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102 found
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1 — 50 / 102
  1. added 2020-06-04
    The Moral Permissibility of Nudges.Valerie Joly Chock - 2020 - Florida Philosophical Review 19 (1):33-47.
    Nudging is the idea that people’s decisions and behaviors can be influenced in predictable, non-coercive ways by making small changes to the choice architecture. In this paper, I differentiate between type-1 nudges and type-2 nudges according to the thinking processes involved in each. With this distinction in hand, I present the libertarian paternalistic criteria for the moral permissibility of intentional nudges. Having done this, I motivate an objection to type-1 nudges. According to this objection, type-1 nudges do not appear to (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-29
    Hard and Soft Paternalism.Jason Hanna - 2018 - In Kalle Grill & Jason Hanna (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Paternalism. Abingdon, UK: Routledge. pp. 24-34.
    Many philosophers distinguish between "hard" paternalism, which supposedly violates autonomy, and "soft" paternalism, which does not. This chapter begins by critically assessing Joel Feinberg's account of the distinction, according to which hard paternalism interferes with voluntary self-regarding choices while soft paternalism interferes with substantially nonvoluntary self-regarding choices. It then considers several other ways to draw the hard/soft distinction. Ultimately, the chapter concludes that although the hard/soft distinction is a crucially important component of most antipaternalist views, it is surprisingly difficult to (...)
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  3. added 2020-05-27
    In Our Best Interest: A Defense of Paternalism.Jason Hanna - 2018 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    In Our Best Interest argues that it is permissible to intervene in a person's affairs whenever doing so serves her best interest without wronging others. Jason Hanna makes the case for paternalism, responding to common objections that paternalism is disrespectful or that it violates rights, and arguing that popular anti-paternalist views confront serious problems.
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  4. added 2020-05-27
    Libertarian Paternalism, Manipulation, and the Shaping of Preferences.Jason Hanna - 2015 - Social Theory and Practice 41 (4):618-643.
    “Libertarian paternalism” aims to harness cognitive biases in order to improve prudential decision-making. Some critics have objected that libertarian paternalism is wrongly manipulative. I argue that this objection is mostly unsuccessful. First, I point out that some strategies endorsed by libertarian paternalists can help people to better appreciate reasons. Second, I develop an account of manipulation according to which an agent manipulates her target by worsening the target’s deliberative position. The means of influence defended by libertarian paternalists—for instance, the judicious (...)
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  5. added 2020-05-27
    Paternalism and the Ill-Informed Agent.Jason Hanna - 2012 - The Journal of Ethics 16 (4):421-439.
    Most anti-paternalists claim that informed and competent self-regarding choices are protected by autonomy, while ill-informed or impaired self-regarding choices are not. Joel Feinberg, among many others, argues that we can in this way distinguish impermissible “hard” paternalism from permissible “soft” paternalism. I argue that this view confronts two related problems in its treatment of ill-informed decision-makers. First, it faces a dilemma when applied to decision-makers who are responsible for their ignorance: it either permits too much, or else too little, intervention (...)
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  6. added 2020-05-27
    Paternalism and Impairment.Jason Hanna - 2011 - Social Theory and Practice 37 (3):434-460.
    Most opponents of paternalism agree that autonomy does not protect substantially impaired choices. Yet this common anti-paternalist view faces serious problems. First, I argue that it threatens to justify nearly all beneficial intervention, since all imprudent choices are impaired. Attempts to avoid this problem yield other implications that anti-paternalists would reject. Second, I argue that anti-paternalists have no convincing way of showing that impaired choices, such as those produced by emotional distress, are not protected by autonomy. In light of these (...)
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  7. added 2020-05-26
    Coronavirus and Value Pluralism : A Robust Ethical Perspective on a Pandemic.Ignace Haaz - forthcoming - Journal of Dharma.
    The fear of the largely unknown consequences of being exposed to coronavirus should have brought a more dynamic interplay of beliefs and opinions for those who in the footsteps of J.S. Mill believe that the limits of power, which can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual, is to prevent harm to others (Mill, 1859, Introduction). To be kept in a room is an invitation to think or do things with a higher degree of intelligence, empathy and tact. Our (...)
