# Paraconsistent Logic

Edited by Mark Jago (Nottingham University)
 Summary In classical logic, every sentence is entailed by a contradiction: A and ¬A together entail B, for any sentences A and B whatsoever. This principle is often known as ex contradictione sequitur quodlibet (from a contradiction, everything follows), or the explosion principle. In paraconsistent logic, by contrast, this principle does not hold: arbitrary contradictions do not paraconsistently entail every sentence. Accordingly, paraconsistent logics are said to be contradiction tolerant. Semantics for paraconsistent logics can be given in a number of ways, but a common theme is that a sentence is allowed to be both true and false simultaneously. This can be achieved by introducing a third truth-value, thought of as both true and false; alternatively, it can be achieved (in the propositional case) be replacing the usual valuation function with a relation between sentences and the usual truth-values, true and false, so that a sentence may be related to either or both of these. Those who think there really are true contradictions are dialethists. Not all paraconsistent logicians are dialethists: some present paraconsistent logic as a better notion of what follows from what, or as a way to reason about inconsistent data.
 Key works Asenjo 1966 and da Costa 1974 develop the Logic of Paradox (based on theor earlier work on paraconsistency in the 1950s). Priest et al 1989 is a classic early collection of papers. Priest 1987 is the classic philosophical defense of paraconsistent logic (and of dialethism).
 Introductions da Costa & Bueno 2009 and Priest 2008 are good encyclopaedia entries on paraconsistent logic. The introduction to Priest 2006 is a clear statement of the case for paraconsistent logics; chapter 7 of Priest 2001 gives basic logical details of a few paraconsistent logics.
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1. Paradoxes of Logical Equivalence and Identity.Andrew Bacon - 2013 - Topoi (1):1-10.
In this paper a principle of substitutivity of logical equivalents salve veritate and a version of Leibniz’s law are formulated and each is shown to cause problems when combined with naive truth theories.

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2. This paper deals with a relatively recent trend in the history of analytic philosophy, philosophical logic, and theory of science: the philosophical study of the role of inconsistency in empirical science. This paper is divided in three sections that correspond to the three types of inconsistencies identified: (i) factual, occurring between theory and observations, (ii) external, occurring between two mutually contradictory theories, and (iii) internal, characterising theories that entail mutually contradictory statements.

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3. In this paper, I propose a formal framework for modelling the process of testing empirical statements, hypotheses, theories, and research programmes. Unlike the diverse forms of falsificationism, this framework does not require any commitment to classical logic or to any specific system of logic, as it aims to be useful regardless of the logic we presuppose. On this regard, the paper will focus on how this framework applies to two logical contexts: the classical and the paraconsistent contexts. I will show (...)
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4. This paper discusses the logical possibility of testing inconsistent empirical theories. The main challenge for answering this affirmatively is to avoid that the inconsistent consequences of a theory both corroborate it and falsify it. I answer affirmatively by showing that we can define a class of empirical sentences whose truth would force us to abandon such inconsistent theory: the class of its potential rejecters. Despite this, I show that the observational contradictions implied by a theory could only be verified (provided (...)

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5. We present a philosophical motivation for the logics of formal inconsistency, a family of paraconsistent logics whose distinctive feature is that of having resources for expressing the notion of consistency within the object language. We shall defend the view according to which logics of formal inconsistency are theories of logical consequence of normative and epistemic character. This approach not only allows us to make inferences in the presence of contradictions, but offers a philosophically acceptable account of paraconsistency.

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6. In this paper I apply the concept of _inter-Model Inconsistency in Set Theory_ (MIST), introduced by Carolin Antos (this volume), to select positions in the current universe-multiverse debate in philosophy of set theory: I reinterpret H. Woodin’s _Ultimate L_, J. D. Hamkins’ multiverse, S.-D. Friedman’s hyperuniverse and the algebraic multiverse as normative strategies to deal with the situation of de facto inconsistency toleration in set theory as described by MIST. In particular, my aim is to situate these positions on the (...)

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7. This paper deals with a relatively recent trend in the history of analytic philosophy, philosophical logic, and theory of science: the philosophical study of the role of inconsistency in empirical science. This paper is divided in three sections that correspond to the three types of inconsistencies identified: (i) factual, occurring between theory and observations, (ii) external, occurring between two mutually contradictory theories, and (iii) internal, characterising theories that entail mutually contradictory statements.

