictional enemy in confrontation with which it is possible to reinforce the basis of modern Christianism.
  3. Theism and Pantheism.S. Alexander - 1926 - Hibbert Journal 25:251.
  4. God, Mind, and Logical Space: A Revisionary Approach to Divinity.István Aranyosi - 2013 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    In God, Mind and Logical Space István Aranyosi takes the reader on a journey for the mind by revisiting the fundamental questions and the everlasting debates in philosophy of religion, ontology, and the philosophy of mind. The first part deals with issues in ontology, and the author puts forward a radical view according to which all thinkable objects and states of affairs have an equal claim to existence in a way that renders existence a relative notion. In the second part (...)
  5. Stoic Pantheism.Dirk Baltzly - 2003 - Sophia 42 (2):3-33.
    This essay argues the Stoics are rightly regarded as pantheists. Their view differs from many forms of pantheism by accepting the notion of a personal god who exercises divine providence. Moreover, Stoic pantheism is utterly inimical to a deep ecology ethic. I argue that these features are nonetheless consistent with the claim that they are pantheists. The essay also considers the arguments offered by the Stoics. They thought that their pantheistic conclusion was an extension of the best science of their (...)
  6. A Pilgrim's Progress: From the Westminster Shorter Catechism to Naturalistic Pantheism.J. Edward Barrett - 2002 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 23 (2):154 - 172.
  7. Coleridge and the Crisis of Reason.Richard Berkeley - 2007 - Palgrave.
    Coleridge and the Crisis of Reason examines Coleridge's understanding of the Pantheism Controversy - the crisis of reason in German philosophy - and reveals the context informing Coleridge's understanding of German thinkers. It challenges previous accounts of Coleridge's philosophical engagements, forcing a reconsideration of his reading of figures such as Schelling, Jacobi and Spinoza. This exciting new study establishes the central importance of the contested status of reason for Coleridge's poetry, accounts of the imagination and later religious thought.
  8. Мышление природы и природа мышления: Коген о Спинозе.Luca Bertolino - 2015 - Кантовский Сборник. Научный Журнал (3 (53)):48-65.
  9. Early Stoic Determinism.Susanne Bobzien - 2005 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 4 (4):489-516.
    ABSTRACT: Although from the 2nd century BC to the 3rd AD the problems of determinism were discussed almost exclusively under the heading of fate, early Stoic determinism, as introduced by Zeno and elaborated by Chrysippus, was developed largely in Stoic writings on physics, independently of any specific "theory of fate ". Stoic determinism was firmly grounded in Stoic cosmology, and the Stoic notions of causes, as corporeal and responsible for both sustenance and change, and of effects as incorporeal and as (...)
  10. Dieu de la Nature: La Question du Panthéisme Dans l'Idéalisme Allemand.Christophe Bouton (ed.) - 2005 - G. Olms.
  11. Spinozist Pantheism and the Truth of "Sense Certainty": What the Eleusinian Mysteries Tell Us About Hegel's Phenomenology.Brady Bowman - 2012 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (1):85-110.
    The Opening Chapter of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, called "Sense Certainty," is brief: 283 lines or about seven and a half pages in the critical edition of Hegel's works . Just over half the text is devoted to a series of thought experiments1 that focus on "the Here" and "the Now" as the two basic forms of immediate sensuous particularity Hegel calls "the This." The chapter's main goal is to demonstrate that, in truth, the object of sense certainty is precisely (...)
  12. Schelling on the Possibility of Evil: Rendering Pantheism, Freedom and Time Consistent.G. Anthony Bruno - 2017 - SATS: Northern European Journal of Philosophy 18 (1):1-18.
    German idealism stems in large part from Fichte’s response to a dilemma involving the concepts of pantheism, freedom and time: either time is the form of the determination of modes of substance, as held by a pantheistic or ‘dogmatic’ person, or the form of acts generated by human freedom, as held by an idealistic person. Fichte solves the dilemma by refuting dogmatism and deducing time from idealism’s first principle. But his diagnosis is more portentous: by casting the lemmas in terms (...)
  13. Theistic Consubstantialism and Omniscience.Andrei A. Buckareff - 2018 - Religious Studies 54 (2):233-245.
    According to theistic consubstantialism, the universe and God are essentially made of the same stuff. If theistic consubstantialism is correct, then God possesses the essential power to have knowledge de se of the contents of the mind of every conscious being internal to God. If theistic consubstantialism is false, then God lacks this essential property. So either God is essentially corporeal and possesses greater essential epistemic powers than God would have otherwise or God is essentially incorporeal and has a diminished (...)