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  8. added 2020-05-26
    Autonomy, Rationality, and Contemporary Bioethics.Jonathan Pugh - 2020 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Personal autonomy is often lauded as a key value in contemporary Western bioethics. Though the claim that there is an important relationship between autonomy and rationality is often treated as uncontroversial in this sphere, there is also considerable disagreement about how we should cash out the relationship. In particular, it is unclear whether a rationalist view of autonomy can be compatible with legal judgments that enshrine a patient's right to refuse medical treatment, regardless of whether the reasons underpinning the choice (...)
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  9. added 2020-05-17
    From Field to Fork and on to Philosophy.Paul B. Thompson - 2017 - Social Philosophy Today 33:225-232.
    Jeffrey Brown, Greg Hoskins and Elizabeth Sperry pose questions about three different policy questions that are discussed in From Field to Fork: Food Ethics for Everyone: policy interventions to address obesity, welfare guidelines for egg production, and the safety of genetically engineered foods. However all three critiques turn on the question of what we can expect a non-specialist to know, and how much information they can be expected to process in making an ethical decision about what to eat. My response (...)
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  10. added 2020-05-16
    Reluctant Panopticians: Reply to Sunstein.Andreas Kapsner & Barbara Sandfuchs - 2017 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 8 (3):709-715.
    In this note, we would like to respond to some remarks with which Cass Sunstein has, in turn, responded to our paper 'Nudges as a Threat to Privacy' in this journal. First, we address his contention that nudges are among the less problematic government practices as regards to privacy issues. Second, as he has clarified in his response that he doesn't think an all too well-informed government would be a good idea, we point out that this leaves a gaping hole (...)
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  11. added 2020-05-16
    Nudging, Intervening or Rewarding: A Discussion on the Constraints and the Degree of Control on Health Status.Christine Le Clainche & Sandy Tubeuf - 2016 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 15 (2):170-189.
    Public health policies typically assume that there are characteristics and constraints over health that an individual cannot control and that there are choices that an individual could change if he is nudged or provided with incentives. We consider that health is determined by a range of personal, social, economic and environmental factors and we discuss to what extent an individual can control these factors. In particular, we assume that the observed health status of an individual is a result of factors (...)
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  12. added 2020-05-15
    Nudging Charitable Giving: The Ethics of Nudge in International Poverty Reduction.Joshua Hobbs - 2017 - Ethics and Global Politics 10 (1):37-57.
  13. added 2020-05-15
    Paternalism, Behavioural Economics, Irrationality and State Failure.Mark Pennington - 2016 - European Journal of Political Theory 18 (4):147488511664785.
  14. added 2020-05-13
    Paternalism RevisitedGovernment Paternalism: Nanny State or Helpful Friend?, by Le GrandJulianNewBill. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2015.Why Nudge? The Politics of Libertarian Paternalism, by SunsteinCass R.New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014. [REVIEW]Bart Engelen - forthcoming - Political Theory:009059171667222.
  15. added 2020-05-12
    Policy-Led Virtue Cultivation : Can We Nudge Citizens Towards Developing Virtues?Fay Niker - 2018 - In Tom Harrison & David Walker (eds.), The Theory and Practice of Virtue Education. London, U.K.: Routledge. pp. 153-167.
    This chapter examines what role new behaviour-modification policies – commonly known as “nudges” – might play in cultivating virtues. At first sight, they would appear to be ruled out as a candidate means; but, by offering a more nuanced analysis, the chapter argues that some nudges have virtue-cultivating properties. It distinguishes between two kinds of nudges – 'automatic-behavioural' and 'discernment-developing' – and shows that what divides them is the ability of the latter, which the former lacks, to play an ecological-educative (...)
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  16. added 2020-05-11
    Children’s Well-Being and Vulnerability.Alexander Bagattini - 2019 - Ethics and Social Welfare 13 (3):211-215.
  17. added 2020-04-20
    Who Should Decide? Paternalism in Health Care, by James F. Childress.M. Siegler - 1985 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 28 (3):452.