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8. Bohr’s atomic model is one of the better known examples of empirically successful, albeit inconsistent, theoretical schemes in the history of physics. For this reason, many philosophers use this model to illustrate their position for the occurrence and the function of inconsistency in science. In this paper, I proceed to a critical comparison of the structure and the aims of Bohr’s research program – the starting point of which was the formulation of his model – with some of its contemporary (...)

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9. Vita impossibile del signor Clark Costa.Michelangelo Antonioni - forthcoming - Cinema.
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10. Cruz Costa e Herdeiros nos Idos de Sessenta.Paulo Arantes - forthcoming - Filosofia.
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11. Logical argumentation by dynamic proof systems.Ofer Arieli & Christian Straßer - forthcoming - Theoretical Computer Science.
In this paper we provide a proof theoretical investigation of logical argumentation, where arguments are represented by sequents, conflicts between arguments are represented by sequent elimination rules, and deductions are made by dynamic proof systems extending standard sequent calculi. The idea is to imitate argumentative movements in which certain claims are introduced or withdrawn in the presence of counter-claims. This is done by a dynamic evaluation of sequences of sequents, in which the latter are considered ‘derived’ or ‘not derived’ according (...)

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12. Inference to the Best Contradiction?Sam Baron - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
I argue that there is nothing about the structure of inference to the best explanation (IBE) that prevents it from establishing a contradiction in general, though there are some potential limitations on when it can be used for this purpose. Studying the relationship between IBE and contradictions is worthwhile for three reasons. First, it enhances our understanding of IBE. We see that, in many cases, IBE does not require explanations to be consistent, though there are some cases where consistency may (...)

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13. Peut-on tester si le mouvement est contradictoire ?Luis F. Bartolo Alegre - forthcoming - Revue de Théologie Et de Philosophie.
Priest's theory of motion is based on Leibniz's Continuity Condition (LCC), which states that any state that exists at each instant in a continuous set of moments also exists at its temporal limit. If we accept the CCL, a free-falling pen would have to be simultaneously in motion and at rest at the instant of change: the critical moment when it hits the ground, thus passing from the state of motion to that of rest. This seems to be a contradictory (...)

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14. What is Logical Monism?Justin Clarke-Doane - forthcoming - In Christopher Peacocke & Paul Boghossian (eds.), Normative Realism. Oxford University Press.
Logical monism is the view that there is ‘One True Logic’. This is the default position, against which pluralists react. If there were not ‘One True Logic’, it is hard to see how there could be one true theory of anything. A theory is closed under a logic! But what is logical monism? In this article, I consider semantic, logical, modal, scientific, and metaphysical proposals. I argue that, on no ‘factualist’ analysis (according to which ‘there is One True Logic’ expresses (...)

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15. Semantics for Second Order Relevant Logics.Shay Logan - forthcoming - In Andrew Tedder, Shawn Standefer & Igor Sedlár (eds.), New Directions in Relevant Logic. Springer. pp. 211-226.
Here's the thing: when you look at it from just the right angle, it's entirely obvious how semantics for second-order relevant logics ought to go. Or at least, if you've understood how semantics for first-order relevant logics ought to go, there are perspectives like this. What's more is that from any such angle, the metatheory that needs doing can be summed up in one line: everything is just as in the first-order case, but with more indices. Of course, it's no (...)

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16. The Logic of Exemplarity.Jakub Mácha - forthcoming - Law and Literature (online first):1-15.
The topic of exemplarity has attracted considerable interest in philosophy, legal theory, literary studies and art recently. There is broad consensus that exemplary cases mediate between singular instances and general concepts or norms. The aim of this article is to provide an additional perspective on the logic of exemplarity. First, inspired by Jacques Derrida’s discussion of exemplarity, I shall argue that there is a kind of différance between (singular) examples and (general) exemplars. What an example exemplifies, the exemplarity of the (...)

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17. Variable-Sharing as Relevance.Shawn Standefer - forthcoming - In Igor Sedlár, Shawn Standefer & Andrew Tedder (eds.), New Directions in Relevant Logic.

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18. The Many Faces of Impossibility.Koji Tanaka & Alexander Sandgren - 2024 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Possible worlds have revolutionised philosophy and some related fields. But, in recent years, tools based on possible worlds have been found to be limited in many respects. Impossible worlds have been introduced to overcome these limitations. This Element aims to raise and answer the neglected question of what is characteristically impossible about impossible worlds. The Element sheds new light on the nature of impossible worlds. It also aims to analyse the main features and utility of impossible worlds and examine how (...)

