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  1. added 2020-05-05
    Opioid Treatment Agreements and Patient Accountability.Larisa Svirsky - forthcoming - Hastings Center Report.
    Opioid treatment agreements are written agreements between physicians and patients enumerating the risks associated with opioid medications along with the requirements that patients must meet to receive these medications on an ongoing basis. The choice to use such agreements goes beyond the standard informed consent process, and has a distinctive symbolic significance. Specifically, it suggests that physicians regard it as important to hold their patients accountable for adhering to various protocols regarding the use of their opioid medications. After laying out (...)
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  2. added 2020-04-27
    Can Children Be Enrolled in a Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial of Synthetic Growth Hormone?Ernest D. Prentice, L. Antonson, Andrew Jameton, Benjamin Graber & Thomas Sears - forthcoming - IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
  3. added 2020-04-18
    The Illusion of Evidence-Based Medicine: Exposing the Crisis of Credibility in Clinical Research.Leemon McHenry & Jon Jureidini - forthcoming - Adelaide SA, Australia: Wakefield Press.
    We live in an age alleged devoted to evidence-based medicine. Evidence-based medicine, however, depends on reliable data and if the data are largely, if not completely, manipulated by the manufacturer of pharmaceuticals, then the data are not reliable. Evidence-based medicine is an illusion. -/- This book raises and attempts to answer the following questions: What are the ways in which the profit motive of industry undermines the integrity of science? How is science protected from corporate malfeasance in a capitalist economy? (...)
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  4. added 2020-04-18
    Compromise United-States Pharmaceutical Legislation Enacted.Pb Hutt - 1984 - Bioessays 1 (6):276-278.
  5. added 2020-02-17
    How to Resolve an Ethical Dilemma Concerning Randomized Clinical Trials.Don Marquis - unknown
    An apparent ethical dilemma arises when physicians consider enrolling their patients in randomized clinical trials. Suppose that a randomized clinical trial comparing two treatments is in progress, and a physician has an opinion about which treatment is better. The physician has a duty to promote the patient's best medical interests and therefore seems to be obliged to advise the patient to receive the treatment that the physician prefers. This duty creates a barrier to the enrollment of patients in randomized clinical (...)
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  6. added 2020-02-14
    The Relevance of Modern Clinical Trial Methodology to the Practice of Medicine.Jacob E. Bearman & Byron Wm Brown - 1967 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 10 (2):259-268.
  7. added 2020-02-13
    Psychiatry and the Human Condition.Bruce Charlton - 2000
  8. added 2020-02-11
    Proposed Guideline for Good Clinical Practice.Great Britain, European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products & International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceutic - 1995 - Mca Eurodirect.
  9. added 2020-02-09
    Ketamine Enhanced Psychotherapy: Preliminary Clinical Observations on its Effectiveness in Treating Death Anxiety.Eli Kolp, M. Young, Harris Friedman, Evgeny Krupitsky & Karl Jansen - 2007 - International Journal of Transpersonal Studies 26:1-17.
    Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic commonly used by US physicians, has recently been shown to be a powerful anti-depressant and is also capable of eliciting transpersonal experiences that can be transformative. Although currently approved in the US only for use as an anesthetic, physicians there can legally prescribe it off-label to treat various psychological/ psychiatric problems and it has been used for these non-anesthetic purposes in Argentina, Iran, Mexico, Russia, and the UK, as well as in the US. The literature on (...)
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  10. added 2020-02-09
    Deception in the Single-Blind Run-In Phase of Clinical Trials.Howard Mann - 2007 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 29 (2).
    A single-blind run-in phase is often employed in randomized controlled trials. During these types of trials, all participants are given a placebo but are not informed of this fact. In many trials, participants who are judged to be “placebo responders” or who don’t follow instructions for taking the drug are excluded from further participation at the conclusion of this phase. Because participants are not informed of these procedures, this represents the use of deception in research.