  18. added 2020-04-19
    Paternalism and Duties to Self.Michael Cholbi - 2018 - In Kalle Grill & Jason Hanna (eds.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Paternalism. pp. 108-118.
    Here I pursue two main aims: (1) to articulate and defend a Kantian conception of duties to self, and (2) to explore the ramifications of such duties for the moral justification of paternalism. I conclude that there is a distinctive reason to resent paternalistic intercessions aimed at assisting others in fulfilling their duties to self (or the self-regarding virtues necessary thereunto), based on the fact that the goods realized via their fulfillment are historical, i.e., their value depends on an individual's (...)
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  19. added 2020-04-16
    What’s Epistemic About Epistemic Paternalism?Elizabeth Jackson - forthcoming - In Jonathan Matheson & Kirk Lougheed (eds.), Essays in Epistemic Autonomy. New York: Routledge.
    The aim of this paper is to (i) examine the concept of epistemic paternalism and (ii) explore the consequences of normative questions one might ask about it. I begin by critically examining several definitions of epistemic paternalism that have been proposed, and suggesting ways they might be improved. I then contrast epistemic and general paternalism and argue that it’s difficult to see what makes epistemic paternalism an epistemic phenomenon at all. Next, I turn to the various normative questions one might (...)
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  20. added 2020-01-15
    The Unmasking of Medicine By Ian Kennedy, And: Philosophy in Medicine By Charles M. Culver and Bernard Gert.Bernard Lo - 1983 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 26 (4):676-677.
  21. added 2020-01-12
    Singularity and Medicine: Is There a Place for Heteronomy in Medical Ethics?Ignaas Devisch & Stijn Vanheule - 2014 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 20 (6):965-969.
  22. added 2020-01-03
    Epistemic Paternalism, Personal Sovereignty, and One’s Own Good.Michel Croce - forthcoming - In Guy Axtell & Amiel Bernal (eds.), Epistemic Paternalism Reconsidered: Conceptions, Justifications, and Implications. Rowman & LIttlefield.
    A recent paper by Bullock (2018) raises a dilemma for proponents of epistemic paternalism. If epistemic paternalists contend that epistemic improvements contribute to one’s wellbeing, then their view conflates with general paternalism. Instead, if they appeal to the notion of a distinctive epistemic value, their view is unjustified, in that concerns about epistemic value fail to outweigh concerns about personal sovereignty. In this chapter, I address Bullock’s challenge in a way that safeguards the legitimacy of epistemic paternalism, albeit restricting its (...)
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  23. added 2020-01-03
    Epistemic Paternalism and the Service Conception of Epistemic Authority.Michel Croce - 2018 - Metaphilosophy 49 (3):305-327.
    Epistemic paternalism is the thesis that in some circumstances we are justified in interfering with the inquiry of another for their own epistemic good without consulting them on the issue. In this paper, I address the issue of who is rationally entitled to undertake paternalistic interferences, and in virtue of which features one has this entitlement. First, I undermine the view according to which experts are the most apt people to act as paternalist interferers. Then, I argue that epistemic authorities (...)
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  24. added 2019-12-04
    The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Paternalism.Kalle Grill & Jason Hanna (eds.) - 2018 - Routledge.
    While paternalism has been a long-standing philosophical issue, it has recently received renewed attention among scholars and the general public. Comprising twenty-seven chapters by a team of international contributors, this handbook is divided into five parts: (i) What is Paternalism; (ii) Paternalism and Ethical Theory; (iii) Paternalism and Political Philosophy; (iv) Paternalism without Coercion; (v) Paternalism in Practice. Within these sections central debates, issues, and questions are examined, including: how should paternalism be defined or characterized? How is paternalism related to (...)
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  25. added 2019-12-04
    Paternalism.Kalle Grill - 2011 - In Ruth Chadwick (ed.), Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics. Academic Press.