  14. Pantheism and Saving God.Andrei A. Buckareff - 2016 - Sophia 55 (3):347-355.
    In this paper, I examine Mark Johnston’s panentheistic account of the metaphysics of the divine developed in his recent book, Saving God: Religion After Idolatry. On Johnston’s account, God is the ‘Highest One’ and is identified with ‘the outpouring of Being by way of its exemplification in ordinary existents for the sake of the self-disclosure of Being’. Johnston eschews supernaturalism and takes his position to be consistent with what he calls ‘legitimate naturalism’ which he takes to be some version of (...)
  15. Alternative Concepts of God: Essays on the Metaphysics of the Divine.Andrei Buckareff & Yujin Nagasawa (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press.
    According to traditional Judeo-Christian-Islamic theism, God is an omniscient, omnipotent, and morally perfect agent. This volume shows that philosophy of religion needs to take seriously alternative concepts of the divine, and demonstrates the considerable philosophical interest that they hold.
  16. Pantheism in Thinking of the Medieval East.Konul Bunyadzade - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 14:13-19.
    Pantheist thinking in Islamic East and its adequacy to western pantheism is complicated and controversy problem. To make the problem somewhat clearer, it needs first of all to emphasize that it is possible to divide the development of the theories of world outlook and trends relied on essence of Koran’s esoteric meaning and religion towards inner world in Islamic East, into two direction: pantheist and “vahdat al-vujud”. The trend, in organization and formation of which ismailism, hurufism, nogtavism played important role (...)
  17. Был ли бог стоиков личностью? (Was the Stoic God a Person?).Pavel Butakov - 2017 - ΣΧΟΛΗ: Ancient Philosophy and The Classical Tradition 11 (2):558-569.
    Peter Forrest claims that his “Personal Pantheist” conception of God is in agreement with the Stoic pantheism. The traditional interpretation, however, treats the Stoic God as the non-personal universal law. I demonstrate that arguments in favor of the personal interpretation typically imply either a personalist or an anthropocentric metaphysical foundation. I also argue that the Stoics were neither personalists nor anthropocentrists, therefore those arguments should be rejected.
  18. Review: Saving God From Saving God. [REVIEW]Andrew Chignell & Dean Zimmerman - 2012 - Books and Culture 15 (3).
    Mark Johnston’s book, Saving God (Princeton University Press, 2010) has two main goals, one negative and the other positive: (1) to eliminate the gods of the major Western monotheisms (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) as candidates for the role of “the Highest One”; (2) to introduce the real Highest One, a panentheistic deity worthy of devotion and capable of extending to us the grace needed to transform us from inwardly-turned sinners to practitioners of agape. In this review, we argue that Johnston’s (...)
  19. Theism or Pantheism? A Review Essay on John Leslie’s Infinite Minds.Robin Collins - 2003 - Philosophia Christi 5 (2):567-574.
  20. 10. Marianna Bacinetti Florenzi Waddington. Pantheism as the Foundation of the True and the Good.Rebecca Copenhaver & Brian P. A. Copenhaver - 2012 - In Rebecca Copenhaver & Brian P. A. Copenhaver (eds.), From Kant to Croce: Modern Philosophy in Italy 1800-1950. University of Toronto Press. pp. 418-421.
  21. 11. Marianna Bacinetti Florenzi Waddington. Remarks on Pantheism: The Infinite, the Finite, God, and Man.Rebecca Copenhaver & Brian P. A. Copenhaver - 2012 - In Rebecca Copenhaver & Brian P. A. Copenhaver (eds.), From Kant to Croce: Modern Philosophy in Italy 1800-1950. University of Toronto Press. pp. 422-428.
  22. Pantheism in Spinoza and the German Idealists.F. C. Copleston - 1946 - Philosophy 21 (78):42 - 56.
    In an essay on pantheism Schopenhauer observes that his chief objection against it is that it says nothing, that it simply enriches language with a superfluous synonym of the word “world.” It can hardly be denied that by this remark the great pessimist, who was himself an atheist, scored a real point. For if a philosopher starts off with the physical world and proceeds to call it God, he has not added anything to the world except a label, a label (...)
  23. Deep Pantheism: Toward a New Transcendentalism.Robert S. Corrington - 2015 - Lexington Books.
    The book transcends and transforms current work in the field of religious naturalism, gives pantheism new life over against the more fashionable panentheism, radicalizes and deepens the thought and practice of psychoanalysis with its creation of ordinal psychoanalysis, and creates a whole new way of doing phenomenology called ordinal phenomenology.
  24. My Passage From Panentheism to Pantheism.Robert S. Corrington - 2002 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 23 (2):129 - 153.