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  11. added 2020-02-09
    Retheorizing Psychiatry: Birth of a Postmodern Clinic.Bradley Eugene Lewis - 2001 - Dissertation, The George Washington University
    In this dissertation, I use recent theoretical approaches in the human sciences to reconsider fundamental organizing structures of psychiatric knowledge. Chapter 1 outlines how the tropes of "theory" and "a-theory" are used in the human sciences and in psychiatry, critiques psychiatry's a-theoretical approach, and explores the possibilities for a retheorized psychiatry along the lines of work in the human sciences. Chapter 2 and 3 concentrate respectively on two key aspects of "theory"---language and power---and considers their role in shaping and fixing (...)
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  12. added 2020-02-09
    Psychiatry in Quest After Orientation.Richard F. Mollica - 1986 - Analecta Husserliana 20:101.
    The traditional gap between scholarly studies of facts and principles on the one hand, and the practical solution of human problems concerning these facts, on the other hand, has in certain fields been considerably narrowed. The mathematical and empirical sciences have been able to directly apply their theories through universal techniques to the needs of human life. The classic discrepancy between theory and practice seems to have been overcome by the latter. Psychiatry, however, remains ambivalent about its ability to integrate (...)
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  13. added 2020-02-09
    Randomization in Experimental Design.Zeno Gerhard Swijtink - 1982 - Dissertation, Stanford University
    Experimental randomization is defended as a procedure to select an allocation of treatments in comparative experiments. To be convincing, a comparative experiment should allow many alternative allocations of treatments over experimental units, that look equally informative "on paper," but may have underlying differences. Randomization prevents these underlying differences to be causally influential when an allocation is chosen for implementation. Randomization helps prevent bias. ;Both Bayesian criticisms of randomization and what seems to be the opinion of the early Fisher are rejected. (...)
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  14. added 2020-02-09
    Claude Bernard's Revised Edition of His "Introduction a l'Etude de la Medecine Experimentale".Claude Bernard & Paul Cranefield - 1979 - Journal of the History of Biology 12 (1):210-210.
  15. added 2020-02-07
    Targeted Chemotherapy, the Medical Ecosystem, and the Future of American Health Care.Muriel R. Gillick - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (2):268-284.
    In light of the central role that medications play in medical progress, the declining rate of new drug development over the past decade is cause for concern . Without important breakthroughs in drug discovery, the future will not be auspicious for the many people suffering from chronic and incurable illnesses. The sluggish pace of pharmaceutical innovation has been particularly characteristic of the largest drug manufacturers, which have generally focused their energies on potential blockbuster medications, those that can generate over $1 (...)
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  16. added 2020-02-06
    Mumbai Psychiatry: Current Obstacles.SanjayV Bagadia - 2015 - Mens Sana Monographs 13 (1):171.
    Mumbai, like any other Metro city, has its own share of contentious issues influencing psychiatric management. These could be old ongoing issues like myths about medications, electroconvulsive therapy and counselling, or newer ones like our stand on homosexuality and crime related to psychosocial factors. A range of these issues is considered in this paper along with some possible solutions. Getting due credit and status for psychiatry as a medical branch is also a challenge we need to address.
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  17. added 2020-02-06
    Evidence, Errors, and Ethics.Franklin G. Miller, Steven Joffe & Aaron S. Kesselheim - 2014 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 57 (3):299-307.
    Novel therapeutics enter human testing after they show promise in animal and in vitro studies. They then begin a life cycle that extends from early phase trials without control groups, to randomized trials, to approval by regulatory authorities, to coverage by payers, to use in clinical practice. At each stage, scientific evidence is critical to determining whether to progress to the next step in this life cycle. Each of these decisions also implicitly involves issues of value and ethical norms based (...)
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  18. added 2020-02-05
    Targeting Cancer's Weaknesses : Therapeutic Strategies Suggested by the Atavistic Model.Charles H. Lineweaver, Paul C. W. Davies & Mark D. Vincent - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (9):827-835.