    Paternalism means, roughly, benevolent interference: benevolent because it aims at promoting or protecting a person’s good; interference because it restricts his liberty without his consent. The paternalist believes herself superior in that she can secure some benefit for the person that he himself will not secure. Paternalism is opposed by the liberal tradition, at least when it targets sufficiently voluntary behavior. In legal contexts, policies may be paternalistic for some and not for others, forcing trade-offs. In medical contexts, paternalism can (...)
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  26. added 2019-12-04
    The Normative Core of Paternalism.Kalle Grill - 2007 - Res Publica 13 (4):441-458.
    The philosophical debate on paternalism is conducted as if the property of being paternalistic should be attributed to actions. Actions are typically deemed to be paternalistic if they amount to some kind of interference with a person and if the rationale for the action is the good of the person interfered with. This focus on actions obscures the normative issues involved. In particular, it makes it hard to provide an analysis of the traditional liberal resistance to paternalism. Given the fact (...)
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  27. added 2019-11-09
    Epistemic Paternalism, Epistemic Permissivism, and Standpoint Epistemology.Elizabeth Jackson - 2020 - In Amiel Bernal & Guy Axtell (eds.), Epistemic Paternalism Reconsidered: Conceptions, Justifications, and Implications. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 201-215.
    Epistemic paternalism is the practice of interfering with someone’s inquiry, without their consent, for their own epistemic good. In this chapter, I explore the relationship between epistemic paternalism and two other epistemological theses: epistemic permissivism and standpoint epistemology. I argue that examining this relationship is fruitful because it sheds light on a series of cases in which epistemic paternalism is unjustified and brings out notable similarities between epistemic permissivism and standpoint epistemology.
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  28. added 2019-10-11
    Persuasion and Epistemic Paternalism.Robin McKenna - forthcoming - In Guy Axtell & Amiel Bernal (eds.), Epistemic Paternalism: Conceptions, Justifications, and Implications. Rowman & Littlefield.
    Many of us hold false beliefs about matters that are relevant to public policy such as climate change and the safety of vaccines. What can be done to rectify this situation? This question can be read in two ways. According to the descriptive reading, it concerns which methods will be effective in persuading people that their beliefs are false. According to the normative reading, it concerns which methods we are permitted to use in the service of persuading people. Some effective (...)
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  29. added 2019-09-10
    Autonomy, Consent, and the “Nonideal” Case.Hallvard Lillehammer - 2020 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 45 (3):297-311.
    According to one influential view, requirements to elicit consent for medical interventions and other interactions gain their rationale from the respect we owe to each other as autonomous, or self-governing, rational agents. Yet the popular presumption that consent has a central role to play in legitimate intervention extends beyond the domain of cases where autonomous agency is present to cases where far from fully autonomous agents make choices that, as likely as not, are going to be against their own best (...)
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  30. added 2019-08-21
    Paternalism Towards Children.Kalle Grill - 2018 - In Anca Gheaus, Gideon Calder & Jurgen de Wispelaere (eds.), Routledge handbook of the philosophy of childhood and children. pp. 123-133.
    Debates on the nature and justifiability of paternalism typically focus only on adults, sometimes presuming without argument that paternalism towards children is a non-issue or obviously justified. Debates on the moral and political status of children, in turn, rarely connect with the rich literature on paternalism. This chapter attempts to bridge this gap by exploring how issues that arise in the general debate on paternalism are relevant also for the benevolent interference with children. I survey and discuss various views and (...)
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  31. added 2019-06-06
    Against Paternalism: Justifying Coercive Paternalism by Sarah Conly, 2012 Cambridge, Cambridge University Press216 Pp, £55.00. [REVIEW]David Archard - 2013 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (4):397-400.
  32. added 2019-06-06
    From Paternalism to Managerialism: A Healing Shift?Sandro Limentani - 2002 - Philosophy of Management 2 (1):3-9.
    Traditionally, medical professionals have taken a paternalistic stance towards their patients and have relied on a traditional approach to medical ethics. In recent years, in Britain, however, a new 'managerialism' has developed in the National Health Service. This stresses consumerism and greater patient choice and is changing the relationship between doctors and patients. This paper draws out the implications for patients. It describes the ethical characteristics of the two conflicting approaches and argues the need to stress again the view of (...)