  25. Embracing Thanatos-in-Eros: Evolutionary Ecology and Panentheism. [REVIEW]Caresse Cranwell - 2010 - Sophia 49 (2):271-283.
    If Panentheism’s core thesis, that God is in the world, is to animate a spiritual approach to life, then we have to account for the way in which God is in the destructive or thanative dimensions of life. From the perspective of evolutionary ecology the universe is imbued with creative and destructive energies. The creative drive can be termed eros as creation occurs through the expansion of relational unities, holons. The destructive drive is termed thanatos and is the drive to (...)
  26. On 'the Religion of the Visible Universe': Novalis and the Pantheism Controversy.Benjamin D. Crowe - 2008 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (1):125 – 146.
    (2008). On ‘The religion of the visible Universe’: Novalis and the pantheism controversy. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 125-146.
  27. Berkeley's Pantheistic Discourse.Stephen H. Daniel - 2001 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 49 (3):179-194.
    Berkeley's immaterialism has more in common with views developed by Henry More, the mathematician Joseph Raphson, John Toland, and Jonathan Edwards than those of thinkers with whom he is commonly associated (e.g., Malebranche and Locke). The key for recognizing their similarities lies in appreciating how they understand St. Paul's remark that in God "we live and move and have our being" as an invitation to think to God as the space of discourse in which minds and ideas are identified. This (...)
  28. URQUHART, W. S. -Pantheism and the Value of Life. [REVIEW]S. N. Dasgupta - 1922 - Mind 31:230.
  29. Spinoza, Pantheism Of.John Dewey - 1882 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 16:249.
  30. The Pantheism of Spinoza.John Dewey - 1882 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 16 (3):249 - 257.
  31. McFarland, Pantheism and Panentheism.Daniel A. Dombrowski - 1988 - History of European Ideas 9 (5):569-582.
  32. A Pantheist in Spite of Himself: Craig, Hegel, and Divine Infinity.Russell W. Dumke - 2016 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 80 (3):243-257.
    In his 2006 paper `Pantheists in Spite of Themselves: God and Infinity in Contemporary Theology,’ William Lane Craig examines the work of Wolfhart Pannenberg, Philip Clayton, and F. LeRon Shults, whose conceptions of God are influenced by Hegel. Craig shows that these thinkers’ Hegelian formulations lead to monism, despite their attempts to avoid it. He then attempts to refute Hegelian thinking by appealing to Cantor. I argue that that this refutation fails because Cantor and Hegel are far more amicable than (...)
  33. “Impersonalismus” Und Die “Werdende Vernunft der Wahrheit” in Solov'evs Spätphilosophie.Peter Ehlen - 1999 - Studies in East European Thought 51 (3):155-175.
    Is Solovyov''s philosophy pantheistic, is the individual absorbed by the absolute? Ehlen investigates Solovyov''s late Teoretieskaja filosofija (1897--99). Results: 1. According to Solovyov philosophy necessarily strives for unconditional truth. 2. Descartes could not prove the unconditional certainty of the substantiality of the human Ego. 3. The unconditional certainty, which we have with regard to the factual contents of our conscience is unable to base metaphysics. 4. The logical form of thinking is unconditional. 5. By searching for a truth, which meets (...)
  34. Lectures on Pantheism at the Concord School.John Fiske & Francis Ellingwood Abbot - 1885 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 19 (4):432 - 433.
  35. Pantheism Vs. Theism.Lewis S. Ford - 1997 - The Monist 80 (2):286-306.
  36. Pantheism Vs. Theism: A Re-Appraisal.Lewis S. Ford - 1997 - The Monist 80 (2):286 - 306.
  37. Pluralistic Pantheism?Marcus P. Ford - 1979 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 17 (2):155-161.
  38. The Personal Pantheist Conception of God.P. Forrest - unknown
    This chapter is a case for the pantheist conception considered as a species of theism, rather than a rival to it. The starting point, the premise of the argument, is properly anthropomorphic metaphysics, which I propose as a rival to scientific naturalism; I begin, then, by stating my version of pantheism, by expounding PAM, and by sketching my argument.
  39. Spinozistic Pantheism, the Environment and Christianity.Peter Forrest - 2010 - Sophia 49 (4):463-473.
    I am not a pantheist and I don’t believe that pantheism is consistent with Christianity. My preferred speculation is what I call the Swiss Cheese theory: we and our artefacts are the holes in God, the only Godless parts of reality. In this paper, I begin by considering a world rather like ours but without any beings capable of sin. Ignoring extraterrestrials and angels we could consider the world, say, 5 million years ago. Pantheism was, I say, true at that (...)