    In the atavistic model of cancer progression, tumor cell dedifferentiation is interpreted as a reversion to phylogenetically earlier capabilities. The more recently evolved capabilities are compromised first during cancer progression. This suggests a therapeutic strategy for targeting cancer: design challenges to cancer that can only be met by the recently evolved capabilities no longer functional in cancer cells. We describe several examples of this target‐the‐weakness strategy. Our most detailed example involves the immune system. The absence of adaptive immunity in immunosuppressed (...)
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  19. added 2020-02-04
    Suggestion and Healing.Mack Lipkin - 1984 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 28 (1):121-126.
  20. added 2020-02-04
    Failure to Recognize Efficacious Treatments: A History of Salicylate Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis.James S. Goodwin & Jean M. Goodwin - 1981 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 25 (1):78-92.
  21. added 2020-02-03
    Sponges, Cancer Chemotherapy, and Cellular Aging.Seymour S. Cohen - 1963 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 6 (2):215-227.
  22. added 2020-01-29
    Hospice: Prescription for Terminal Care.Donald L. Sweet - 1982 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 25 (2):333-334.
  23. added 2020-01-29
    Myocardial Infarction, Experimental Cardiac Necroses, and Potassium.Plinio Prioreschi - 1966 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 9 (3):369-376.
  24. added 2020-01-29
    Problems in Clinical Evaluation of Drug Therapy.Mindel C. Sheps - 1962 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 5 (3):308-323.
  25. added 2020-01-20
    Ethical Issues In Drug Testing, Approval, and Pricing: The Clot-Dissolving Drugs By Baruch A. Brody.John Lantos - 1997 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 40 (3):463-464.
  26. added 2020-01-20
    The NGF Superfamily of Neurotrophins: Potential Treatment for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease.Elliott J. Mufson & Teresa Sobreviela - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (1):63-65.
    Stein & Glasier suggest embryonic neural tissue grafts as a potential treatment strategy for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. As an alternative, we suggest that the family of nerve growth factor-related neurotrophins and their trk (tyrosine kinase) receptors underlie cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) and dopaminergic substantia nigra neuron degeneration in these diseases, respectively. Therefore, treatment approaches for these disorders could utilize neurotrophins.
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  27. added 2020-01-12
    The Physician's Heritage.Irvine H. Page - 1980 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 23 (2-2):S153-S154.
  28. added 2020-01-12
    Improving the Scientific Base of Clinical Research by Facilitating Collaboration Among Academia, the Pharmaceutical Industry, and Government.Sidney Udenfriend - 1980 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 23 (2-2):S83-S88.
  29. added 2020-01-12
    Regulatory Encumbrances to Pharmaceutical Research.A. John Nelson - 1980 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 23 (2-2):S150-S153.
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  30. added 2019-12-06
    Examining Pharmaceutical Exceptionalism: Intellectual Property, Practical Expediency, and Global Health.Govind Persad - 2019 - Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics 18:157-90.
    Advocates, activists, and academics have criticized pharmaceutical intellectual property ("pharma IP") rights as obstacles to access to medicines for the global poor. These criticisms of pharma IP holders are frequently exceptionalist: they focus on pharma IP holders while ignoring whether others also bear obligations to assist patients in need. These others include holders of other lucrative IP rights, such as music copyrights or technology patents; firms, such as energy companies and banks, that do not rely on IP; and wealthy private (...)
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  31. added 2019-12-06
    Are Medicaid Closed Formularies Unethical? Social Values and Limit-Setting.Leah Rand & Govind Persad - 2019 - AMA Journal of Ethics 21 (8):E654-E660.
    State Medicaid programs have proposed closed formularies to limit spending on drugs. Closed formularies can be justified when they enable spending on other socially valuable aims. However, it is still necessary to justify guidelines informing formulary design, which can be done through a process of decision making that includes the public. This article examines criticisms that Medicaid closed formularies limit deliberation about decisions that affect drug access and unfairly disadvantage poor patients. Although unfairness to poor patients is a risk, it (...)