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  33. added 2019-06-06
    More on Self-Enslavement and Paternalism in Mill: D. G. Brown.D. G. Brown - 1989 - Utilitas 1 (1):144-150.
  34. added 2019-06-06
    Moral Duties of Parents and Nontherapeutic Clinical Research Procedures Involving Children.Terrence F. Ackerman - 1980 - Journal of Medical Humanities 2 (2):94-111.
    Shared views regarding the moral respect which is owed to children in family life are used as a guide in determining the moral permissibility of nontherapeutic clinical research procedures involving children. The comparison suggests that it is not appropriate to seek assent from the preadolescent child. The analogy with interventions used in family life is similarly employed to specify the permissible limit of risk to which children may be exposed in nontherapeutic research procedures. The analysis indicates that recent writers misconceive (...)
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  35. added 2019-05-15
    Should the Homeless Be Forcibly Helped?Bart van Leeuwen & Michael S. Merry - 2019 - Public Health Ethics 12 (1):30-43.
    When are we morally obligated as a society to help the homeless, and is coercive interference justified when help is not asked for, even refused? To answer this question, we propose a comprehensive taxonomy of different types of homelessness and argue that different levels of autonomy allow for interventions with varying degrees of pressure to accept help. There are only two categories, however, where paternalism proper is allowed, be it heavily qualified. The first case is the homeless person with severely (...)
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  36. added 2019-04-08
    Paternalism by and Towards Groups.Kalle Grill - 2018 - In Kalle Grill & Jason Hanna (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Paternalism. pp. 46-58.
    In many or most instances of paternalism, more than one person acts paternalistically, or more than one person is treated paternalistically. This chapter discusses some complications that arise in such group cases, which are largely ignored in the conceptual debate. First, a group of people who together perform an action may do so for different reasons, which makes it more challenging to determine whether the action is paternalistic. This gives us some reason not to pin the property of being paternalistic (...)
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  37. added 2018-09-04
    Paternalistic Lying and Deception.Andreas Stokke - 2018 - In Kalle Grill & Jason Hanna (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Paternalism. Oxford, UK: Routledge.
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  38. added 2018-07-29
    Real Nudge.Luc Bovens - 2012 - European Journal of Risk Regulation 3 (1):43-6.
    The novelty in Adam Burgess’ paper is that he assesses nudge policies in the context of the shift in the UK government’s approach to risk from the nannying policies of Labour to the nudge policies of the Conservatives. There is a wealth of ideas in this paper. I find it useful to disentangle some of these ideas focusing on the following two questions: 1. In what respects do Labour’s nannying policies and the Conservatives’ nudge policies differ? 2. What is problematic (...)
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  39. added 2018-07-29
    The Ethics of Nudge.Luc Bovens - 2008 - In Mats J. Hansson & Till Grüne-Yanoff (eds.), Preference Change: Approaches from Philosophy, Economics and Psychology. Berlin: Springer, Theory and Decision Library A. pp. 207-20.
    In their recently published book Nudge (2008) Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein (T&S) defend a position labelled as ‘libertarian paternalism’. Their thinking appeals to both the right and the left of the political spectrum, as evidenced by the bedfellows they keep on either side of the Atlantic. In the US, they have advised Barack Obama, while, in the UK, they were welcomed with open arms by the David Cameron's camp (Chakrabortty 2008). I will consider the following questions. What (...)
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  40. added 2018-07-14
    Commentary: Why Couldn't I Be Nudged to Like a Big Mac.Luc Bovens - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (8):495-6.
    In this commentary on Yashar Saghai's article "Salvaging the Concept of Nudge" (JME 2013) I discuss his distinction between a 'prod' (which is 'substantially controlling') and a 'nudge' (which is ‘substantially non-controlling’).
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  41. added 2018-07-13
    Don’T Mess with My Smokes: Cigarettes and Freedom.Luc Bovens - 2016 - American Journal of Bioethics 16 (7):15-17.
