Persons

Edited by Timothy Campbell (Rutgers University - New Brunswick, Stockholm University)
About this topic
Summary The metaphysics of personhood primarily addresses two questions: what is the nature of persons and what are their persistence conditions across time?  Addressing the former question prompts investigations into the nature of the self (if distinct from the person), consciousness, mind, and embodiment.  Addressing the latter prompts investigations into theories of personal identity.  Because many view "person"as a thoroughly normative notion, however, its study is often connected closely to investigations into value and practical identity.
Key works Primarily metaphysical investigations into personhood are taken up repeatedly by major figures throughout the history of philosophy, from Plato to Descartes to Kant.  In the contemporary literature, there are clear discussions by Baker 2000, Olson 2007, Shoemaker 1963, and van Inwagen 2001. Personhood as a normative ("forensic") concept was introduced by John Locke, in "Of Identity and Diversity" (see Perry 1975).  Contemporary normatively-based explorations of personhood include Frankfurt 1971 and Korsgaard 1989
Introductions Gallagher 2011, Martin, Raymond and Barresi, John, eds., Personal Identity (2003).
Related categories
Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Persons

7344 found
Order:
1 — 50 / 7344
Material to categorize
  1. What’s the Appropriate Target of Allocative Justification?Zara Anwarzai & Ricky Mouser - 2021 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 12 (2-3):167-168.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  2. Sul significato ultimo del desiderare: de-Sidera come de-Costellare (2017).Guido Cusinato - 2017 - In G. Cusinato, Periagoge,. Verona VR, Italia: pp. 445.
    il verbo latino «desiderare» deriva dal composto latino della particella de – che può indicare una mancanza oppure un’azione distruttiva – con il termine sidus, sideris, che significa "stella" e il plurale sidera che significa "stelle". Quindi il desiderio non ha a che fare con una singola stella, ma con un insieme di stelle. Perché? Gli antichi collegavano idealmente nel cielo le stelle fino a formare le costellazioni. e queste erano necessarie non solo per orientarsi ad es. nel mare, ma (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  3. O lugar da Inteligência Artificial nas relações entre mente e Direito Penal.Ricardo Tavares Da Silva - 2020 - Anatomia Do Crime 1 (12):51-66.
    Terá sentido proteger e responsabilizar penalmente máquinas tal como se protege e responsabiliza penalmente pessoas? Será a Inteligência Artificial das máquinas uma mentalidade artificial, produzida por entidades mentais naturais? Se sim, a artificialidade é decisiva para negar a sua proteção e responsabilidade penais? Se não há verdadeira mentalidade, estará justificada, ainda assim, a sua proteção e responsabilidade penais? E é necessária a posse de mentalidade para haver proteção e responsabilidade penais? Estas são questões fulcrais relativas à relação entre Inteligência Artificial (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. The Spectricity of Humanness.Zachary Isrow - forthcoming - Berlin, Germany: Walter De Gruyter.
    The question of humanness requires a philosophical anthropology and we need a revision of what philosophical anthropology means in light of contemporary efforts in speculative realism and object-oriented ontology. This is the main claim of the book which expands into the smaller supporting claims that 1) contemporary work in speculative realism indicates that Heidegger’s analytic of Dasein needs to be rethought in consideration of certain Kantian values 2) recent philosophical anthropology offers an incomplete look at the central concern of philosophical (...)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. The Essence of Authenticity.Olaf Dammann, Katja M. Friederichs, Sabine Lebedinski & Kerstin M. Liesenfeld - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 11.
    In this paper, we build upon the model of authenticity proposed by Lehman and colleagues, which includes the dimensions consistency, conformity, and connection. We expand this “3C-view” by adding a fourth dimension, continuity, which results in what we have come to call “4C-view of authenticity.” We discuss our proposal from a process perspective and emphasize that congruence might be a reasonable candidate for a concept that unifies the four dimensions of authenticity.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  6. Sacredness and Aesthetics: Kearney and Desmond on Prayer.Dennis Vanden Auweele - 2021 - Modern Theology 37 (1):3-22.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. Debate: What is Personhood in the Age of AI?David J. Gunkel & Jordan Joseph Wales - forthcoming - AI and Society.