  40. Pantheism and Science.Peter Forrest - 1997 - The Monist 80 (2):307-319.
  41. Omniscience, Omnipotence and Pantheism.Richard Francks - 1979 - Philosophy 54 (209):395 - 399.
    Spinoza is a pantheist: he believes that everything that is, is God. Traditional Judaeo-Christian theologians dislike the idea, and Spinoza has always been unpopular for it. Nevertheless, I want here to suggest that, simply by following out the logic of omniscience and omnipotence—two attributes of God on which both Spinoza and his opponents are agreed—it is possible to arrive at a conception of God which is at least very close to Spinoza's own. I do not claim that any of the (...)
  42. Classical Theism, Panentheism, and Pantheism: On the Relation Between God Construction and Gender Construction.Nancy Frankenberry - 1993 - Zygon 28 (1):29-46.
  43. Lessing: la muerte desde el panteísmo helenista.Iván Fernández Frías - 2012 - Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 37 (1):81-105.
    Partiendo de la crítica a la metafísica dualista entre vida/otra vida propia del cristianismo desde Pablo de Tarso, el presente artículo pretende demostrar cómo Lessing reexamina la concepción de la muerte siguiendo la tradición del panteísmo helenista (Bruno, Spinoza, Leibniz…). La teoría lessingniana sobre la muerte cristaliza en una antropología de carácter optimista que permite el continuo perfeccionamiento del individuo y de la humanidad toda, evitando el sentimiento de culpa y miedo que emana desde la escatología cristiana.
  44. Raymond Ruyer, la Biologie Et la Théologie Naturelle [Raymond Ruyer, Biology, and Natural Theology].Philippe Gagnon - 2012 - In Ronny Desmet & Michel Weber (eds.), Chromatikon VIII: Annales de la philosophie en procès — Yearbook of Philosophy in Process. Éditions Chromatika.
    This is the outline: Introduction : le praticien d’une science-philosophie; Épiphénoménisme retourné et subjectivité délocalisée; Dieu est-il jamais inféré par la science ?; La question du panthéisme; Le pilotage axiologique et la parabole mécaniste; L'unité domaniale comme ce qui reste en dehors de la science.
  45. Is Hegelian Monism One of the Sources of Pantheism and Impersonalism?Piama P. Gaidenko - 1999 - Russian Studies in Philosophy 38 (1):28-41.
    Monism is a doctrine that claims to deduce the entire system of knowledge from one first principle. It must be a system of a mutually connected propositions that are obtained by a methodologically reliable unfolding of one original proposition accepted as self-evident and unquestionable. Modern philosophy in its rationalist version, beginning with Descartes, tends precisely to this kind of monistic construction of the system of knowledge from a first principle. The striving toward monism is demonstrated most clearly in Spinoza's and (...)
  46. Antinomism, Trinity and the Challenge of Solov'ëvan Pantheism in the Theology of Sergij Bulgakov.Brandon Gallaher - 2012 - Studies in East European Thought 64 (3-4):205-225.
    The paper argues that Sergej Bulgakov's sophiology was an attempt, via antinomism or the philosophy of antinomies, to overcome the rationalism, monism, and determinism (in a word, "pantheism") of Vladimir Solov'ëv's philosophy of the Absolute understood as an abstract Trinitarianism. After detailing Solov'ëv's thought on the Trinity and Bulgakov's criticisms of it, the study then describes Bulgakov's antinomism and its application to the doctrine of God. However, it is contended that Bulgakov's antinomism ultimately falls into the same problems with pantheism (...)
  47. Pantheism and Ontology In Wittgenstein’s Early Work.Newton Garver - 1971 - Idealistic Studies 1 (3):269-277.
  48. W. S. Urquhart, Pantheism and the Value of Life. [REVIEW]Morris Ginsberg - 1919 - Hibbert Journal 18:638.
  49. Mixing Bodily Fluids: Hobbes's Stoic God.Geoffrey Gorham - 2014 - Sophia 53 (1):33-49.
    The pantheon of seventeenth-century European philosophy includes some remarkably heterodox deities, perhaps most famously Spinoza’s deus-sive-natura. As in ethics and natural philosophy, early modern philosophical theology drew inspiration from classical sources outside the mainstream of Christianized Aristotelianism, such as the highly immanentist, naturalistic theology of Greek and Roman Stoicism. While the Stoic background to Spinoza’s pantheist God has been more thoroughly explored, I maintain that Hobbes’s corporeal God is the true modern heir to the Stoic theology. The Stoic and Hobbesian (...)
  50. Neo-Kantianism, Pantheism, and the Ego.Joan Delaney Grossman - 1995 - Studies in East European Thought 47 (3-4):179 - 193.
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