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19. Dialetheism and distributed sorites.Ben Blumson - 2023 - Synthese 202 (4):1-18.
Noniterative approaches to the sorites paradox accept single steps of soritical reasoning, but deny that these can be combined into valid chains of soritical reasoning. The distributed sorites is a puzzle designed to undermine noniterative approaches to the sorites paradox, by deriving an inconsistent conclusion using only single steps, but not chains, of soritical reasoning. This paper shows how a dialetheist version of the noniterative approach, the strict-tolerant approach, also solves the distributed sorites paradox, at no further cost, by accepting (...)

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20. A PWK-style Argumentation Framework and Expansion.Massimiliano Carrara - 2023 - IfCoLog Journal of Logics and Their Applications 10 (3):485-509.
In this article we consider argumentation as an epistemic process performed by an agent to extend and revise her beliefs and gain knowledge, according to the information provided by the environment. Such a process can also generate the suspension of the claim under evaluation. How can we account for such a suspension phenomenon in argumentation process? We propose: (1) to distinguish two kinds of suspensions – critical suspension and non-critical suspension – in epistemic change processes; (2) to introduce a Paraconsistent (...)

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21. Discussive Logic. A Short History of the First Paraconsistent Logic.Fabio De Martin Polo - 2023 - In Jens Lemanski & Ingolf Max (eds.), Historia Logicae and its Modern Interpretation. London: College Publications. pp. 267--296.
In this paper we present an overview, with historical and critical remarks, of two articles by S. Jaúkowski ([20, 21] 1948 and [22, 23] 1949), which contain the oldest known formulation of a paracon- sistent logic. Jaúkowski has built the logic – he termed discussive (D2) – by defining two new connectives and by introducing a modal translation map from D2 systems into Lewis’ modal logic S5. Discussive systems, for their formal details and their orig- inal philosophical justification, have attracted (...)

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22. Topics in the Proof Theory of Non-classical Logics. Philosophy and Applications.Fabio De Martin Polo - 2023 - Dissertation, Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Chapter 1 constitutes an introduction to Gentzen calculi from two perspectives, logical and philosophical. It introduces the notion of generalisations of Gentzen sequent calculus and the discussion on properties that characterize good inferential systems. Among the variety of Gentzen-style sequent calculi, I divide them in two groups: syntactic and semantic generalisations. In the context of such a discussion, the inferentialist philosophy of the meaning of logical constants is introduced, and some potential objections – mainly concerning the choice of working with (...)

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23. Yamauchi Tokuryū (1890-1982). Philosophie occidentale et pensée bouddhique.Romaric Jannel - 2023 - Paris: Éditions Kimé.
Philosophe japonais polyglotte au savoir encyclopédique, Yamauchi Tokuryū est à n’en point douter l’un des auteurs les moins étudiés de l’école de Kyōto. La présente étude vient corriger ce qui ne constitue rien d’autre qu’un accident de l’histoire, tant l’ampleur du projet philosophique de Yamauchi est à même de susciter l’intérêt du philosophe, du savant et de l’amateur cultivé. La démarche de ce penseur japonais, disciple de Nishida Kitarō, est remarquable en ce qu’il chercha à proposer un dépassement englobant de (...)

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24. Corry Shores (2021) The Logic of Gilles Deleuze: Basic Principles. [REVIEW]Andrej Jovićević - 2023 - Deleuze and Guattari Studies 17 (3):449-456.

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25. Two-sided Sequent Calculi for FDE-like Four-valued Logics.Barteld Kooi & Allard Tamminga - 2023 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 52 (2):495-518.
We present a method that generates two-sided sequent calculi for four-valued logics like "first degree entailment" (FDE). (We say that a logic is FDE-like if it has finitely many operators of finite arity, including negation, and if all of its operators are truth-functional over the four truth-values 'none', 'false', 'true', and 'both', where 'true' and 'both' are designated.) First, we show that for every n-ary operator * every truth table entry f*(x1,...,xn) = y can be characterized in terms of a (...)