    In a friendly interdisciplinary debate, we interrogate from several vantage points the question of “personhood” in light of contemporary and near-future forms of social AI. David J. Gunkel approaches the matter from a philosophical and legal standpoint, while Jordan Wales offers reflections theological and psychological. Attending to metaphysical, moral, social, and legal understandings of personhood, we ask about the position of apparently personal artificial intelligences in our society and individual lives. Re-examining the “person” and questioning prominent construals of that category, (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Empathy and Instrumentalization: Late Ancient Cultural Critique and the Challenge of Apparently Personal Robots.Jordan Joseph Wales - 2020 - In Marco Nørskov, Johanna Seibt & Oliver Santiago Quick (eds.), Culturally Sustainable Social Robotics: Proceedings of Robophilosophy 2020. Amsterdam: IOS Press. pp. 114-124.
    According to a tradition that we hold variously today, the relational person lives most personally in affective and cognitive empathy, whereby we enter subjective communion with another person. Near future social AIs, including social robots, will give us this experience without possessing any subjectivity of their own. They will also be consumer products, designed to be subservient instruments of their users’ satisfaction. This would seem inevitable. Yet we cannot live as personal when caught between instrumentalizing apparent persons (slaveholding) or numbly (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9. Are Personites a Problem for Endurantists?Harold Noonan - 2020 - Philosophical Forum 51 (4):399-409.
    Personites are shorter lived, very person‐like things that extend across part but not the whole of a person's life. That there are such things is a consequence of the standard perdurance view championed by Lewis and Quine; it is also a consequence of liberal endurantist views which allow such things coinciding with persons during part of their lives, though not themselves parts of the persons. Johnston and Olson argue that the existence of personites has bizarre moral consequences and renders what (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10. The Situational Mental File Account of the False Belief Tasks: A New Solution of the Paradox of False Belief Understanding.Albert Newen & Julia Wolf - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (4):717-744.
    How can we solve the paradox of false-belief understanding: if infants pass the implicit false belief task by nonverbal behavioural responses why do they nonetheless typically fail the explicit FBT till they are 4 years old? Starting with the divide between situational and cognitive accounts of the development of false-belief understanding, we argue that we need to consider both situational and internal cognitive factors together and describe their interaction to adequately explain the development of children’s Theory of Mind ability. We (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  11. Review of Weizman (2008): Positioning in Media Dialogue: Negotiating Roles in the News Interview. [REVIEW]Michal Hamo - 2011 - Pragmatics and Cognition 19 (3):591-595.
  12. Philosophical Letters of David K. Lewis: Volume 1: Causation, Modality, Ontology.Helen Beebee & A. R. J. Fisher (eds.) - 2020 - Oxford University Press.
    The life-long correspondence of David K. Lewis, one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century, reveals the development, breadth, and depth of his philosophy in its historical context. The first of this two volume collection of letters focuses on his contributions to metaphysics, arguably where he made his greatest impact.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13. Persoonuudesta, sen tilasta ja tulevaisuudesta.Heikki Ikäheimo - 2006 - Niin and Näin 2006 (4):97-101.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Recognition and Humans with Reduced Person-Making Capacities (Handbuch Anerkennung).Heikki Ikäheimo - 2020 - Handbuch Anerkennung.
    People whose person-making capacities or status are diminished or who lack them altogether are mostly ignored in mainstream theories of recognition. This entry clarifies the conceptual landscape around and some of the key questions about recognition in relation to these people. The concept of personhood is analyzed into three different sub-concepts – juridical, moral and psychological – and the connection of these to recognition on relevant concepts of recognition is discussed.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15. Personhood – Workshop Papers of the Conference ‘Dimensions of Personhood’.Heikki Ikäheimo, Jussi Kotkavirta, Arto Laitinen, Pessi Lyyra & Petteri Niemi (eds.) - 2004 - University of Jyväskylä, Publications in Philosophy.