    Considerations of objective-value freedom and status freedom do impose constraints on policies that restrict access to cigarettes. As to the objective-value freedom, something of value is lost when anti-alcohol policies lead to pub closures interfering with valued life styles, and a similar, though weaker, argument can be made for cigarettes. As to status freedom, non-arbitrariness requires consultation with vulnerable populations to learn what might aid them with smoking cessation.
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  42. added 2018-07-13
    BLOG: Nudging the Pub: A Change in Choice Architecture Can Help Pubgoers Drink Less.Luc Bovens - 2015 - LSE Business Review.
    The Government uses various policy tools to reduce alcohol consumption. There are restrictions on promotions, information campaigns, and pricing policies. These policies do not stand unchallenged. Restrictions on promotions irk business, information campaigns fail to reach the less educated, and pricing policies hurt responsible but poor consumers. So what about Thaler and Sunstein’s Nudge? Nudges keep choices open but change the “choice architecture” so as to help those who would like to drink less, and they do so in ways that (...)
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  43. added 2018-06-11
    Review of Jessica Flanigan, Pharmaceutical Freedom. [REVIEW]Jonny Anomaly - 2018 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews:x-y.
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  44. added 2018-05-25
    Uncertainty in Everyday Life.Linda Radzik - 2014 - The Philosophers' Magazine 66:77-83.
    We sometimes witness events that might be dangerous (e.g. that might end in someone being abused) but that might not be. These cases involve various kinds of uncertainty. How does a morally responsible bystander respond? This essay describes and evaluates Active Bystander training programs.
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  45. added 2018-02-18
    A Non-Paternalistic Model of Research Ethics and Oversight: Assessing the Benefits of Prospective Review.Alex John London - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):930-944.
    This paper offers a non-paternalistic justification for prospective research review as providing a credible social assurance that the institutions of scientific advancement respect and affirm the moral equality of all community members and as creating a “market” in which stakeholders working to advance diverse ends also advance the common good.
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  46. added 2017-05-09
    How Autonomy Can Legitimate Beneficial Coercion.Lucie White - 2017 - In Jakov Gather, Tanja Henking, Alexa Nossek & Jochen Vollmann (eds.), Beneficial Coercion in Psychiatry? Foundations and Challenges. Münster: Mentis. pp. 85-99.
    Respect for autonomy and beneficence are frequently regarded as the two essential principles of medical ethics, and the potential for these two principles to come into conflict is often emphasised as a fundamental problem. On the one hand, we have the value of beneficence, the driving force of medicine, which demands that medical professionals act to protect or promote the wellbeing of patients or research subjects. On the other, we have a principle of respect for autonomy, which demands that we (...)
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  47. added 2017-02-21
    Paternalism and Evaluative Shift.Davies Ben - 2017 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 4 (2).
    Many people feel that respecting a person’s autonomy is not sufficiently important to obligate us to stay out of their affairs in all cases; but the ground for interference may often turn out to be a hunch that the agent cannot really be competent, or cannot really know what her decision implies; for if she were both of these things, surely she would not make such a foolish decision. This paper suggests a justification of paternalism that does not rely on (...)
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  48. added 2016-04-09
    Knowing and Not‐Knowing For Your Own Good: The Limits of Epistemic Paternalism.Emma C. Bullock - 2016 - Journal of Applied Philosophy:433-447.
    Epistemic paternalism is the thesis that a paternalistic interference with an individual's inquiry is justified when it is likely to bring about an epistemic improvement in her. In this article I claim that in order to motivate epistemic paternalism we must first account for the value of epistemic improvements. I propose that the epistemic paternalist has two options: either epistemic improvements are valuable because they contribute to wellbeing, or they are epistemically valuable. I will argue that these options constitute the (...)
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  49. added 2016-03-23
    Paternalism, Coercion and Manipulation in Psychiatry.Thomas Schramme - 2012 - In Jan Joerden (ed.), Menschenwürde in der Medizin: Quo Vadis? Nomos. pp. 147-160.
  50. added 2016-03-21
    Paternalismus, Zwang Und Manipulation in der Psychatrie.Thomas Schramme - 2013 - In Johann Ach (ed.), Grenzen der Selbstbestimmung in der Medizin. Mentis. pp. 263-281.
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