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  1. Is ‘Knowing That P’ Identical with ‘Knowing That “P” Is True’?Changsheng Lai - 2019 - Philosophia:1-18.
    It is epistemological orthodoxy that the object of propositional knowledge is the truth of propositions. This traditional view is based on what I call the ‘KT-schema’, viz, ‘S knows that p, iff, S knows that “p” is true’. The purpose of this paper is to reject the KT-schema. By showing the paradoxical upshot of the KT-schema and providing counterexamples to the KT-schema, this paper argues that ‘knowing that p’ is more than ‘knowing that “p” is true’. Consequently, we shall rethink (...)
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  2. Toward Predicate Approaches to Modality.Johannes Stern - 2016 - Switzerland: Springer.
    In this volume, the author investigates and argues for, a particular answer to the question: What is the right way to logically analyze modalities from natural language within formal languages? The answer is: by formalizing modal expressions in terms of predicates. But, as in the case of truth, the most intuitive modal principles lead to paradox once the modal notions are conceived as predicates. -/- The book discusses the philosophical interpretation of these modal paradoxes and argues that any satisfactory approach (...)
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  3. Necessities and Necessary Truths. Proof-Theoretically.Johannes Stern - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2.
    In his seminal “Outline of a Theory of Truth” Kripke (1975) proposed understanding modal predicates as complex expressions defined by a suitable modal operator and a truth predicate. In the case of the alethic modality of logical or metaphysical necessity, this proposal amounts to understanding the modal predicate ‘is necessary’ as the complex predicate ‘is necessarily true’. In this piece we work out the details of Kripke’s proposal, which we label the Kripke reduction, from a proof-theoretic perspective. To this end (...)
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  4. The Paradox of the Knower Without Epistemic Closure -- Corrected.C. B. Cross - 2012 - Mind 121 (482):457-466.
    This essay corrects an error in the presentation of the Paradox of the Knowledge-Plus Knower, which is the variant of Kaplan and Montague’s Knower Paradox presented in C. Cross 2001: ‘The Paradox of the Knower without Epistemic Closure,’ MIND, 110, pp. 319–33. The correction adds a universally quantified transitivity principle for derivability as an additional assumption leading to paradox. This correction does not affect the status of the Knowledge-Plus paradox as a rebuttal to an argument against epistemic closure, since the (...)
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  5. On the Possibility of a General Purge of Self-Reference.Lucas Rosenblatt - 2012 - Análisis Filosófico 32 (1):53-59.
    My aim in this paper is to gather some evident in favor of the view that a general purge of self-reference is possible. I do this by considering a modal-epistemic version of the Liar Paradox introduced by Roy Cook. Using yabloesque techniques, I show that it is possible to transform this circular paradoxical construction (and other constructions as well) into an infinitary construction lacking any sort of circularity. Moreover, contrary to Cook’s approach, I think that this can be done without (...)
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  6. More on the Paradox of the Knower Without Epistemic Closure.Charles B. Cross - 2004 - Mind 113 (449):109-114.
    In “The Paradox of the Knower without Epistemic Closure”, MIND 110:319-33, 2001, I develop a version of the Knower Paradox which does not assume epistemic closure, and I use it to argue that the original Knower Paradox does not support an argument against epistemic closure. In “The Paradox of the Knower without Epistemic Closure?”, MIND 113:95-107, 2004, Gabriel Uzquiano, using his own result, argues that my rebuttal to the anti-closure argument is not successful. I respond here by arguing that in (...)
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  7. A Theorem Concerning Syntactical Treatments of Nonidealized Belief.Charles B. Cross - 2001 - Synthese 129 (3):335 - 341.
    [IMPORTANT CORRECTION - See end of abstract.] In Syntactical Treatments of Modality, with Corollaries on Reflexion Principles and Finite Axiomatizability, Acta Philosophica Fennica 16 (1963), 153–167, Richard Montague shows that the use of a single syntactic predicate (with a context-independent semantic value) to represent modalities of alethic necessity and idealized knowledge leads to inconsistency. In A Note on Syntactical Treatments of Modality, Synthese 44 (1980), 391–395, Richmond Thomason obtains a similar impossibility result for idealized belief: under a syntactical treatment of (...)
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  8. The Paradox of the Knower Without Epistemic Closure.Charles B. Cross - 2001 - Mind 110 (438):319-333.
    In this essay I present a new version of the Paradox of the Knower and show that this new paradox vitiates a certain argument against epistemic closure. I then prove a theorem that relates the new paradox to epistemological scepticism. I conclude by assessing the use of the Knower in arguments against syntactical treatments of knowledge.
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  9. Review of Mark Sainsbury, Paradoxes. [REVIEW]Vincent C. Müller - 1994 - European Review of Philosophy 1:182-184.
  10. Operators in the Paradox of the Knower.Patrick Grim - 1993 - Synthese 94 (3):409 - 428.
    Predicates are term-to-sentence devices, and operators are sentence-to-sentence devices. What Kaplan and Montague's Paradox of the Knower demonstrates is that necessity and other modalities cannot be treated as predicates, consistent with arithmetic; they must be treated as operators instead. Such is the current wisdom.A number of previous pieces have challenged such a view by showing that a predicative treatment of modalities neednot raise the Paradox of the Knower. This paper attempts to challenge the current wisdom in another way as well: (...)
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  11. Paradoxien.Mark Sainsbury & Vincent C. Müller - 1993 - Reclam.
    Translation of Mark Sainsbury: Paradoxes (Cambridge University Press 1988).
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  12. An Unsolved Puzzle About Knowledge.Thomas Tymoczko - 1984 - Philosophical Quarterly 34 (137):437-458.
  13. The Paradox of the Knower.C. Anthony Anderson - 1983 - Journal of Philosophy 80 (6):338-355.
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