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26. Fichte’s Formal Logic.Jens Lemanski & Andrew Schumann - 2023 - Synthese 202 (1):1-27.
Fichte’s Foundations of the Entire Wissenschaftslehre 1794 is one of the most fundamental books in classical German philosophy. The use of laws of thought to establish foundational principles of transcendental philosophy was groundbreaking in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century and is still crucial for many areas of theoretical philosophy and logic in general today. Nevertheless, contemporaries have already noted that Fichte’s derivation of foundational principles from the law of identity is problematic, since Fichte lacked the tools to correctly (...)

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27. Rethinking inconsistent mathematics.Franci Mangraviti - 2023 - Dissertation, Ruhr University Bochum
This dissertation has two main goals. The first is to provide a practice-based analysis of the field of inconsistent mathematics: what motivates it? what role does logic have in it? what distinguishes it from classical mathematics? is it alternative or revolutionary? The second goal is to introduce and defend a new conception of inconsistent mathematics - queer incomaths - as a particularly effective answer to feminist critiques of classical logic and mathematics. This sets the stage for a genuine revolution in (...)

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28. Against Classical Paraconsistent Metatheory.Koji Tanaka & Patrick Girard - 2023 - Analysis 83 (2):285-294.
There was a time when 'logic' just meant classical logic. The climate is slowly changing and non-classical logic cannot be dismissed off-hand. However, a metatheory used to study the properties of non-classical logic is often classical. In this paper, we will argue that this practice of relying on classical metatheories is problematic. In particular, we will show that it is a bad practice because the metatheory that is used to study a non-classical logic often rules out the very logic it (...)

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29. Epimorphism between Fine and Ferguson’s Matrices for Angell’s AC.Richard Zach - 2023 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 32 (2):161-179.
Angell's logic of analytic containment AC has been shown to be characterized by a 9-valued matrix NC by Ferguson, and by a 16-valued matrix by Fine. We show that the former is the image of a surjective homomorphism from the latter, i.e., an epimorphic image. The epimorphism was found with the help of MUltlog, which also provides a tableau calculus for NC extended by quantifiers that generalize conjunction and disjunction.

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30. The Exoteric Square of Opposition.Jean-Yves Beziau & Ioannis Vandoulakis (eds.) - 2022 - Birkhauser.
The theory of the square of opposition has been studied for over 2,000 years and has seen a resurgence in new theories and research since the second half of the twentieth century. This volume collects papers presented at the Sixth World Congress on the Square of Opposition, held in Crete in 2018, developing an interdisciplinary exploration of the theory. Chapter authors explore subjects such as Aristotle’s ontological square, logical oppositions in Avicenna’s hypothetical logic, and the power of the square of (...)

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31. Logics of Formal Inconsistency Enriched with Replacement: An Algebraic and Modal Account.Walter Carnielli, Marcelo E. Coniglio & David Fuenmayor - 2022 - Review of Symbolic Logic 15 (3):771-806.
One of the most expected properties of a logical system is that it can be algebraizable, in the sense that an algebraic counterpart of the deductive machinery could be found. Since the inception of da Costa's paraconsistent calculi, an algebraic equivalent for such systems have been searched. It is known that these systems are non self-extensional (i.e., they do not satisfy the replacement property). More than this, they are not algebraizable in the sense of Blok-Pigozzi. The same negative results hold (...)

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32. Two Decision Procedures for da Costa’s $$C_n$$ C n Logics Based on Restricted Nmatrix Semantics.Marcelo E. Coniglio & Guilherme V. Toledo - 2022 - Studia Logica 110 (3):601-642.
Despite being fairly powerful, finite non-deterministic matrices are unable to characterize some logics of formal inconsistency, such as those found between mbCcl and Cila. In order to overcome this limitation, we propose here restricted non-deterministic matrices (in short, RNmatrices), which are non-deterministic algebras together with a subset of the set of valuations. This allows us to characterize not only mbCcl and Cila (which is equivalent, up to language, to da Costa's logic C_1) but the whole hierarchy of da Costa's calculi (...)

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33. O raciocínio abdutivo no contexto da explicação científica.Ulisses Eliano - 2022 - Dissertation, Unicamp - Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Este trabalho tem como principal objetivo apresentar uma abordagem lógico-formal capaz de apreender alguns aspectos do raciocínio abdutivo – o raciocínio responsável pela criação de hipóteses explicativas para fatos surpreendentes -, mediante tanto as noções filosófico-conceituais da canônica abdução peirceana quanto as de explicação científica. No caso desta última, procurarei evidenciar, inicialmente, pontos de contraste entre as concepções de explicação científica de Aristóteles e de Carl Hempel, a fim de elucidar, de modo mais satisfatório, em que medida, de fato, teorias (...)