    This volume contains the workshop papers of the philosophical conference Dimensions of Personhood held in August 13-15, 2004 at University of Jyväskylä, Finland. The conference was organized by the Finnish Academy research project The Concept of Person. In the call for papers, the theme of the conference was formulated as follows. Recent developments in neuroscience and information technology, in medicine and biotechnology, and in society and culture more broadly have made various questions concerning our identity as human beings urgent. As (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  16. Fichte and Recognition (Handbuch Anerkennung).Heikki Ikäheimo - 2020 - Handbuch Anerkennung.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17. Humans with Reduced Person-Making Capacities (Handbuch Anerkennung).Heikki Ikäheimo - 2020 - Handbuch Anerkennung.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18. Personhood and Recognition (Handbuch Anerkennung).Heikki Ikäheimo - 2020 - Handbuch Anerkennung.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19. God, Personhood, and Infinity: Against a Hickian Argument.Mohammad Saleh Zarepour - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 12 (1):61.
    Criticizing Richard Swinburne’s conception of God, John Hick argues that God cannot be personal because infinity and personhood are mutually incompatible. An essential characteristic of a person, Hick claims, is having a boundary which distinguishes that person from other persons. But having a boundary is incompatible with being infinite. Infinite beings are unbounded. Hence God cannot be thought of as an infinite person. In this paper, I argue that the Hickian argument is flawed because boundedness is an equivocal notion: in (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20. Augustine on Beatific Enjoyment.David Worsley - 2020 - Heythrop Journal 61 (2):234-240.
  21. Isolating the Individual: Theology, the Evolution of Religion, and the Problem of Abstract Individualism.Léon Turner - 2020 - Zygon 55 (1):207-228.
    Debates about the theological implications of recent research in the cognitive and evolutionary study of religion have tended to focus on the question of theism. The question of whether there is any disagreement about the conceptualization of the individual human being has been largely overlooked. In this article, I argue that evolutionary and cognitive accounts of religion typically depend upon a view of cognition that conceptually isolates the mind from its particular social and physical environmental contexts. By embracing this view (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  22. John Macmurray's Religious Philosophy: What It Means to Be a Person.Esther Mcintosh - 2011 - Ashgate Publishing.
    Recent dissatisfaction with individualism and the problems of religious pluralism make this an opportune time to reassess the way in which we define ourselves and conduct our relationships with others. The philosophical writings of John Macmurray are a useful resource for performing this examination, and recent interest in Macmurray's work has been growing steadily. -/- A full-scale critical examination of Macmurray's religious philosophy has not been published and this work fills this gap, sharing his insistence that we define ourselves through (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23. The Virtue of Running a Marathon.Simone Gozzano - 2019 - Think 18 (52):69-74.
    Running a marathon is not solely a personal achievement; rather it sets an example. Because of the nature of this example, it constitutes an achievement that deserves our praise (contrary to what has recently been argued in this Journal).
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24. Annunciazione e trasformazione Fenomenologia dell'annuncio.Guido Cusinato - 2015 - Giornale di Metafisica 37.
    In the Greek mythology the concept of annunciation has been often associated with the figure of “winged messenger”, in Greek “anghelos”, while in the Christian tradition it usually recalls the archangel Gabriel in his announcing to Mary the generative act per excellence: the birth. In this paper I take into consideration Botticelli’s Cestello Annunciation: the image represented in this painting suggests the interpretation of the annunciation from the viewpoint of transformation, i. e., of the crisis and the birth of something (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25. Substanz, Relation oder beides: Augustinus und Heidegger zur Frage ‘Was sind Personen?’ (Substance, Relation or Both: Augustine and Heidegger on the Question ‘What are Persons?’).Anne Sophie Meincke - 2012 - Crossing Borders. Grenzen (Über)Denken. Beiträge Zum 9. Internationalen Kongress der Österreichischen Gesellschaft Für Philosophie in Wien.
    What are persons? There are two traditional answers: the relation model of person according to which a person is nothing more than a function of her relationships to other persons and the substance model which construes the person as persisting independently of relations and accidental properties. In my paper, I explore two interesting intersections of these models occurring in Augustine's speculative doctrine of trinity and in Heidegger’s early Theory of Dasein. Are Augustine’s and Heidegger’s conceptions of person convincing reconciliations of (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  26. On the Resurrection of the Dead: A New Metaphysics of Afterlife for Christian Thought.James T. Turner Jr - 2018 - London: Routledge.