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  32. added 2019-12-02
    Henry Beecher's Contributions to the Ethics of Clinical Research.Robert M. Veatch - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (1):3-17.
    When I arrived at Harvard as an incoming graduate student in the fall of 1964, I soon received a telephone call from a gentleman who introduced himself as Henry Beecher. I was in the process of shifting my graduate studies from research neuropharmacology to the study of ethics. Robert Featherstone, the head of the Department of Pharmacology at the University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, where I had been studying, was a specialist in anesthesiology and knew Henry Beecher, who (...)
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  33. added 2019-12-02
    Standardized Study Designs, Value Judgments, and Financial Conflicts of Interest in Research.Kevin C. Elliott - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (5):529-551.
    The potential for financial conflicts of interest to influence scientific research in problematic ways has recently become a significant topic of discussion across numerous fields. The chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, and tobacco industries have all been accused of suppressing evidence that their products are harmful, producing studies with questionable methodologies, generating questionable reinterpretations of studies that challenge their products, and working with public relations firms and front groups to mislead the public about relevant science. In an effort to address these influences, (...)
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  34. added 2019-12-02
    Roger Smith, Trial by Medicine: Insanity and Responsibility in Victorian Trials. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1981. Pp. Ix + 238. £15.00. [REVIEW]Joan Busfield - 1985 - British Journal for the History of Science 18 (1):89-90.
  35. added 2019-11-10
    Subjective Knowledge, Mental Disorders, and Meds: How to Parse the Equation.Mark D. Rego - 2010 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 17 (1):57-60.
  36. added 2019-11-06
    What Are (and What Are Not) The Existential Implications of Antidepressant Use?Mark D. Rego - 2005 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 12 (2):119-128.
  37. added 2019-11-04
    Call for Papers for MSM 2014 Theme Monograph: Indian Concept of Mind, and Some Issues in Biological Psychiatry, Psychopharmacology, and Other Essays.Dr Ajai Singh - 2013 - Mens Sana Monographs 11 (1):296.
  38. added 2019-10-09
    Postsynaptic Serotonergic Action of Antidepressive Drugs.M. H. Aprison & J. N. Hingtgen - 1983 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (4):549.
  39. added 2019-09-23
    ¿Normal o patológico? El enfermo imaginario en tierra de nadie.Alberto Molina Pérez - 2013 - Arbor 189 (763):a068.
    Is the boundary between the normal and the pathological real or fiction? Are health and disease just a matter of fact or are they value-laden? Here we present some examples of how alleged diseases can be invented and propagated by the industry (disease mongering) or by the methodology of medical science itself. We show that the boundary between health and disease is blurred and depends on individual and social representations, culture relative ways of categorising things and people, and by the (...)
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  40. added 2019-09-19
    Folk Psychology Wins the DAY! Daubert and the Challenge of False Confessions.Valerie Gray Hardcastle - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (3):269-281.
    It has been more than 20 years since the U.S. Supreme Court's landmark decision in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. on the admissibility of scientific expert witness testimony in legal proceedings. It is time, perhaps, to look back at the history of Daubert decisions to determine whether it and its progeny have lived up to their collective promises to keep bad science out of the courtroom, while allowing in good, especially where the mind and brain sciences are concerned.In this (...)
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  41. added 2019-09-18
    Situating Depression Memoirs' Effects Deeper Inside Our Biology and Further Outward Within Circuits of Culture: Exploring the Roles of Antidepressants and Pharmaceutical Marketing.Ginger A. Hoffman & Jennifer L. Hansen - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (4):307-312.