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34. Minimally Nonstandard K3 and FDE.Rea Golan & Ulf Hlobil - 2022 - Australasian Journal of Logic 19 (5):182-213.
Graham Priest has formulated the minimally inconsistent logic of paradox (MiLP), which is paraconsistent like Priest’s logic of paradox (LP), while staying closer to classical logic. We present logics that stand to (the propositional fragments of) strong Kleene logic (K3) and the logic of first-degree entailment (FDE) as MiLP stands to LP. That is, our logics share the paracomplete and the paraconsistent-cum-paracomplete nature of K3 and FDE, respectively, while keeping these features to a minimum in order to stay closer to (...)

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35. Need anything follow from a contradiction?Simon Thomas Hewitt - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 65 (3):278-297.
ABSTRACT Classical and intuitionistic logic both validate Ex Contradictione Quodlibet, according to which any proposition whatsoever follows from a contradiction. Many philosophers have found ECQ counter-intuitive, but criticisms of the principle have almost universally been directed from a position of support for relevance or other orthodox paraconsistent logics, according to which some, but not necessarily all, propositions follow from a contradiction. This paper draws attention to the historically significant view that nothing whatsoever follows from a contradiction – Ex Contradictione Nihil. (...)

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36. The Philosophy of Exemplarity: Singularity, Particularity, and Self-Reference.Mácha Jakub - 2022 - New York: Routledge.
This book offers an original philosophical perspective on exemplarity. Inspired by Wittgenstein’s later work and Derrida’s theory of deconstruction, it argues that examples are not static entities but rather oscillate between singular and universal moments. There is a broad consensus that exemplary cases mediate between singular instances and universal concepts or norms. In the first part of the book, Mácha contends that there is a kind of différance between singular examples and general exemplars or paradigms. Every example is, in part, (...)

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37. Depth Relevance and Hyperformalism.Shay Allen Logan - 2022 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 51 (4):721-737.
Formal symptoms of relevance usually concern the propositional variables shared between the antecedent and the consequent of provable conditionals. Among the most famous results about such symptoms are Belnap’s early results showing that for sublogics of the strong relevant logic R, provable conditionals share a signed variable between antecedent and consequent. For logics weaker than R stronger variable sharing results are available. In 1984, Ross Brady gave one well-known example of such a result. As a corollary to the main result (...)

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38. History of logic in Latin America: the case of Ayda Ignez Arruda.Gisele Dalva Secco & Miguel Alvarez Lisboa - 2022 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 30 (2):384-408.
Ayda Ignez Arruda was a key figure in the development of the Brazilian school of Paraconsistent logic and the first person to write a historical survey of the field. Despite her importa...

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39. Further Reflections on Quasi-factivism: A Reply to Baumann.Michael J. Shaffer - 2022 - Logos and Episteme 13 (2):207-215.
This paper is a response to Baumann's comments on "Can Knowledge Really be Non-fative?" In this paper Baumann's suggestions for how those who deny the factivty of knowledge might deal with the argument from inconsistency and explosion are addressed.

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40. Towards Tractable Approximations to Many-Valued Logics: the Case of First Degree Entailment.Alejandro Solares-Rojas & Marcello D’Agostino - 2022 - In Igor Sedlár (ed.), The Logica Yearbook 2021. College Publications. pp. 57-76.
FDE is a logic that captures relevant entailment between implication-free formulae and admits of an intuitive informational interpretation as a 4-valued logic in which “a computer should think”. However, the logic is co-NP complete, and so an idealized model of how an agent can think. We address this issue by shifting to signed formulae where the signs express imprecise values associated with two distinct bipartitions of the set of standard 4 values. Thus, we present a proof system which consists of (...)

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41. Semantics for Pure Theories of Connexive Implication.Yale Weiss - 2022 - Review of Symbolic Logic 15 (3):591-606.
In this article, I provide Urquhart-style semilattice semantics for three connexive logics in an implication-negation language (I call these “pure theories of connexive implication”). The systems semantically characterized include the implication-negation fragment of a connexive logic of Wansing, a relevant connexive logic recently developed proof-theoretically by Francez, and an intermediate system that is novel to this article. Simple proofs of soundness and completeness are given and the semantics is used to establish various facts about the systems (e.g., that two of (...)