    Christian tradition has largely held three affirmations on the resurrection of the physical body. Firstly, that bodily resurrection is not a superfluous hope of afterlife. Secondly, there is immediate post-mortem existence in Paradise. Finally, there is numerical identity between pre-mortem and post-resurrection human beings. The same tradition also largely adheres to a robust doctrine of The Intermediate State, a paradisiacal disembodied state of existence following the biological death of a human being. This book argues that these positions are in fact (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27. Edward Jonathan Lowe.James Miller - 2018 - The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Edward Jonathan Lowe (usually cited as E. J. Lowe) was one of the most significant philosophers of the twentieth and early twenty-first century. He made sustained and significant contributions to debates in metaphysics, ontology, philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, philosophical logic, and philosophy of religion, as well as contributing important scholarly work in early modern philosophy (most notably on Locke). Over the length of his career, Lowe published eleven single-authored books, four co-edited collections, and well over 300 papers and (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. Does Integrated Information Lack Subjectivity.Janko Nešić - 2018 - Theoria: Beograd 61 (2):131-145.
    I investigate the status of subjectivity in Integrated Information Theory. This leads me to examine if Integrated Information Theory can answer the hard problem of consciousness. On itself, Integrated Information Theory does not seem to constitute an answer to the hard problem, but could be combined with panpsychism to yield a more satisfying theory of consciousness. I will show, that even if Integrated Information Theory employs the metaphysical machinery of panpsychism, Integrated Information would still suffer from a different problem, not (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29. Persons, Stages, and Tensed Belief.Nicholas Rimell - 2018 - Erkenntnis 83 (3):577-593.
    Perdurantists hold that we persons—just like other ordinary objects—persist by perduring, by having temporal parts, or stages, located over time. Perdurantists also standardly endorse the B-theory of time. And, in light of this endorsement, they typically characterize our tensed beliefs as self-ascriptions of properties, made not by us but by our stages. For instance, for me to believe that Angela Merkel is currently the chancellor of Germany is for my now-located stage to self-ascribe the property of being simultaneous with Merkel’s (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  30. Был ли бог стоиков личностью? (Was the Stoic God a Person?).Pavel Butakov - 2017 - Schole 11 (2):558-569.
    Peter Forrest claims that his “Personal Pantheist” conception of God is in agreement with the Stoic pantheism. The traditional interpretation, however, treats the Stoic God as the non-personal universal law. I demonstrate that arguments in favor of the personal interpretation typically imply either a personalist or an anthropocentric metaphysical foundation. I also argue that the Stoics were neither personalists nor anthropocentrists, therefore those arguments should be rejected.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31. Relations in the Trinitarian Reality: Two Approaches.Pavel Butakov - 2014 - Schole 8 (2):505-519.
    The Greek model of the Trinity, based on the Theological Orations of Gregory of Nazianzus, treats the Trinitarian relations as connections between the Father and the two other persons: the Son and the Holy Spirit. The two relations have to be heteronymous, and have to be interpreted from the extreme realistic position. The Latin Trinitarian model, based on Boethius’ De Trinitate, treats relations as three subsistent persons. The relations have to be unidirectional: from the Father to the Son, and from (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32. The Curious Case of Ronald McDonald’s Claim to Rights: An Ontological Account of Differences in Group and Individual Person Rights: Winner of the 2016 Essay Competition of the International Social Ontology Society.Leonie Smith - 2018 - Journal of Social Ontology 4 (1):1-28.
    Performative accounts of personhood argue that group agents are persons, fit to be held responsible within the social sphere. Nonetheless, these accounts want to retain a moral distinction between group and individual persons. That: Group-persons can be responsible for their actions qua persons, but that group-persons might nonetheless not have rights equivalent to those of human persons. I present an argument which makes sense of this disanalogy, without recourse to normative claims or additional ontological commitments. I instead ground rights in (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  33. The Metaphysics of Economic Exchanges.Massin Olivier & Tieffenbach Emma - 2017 - Journal of Social Ontology 3 (2):167-205.