    A primary intention of our original manuscript was to provide examples of both harmful and helpful influences of one cultural artifact—depression memoirs—on who female readers take their selves to be, and who they may actually end up being. Bradley Lewis beautifully articulated our strategy as “chart[ing] out … conflicting vectors” : that is, delineating select examples of how certain outer narratives conveyed in depression memoirs may kindle sexist and sanist modes of being. Our hope was that making these vectors explicit (...)
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  42. added 2019-08-06
    Broadening the Scope of Our Understanding of Mechanisms: Lessons From the History of the Morning-After Pill.Christopher ChoGlueck - forthcoming - Synthese:1-30.
    Philosophers of science and medicine now aspire to provide useful, socially relevant accounts of mechanism. Existing accounts have forged the path by attending to mechanisms in historical context, scientific practice, the special sciences, and policy. Yet, their primary focus has been on more proximate issues related to therapeutic effectiveness. To take the next step toward social relevance, we must investigate the challenges facing researchers, clinicians, and policy makers involving values and social context. Accordingly, we learn valuable lessons about the connections (...)
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  43. added 2019-07-10
    Pharmacy Ethics.Dien Ho - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  44. added 2019-06-25
    The Future of Phage: Ethical Challenges of Using Phage Viruses to Treat Bacterial Infections.Jonathan Anomaly - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13.
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  45. added 2019-06-06
    Standardizing Psychotropic Drugs and Drug Practices in the Twentieth Century: Paradox of Order and Disorder.Toine Pieters & Stephen Snelders - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):412-414.
  46. added 2019-06-06
    Common Health Policy Interests and the Shaping of Global Pharmaceutical Policies.Meri Koivusalo - 2010 - Ethics and International Affairs 24 (4):395-414.
    The division of interests in key health policy areas are not necessarily between rich and poor countries, but between pharmaceutical industry interests and health policy interests on the one hand, and national industrial and trade policy interests and public health policies on the other.
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  47. added 2019-06-06
    Compulsory Licensing of Patented Pharmaceutical Inventions: Evaluating the Options.Jerome H. Reichman - 2009 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 37 (2):247-263.
    In this Comment, the author traces the relevant legislative history pertaining to compulsory licensing of patented pharmaceuticals from the TRIPS Agreement of 1994 to the 2003 waiver to, and later proposed amendment of, article 31, which enables poor countries to obtain needed medicines from other countries that possess manufacturing capacity. The Comment then evaluates recent, controversial uses of the relevant legislative machinery as viewed from different critical perspectives. The Comment shows how developing countries seeking access to essential medicines can collaborate (...)
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  48. added 2019-06-06
    Medical Pharmaceuticals and Distributive Justice.Michael Boylan - 2008 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (1):30-44.
    There are deep structural conflicts between the mission of healthcare as cooperative care to the sick and injured and that of healthcare as a business whose mission is maximizing profits. These conflicts come to the fore in the medical pharmaceutical industry. I first set these out in a context that addresses the mission of healthcare, then examine the relative roles of competitive and cooperative systems of distributive justice, and then argue for the creation of nonprofit pharmaceutical companies and the transformation (...)
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  49. added 2019-06-06
    Global Pharmaceuticals: Ethics, Markets, Practices – Edited by Adriana Petryna, Andrew Lakoff and Arthur Kleinman.Albert Mosley - 2008 - Developing World Bioethics 8 (2):162-164.
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  50. added 2019-06-06
    Creation and Use of Transgenic Animals in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research: Animal Welfare and Ethical Concerns.Catherine M. Klein - 2007 - Journal of Philosophical Research 32 (Supplement):7-26.
    The creation of transgenic animals has application in the following areas of pharmaceutical and biomedical research: the production of biopharmaceuticals for human use; the production of organs for xenotransplantation; and the generation of animal models for human genetic diseases. Nuclear transfer technology offers a more precise and efficient way of performing genetic modification and creating transgenic animals than the more traditional method of pronuclear microinjection. This paper will review nuclear transfer as ameans of producing transgenic animals; introduce advantages nuclear transfer (...)
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