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42. The Universal Theory Building Toolkit Is Substructural.Shay Allen Logan - 2021 - In Ivo Düntsch & Edwin Mares (eds.), Alasdair Urquhart on Nonclassical and Algebraic Logic and Complexity of Proofs. Springer Verlag. pp. 261-285.
Consider the set of inferences that are acceptable to use in all our theory building endeavors. Call this set of inferences the universal theory building toolkit, or just ’the toolkit’ for short. It is clear that the toolkit is tightly connected to logic in a variety of ways. Beall, for example, has argued that logic just is the toolkit. This paper avoids making a stand on that issue and instead investigates reasons for thinking that, logic or not, the toolkit is (...)

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43. Non-classical Comparative Logic I: Standard Categorical Logic–from SLe to IFLe.Amer Amikhteh & Seyed Ahmad Mirsanei - 2021 - Logical Studies 12 (1):1-24.
n this paper, a non-classical axiomatic system was introduced to classify all moods of Aristotelian syllogisms, in addition to the axiom "Every a is an a" and the bilateral rules of obversion of E and O propositions. This system consists of only 2 definitions, 2 axioms, 1 rule of a premise, and moods of Barbara and Datisi. By adding first-degree propositional negation to this system, we prove that the square of opposition holds without using many of the other rules of (...)
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44. On the mutability of Christ.Axel Arturo Barceló Aspeitia - 2021 - Manuscrito 44 (4):363-373.
I argue that an ontological pluralist strategy that relies on category-relative properties is immune to all the particular criticisms Beall wields in his book against other strategies for recovering the consistency of the immutability of the incarnated god.

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45. The Contradictory Christ, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Jc Beall - 2021 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
This book argues that the standard (orthodox) doctrine of incarnation (of "God enfleshed") is best understood along glut-theoretic lines: the incarnate God is a contradictory being. Example: because God, the Christ figure is all-knowing; but because human, ignorant. And so on. Standard theological theory in the tradition recognizes the apparent contradiction in its core doctrines; Beall argues that the appearance should be accepted as veridical.
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46. Dialetheism and Modus Tollens.Ben Blumson & Theresa Helke - 2021 - The Reasoner 15 (4):30.
Suppose that some contradictions are true – for example, that as I walk through the door, I’m inside and I’m not inside. Then we argue 'if I'm walking through the door, I'm inside; I'm not inside; therefore, I'm not walking through the door' is an invalid instance of modus tollens.

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47. Twist-Valued Models for Three-valued Paraconsistent Set Theory.Walter Carnielli & Marcelo E. Coniglio - 2021 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 30 (2):187-226.
Boolean-valued models of set theory were independently introduced by Scott, Solovay and Vopěnka in 1965, offering a natural and rich alternative for describing forcing. The original method was adapted by Takeuti, Titani, Kozawa and Ozawa to lattice-valued models of set theory. After this, Löwe and Tarafder proposed a class of algebras based on a certain kind of implication which satisfy several axioms of ZF. From this class, they found a specific 3-valued model called PS3 which satisfies all the axioms of (...)

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48. Degree-Preserving Gödel Logics with an Involution: Intermediate Logics and Paraconsistency.Marcelo E. Coniglio, Francesc Esteva, Joan Gispert & Lluis Godo - 2021 - In Ofer Arieli & Anna Zamansky (eds.), Arnon Avron on Semantics and Proof Theory of Non-Classical Logics. Springer Verlag. pp. 107-139.
In this paper we study intermediate logics between the logic G≤∼, the degree preserving companion of Gödel fuzzy logic with involution G∼ and classical propositional logic CPL, as well as the intermediate logics of their finite-valued counterparts G≤n∼. Although G≤∼ and G≤ are explosive w.r.t. Gödel negation ¬, they are paraconsistent w.r.t. the involutive negation ∼. We introduce the notion of saturated paraconsistency, a weaker notion than ideal paraconsistency, and we fully characterize the ideal and the saturated paraconsistent logics between (...)

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49. Genuine Paraconsistent logics \ and \ were defined in 2016 by Béziau et al, including only three logical connectives, namely, negation disjunction and conjunction. Afterwards in 2017 Hernández-Tello et al, provide implications for both logics and define the logics \ and \. In this work we continue the study of these logics, providing sound and complete Hilbert-type axiomatic systems for each logic. We prove among other properties that \ and \ satisfy a restricted version of the Substitution Theorem, and that (...)