    What are economic exchanges? The received view has it that exchanges are mutual transfers of goods motivated by inverse valuations thereof. As a corollary, the standard approach treats exchanges of services as a subspecies of exchanges of goods. We raise two objections against this standard approach. First, it is incomplete, as it fails to take into account, among other things, the offers and acceptances that lie at the core of even the simplest cases of exchanges. Second, it ultimately fails to (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Working One’s Life Away: Precarity, Personhood, and the Dissolution of Identity in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.Geoffrey R. Owens - 2015 - Semiotics:45-53.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  35. Men and Machines.Thomas S. Szasz - 1957 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 8 (29):310.
  36. "Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology". Translated by J. E. Creighton and E. B. Titchener. [REVIEW]Wilhelm Wundt - 1894 - Ancient Philosophy (Misc) 5:631.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  37. The Real Distinction Between Mind and Body.Stephen Yablo - 1990 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 16:149.
  38. Toward An Anatomy of Human Nature. [REVIEW]Charles Echelbarger - 1987 - Behavior and Philosophy 15 (2):175.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. Personal Knowledge In Perspective: A Reply To R. T. Allen's Questions.Stephen R. Palmquist - 1988 - Tradition and Discovery 16 (2):22-27.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40. Lukács, Marx and the Sources of Critical Theory. [REVIEW]R. S. - 1982 - Review of Metaphysics 36 (1):165-167.
    The main purpose of this book is to offer a comparative evaluation of the early works of Marx and Lukács, "these two most important texts of 'unorthodox' Marxism". Feenberg refers here to the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts on the one hand, and History and Class Consciousness on the other. At a somewhat more general level, Feenberg writes in defense of, or more accurately in preparation for a new stage in, the philosophy of praxis. To proceed directly to his conclusion, Feenberg's (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41. Radical Reflection and the Origin of the Human Sciences. [REVIEW]B. J. - 1981 - Review of Metaphysics 34 (3):618-618.
    "The current crisis in the human sciences" can only be overcome, Calvin Schrag insists in this eloquent volume, "when we perceive how it is that science and philosophy alike have been uprooted from their origin." How origin is to be understood here emerges as the initial and perhaps even final theme of the inquiry.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  42. Social Order and the Limits of Law. [REVIEW]P. D. J. - 1982 - Review of Metaphysics 35 (4):878-879.
    One does not need to read many pages of this very rich book to realize that it is the fruit of a lifetime of study and that it is both speculatively wise and prudent. Though it may not receive the same degree of attention as other well publicized studies it clearly ranks with studies such as Hart's The Concept of Law and Erlich's The Sociology of Law. The author intends to develop a systematic theory of positive law, with close attention (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Intelligence and Character: A Thomistic View.John Hugo - 1937 - New Scholasticism 11 (1):58-68.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. Robert Spaemann’s Philosophische Essays.Arthur Madigan - 1997 - Review of Metaphysics 51 (1):105-132.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  45. Langage, Sciences, Philosophie au XIIe Siècle. [REVIEW]François Beets - 2003 - Dialogue 42 (2):382-384.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. The Consciousness of the Literates.Saurav Karki - manuscript
    This essay intends to focus on the so-called 'Literates' people of our society.It labels them as a stigma.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. First Century Sources for the Life of Muḥammad? A Debate.Andreas Görke, Harald Motzki & Gregor Schoeler - 2012 - Der Islam: Journal of the History and Culture of the Middle East 89 (1-2):2-59.
    : In a recent issue of Der Islam, Stephen R. Shoemaker has contributed an extensive article in which he challenged the processes and findings of a number of studies conducted by Gregor Schoeler, Harald Motzki, and Andreas Görke. The following article offers a response to his findings. Whereas the three authors argued the case for the possibility that authentic traditions of the first century of the Hijra can be reconstructed, Shoemaker holds the contrary point of view, as already stated in (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  48. The Categorio-Centric Predicament.Henry W. Johnstone - 1966 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 4 (3):207-220.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49. Persons: A Study in Philosophical Psychology.Annette Baier & Raziel Abelson - 1979 - Philosophical Review 88 (1):112.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  50. The Identities of Persons.Christopher Peacocke & Amelie Rorty - 1978 - Philosophical Review 87 (3):456.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   17 citations  
1 — 50 / 7344