Edited by Ammon Allred (University of Toledo)
About this topic
Summary Phenomenology refers to both a general branch of philosophy as well as a movement within the history of philosophy. As a branch of philosophy, phenomenology studies conscious experience from a perspective internal to it, elucidating the structures of lived experience, as well as the conditions under which it becomes meaningful. The historical movement called phenomenology is generally regarded as beginning with Edmund Husserl, who made phenomenological questions central to his entire philosophical approach, arguing that a phenomenological investigation of consciousness should ground philosophy construed broadly as well as the sciences.  Under the influence of a second generation of phenomenologists, most famously Martin Heidegger, the centrality of consciousness was often called into question.  Nonetheless, the name phenomenology continues to be used to describe the whole tradition that developed out of this Husserlian/Heideggerian framework.  As such, there have been "phenomenological" approaches to virtually every other branch of philosophy, including ontology, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, etc.    In this regard, phenomenology remains one of the core movements that defines 20th century continental philosophy, where it is associated with adjacent (or sub) movements such as existentialism, phenomenological hermeneutics and deconstruction.
Key works Husserl was constantly formulating and reformulating the phenomenological project. Logical Investigations (Husserl 2000) was his first systematic approach to phenomenology.  Ideas (Husserl 1980) reformulated the project, introducing the core notion of the transcendental reduction.  The work of early phenomenologists such as Edith Stein (Stein 1964) and Max Scheler (Scheler 1992) on emotion, empathy and value theory helps to account for phenomenology's importance in the social sciences.  The Phenomenological Movement (Spiegelberg 1965) describes the work of Husserl and other early phenomenologists in great detail.  In the course of developing their own philosophical projects, subsequent generations would also reformulate how they understood phenomenology.  Edmund Husserl published Heidegger's Being and Time (Heidegger 1967) in order to help Heidegger secure Husserl's own chair at Freiburg.  It was only after its publication that he realized just how much Heidegger's approach to phenomenology departed from and revised his own.  Under the influence of both Husserl and Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre's Being and Nothingness (Jean-Paul 1956) and Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception (Merleau-Ponty 1962), developed an existential phenomenology which dominated French intellectual thought in the mid twentieth century and which played a crucial role in introducing phenomenology to the English speaking world.  Jacques Derrida's work on Husserl early in his career, particularly his Introduction to the Origin of Geometry and Voice and Phenomena (Derrida 2011) demonstrated the continued importance of phenomenology to post-structuralism (despite the avowal of many other postructuralists). 
Introductions Husserl and Heidegger wrote an encyclopedia entry for phenomenology in Encyclopedia Brittanica (Heidegger 2009).  
Related categories
Michel Henry (186)
Edmund Husserl (14,121 | 2,880)
Max Scheler (383)
History/traditions: Phenomenology

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  1. Between Minimal Self and Narrative Self: A Husserlian Analysis of Person.Jaakko Belt - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-19.
  2. Husserl’s Noetics – Towards a Phenomenological Epistemology.Philipp Berghofer - 2018 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (2):120-138.
    ABSTRACTFor Husserl, noetics is the most fundamental science and the centrepiece of a phenomenological epistemology. Since in his major works Husserl does not develop noetics systematically but uses its main ideas and achievements often in apparent isolation without clarifying their systematic unity, the significance of noetics is often overlooked. Although Husserl has repeatedly stressed the importance of a phenomenological epistemology, what the concrete theses of such an undertaking are supposed to be often remains obscure. We shall see that the best (...)
  3. Breaking Away From the Theoretical: Von Herrmann on Husserl and Heidegger.Christopher Edwards - 2018 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (2):139-153.
    ABSTRACTIn his book, Hermeneutics and Reflection, Friedrich-Wilhelm von Herrmann outlines what he sees as the fundamental differences between Edmund Husserl’s “theoretical” phenomenology and Martin Heidegger’s “a-theoretical” phenomenology, which he frames in terms of the distinction between “reflective observation” and “hermeneutic understanding”. In this paper, I will clarify the sense of these terms in order to elucidate some of the crucial similarities and differences between Husserl and Heidegger. Against von Herrmann’s characterization of the Husserlian project, I argue that we should not (...)
  4. Lesson of Darkness: Phenomenology and Lyotard’s Late Aesthetics.Ashley Woodward - 2018 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (2):104-119.
    ABSTRACTThis paper examines the relationship of Jean-François Lyotard’s aesthetics to phenomenology, especially the works of Mikel Dufrenne and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. It argues that this comparison allows a greater understanding of Lyotard’s late aesthetic writings, which can appear gnomic and which have received relatively little critical attention. Lyotard credits Merleau-Ponty with opening the theme of difference in the aesthetic field, yet believes that the phenomenological approach can never adequately account for it. After outlining Lyotard’s early critiques of Dufrenne and Merleau-Ponty, the (...)
  5. Sign and Hyle: Re-Reading Derrida’s Critique of Husserl Through the Bernau Manuscripts.Sai Hang Kwok - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-15.
  6. * Correlação Mente-Corpo?Hilary Putnam - 1998 - Disputatio 1 (s2):22-46.
  7. Relationality and Commitment: Ethics and Ontology in Heidegger's Aristotle.Nicolai Krejberg Knudsen - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-21.
  8. El ensayo de Hans-Georg Gadamer sobre el Protréptico aristotélico: ética y política en la filosofía socrático-platónica.Facundo Bey - forthcoming - Revista Latinoamericana de Filosofia.
    English title: Hans-Georg Gadamer’s essay on the Aristotelian Protrepticus: Ethics and Politics in the Socratic-Platonic Philosophy. Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present and analyse the main hypotheses of Hans-Georg Gadamer in his 1928 essay Der aristotelische Protreptikos und die entwicklungsgeschichtliche Betrachtung der aristotelischen Ethik, emphasizing the Gadamerian reception of the notions of phrónēsis, hēdonḗ and, to a lesser extent, phýsis. It will be attempted to show that in this early work of Gadamer there is more than a (...)
  9. Science and Wisdom.Maurice Cranston - 1995 - Bulletin de la Société Américaine de Philosophie de Langue Française 7 (1-2):30-48.
  10. Bruce B. Janz (Ed.): Place, Space and Hermeneutics. [REVIEW]Sanna Lehtinen - 2018 - Phenomenological Reviews 4.
  11. Literature and the Expressions of Being in Merleau-Ponty’s Unpublished Course Notes.Lovisa Andén - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-12.
    ABSTRACTIn this article I examine Merleau-Ponty’s understanding of the relation between literature, being and perception. I focus especially on two of Merleau-Ponty’s courses at Collège de France: the first course, Le monde sensible et le monde de l’expression, and the unpublished course Sur le problème de la parole. In the former Merleau-Ponty presents a new understanding of perception, according to which being is expressed in perception through the style of movement of the perceived phenomenon. In the latter he advances a (...)
  12. Miłość i samotność. Wokół myśli Sørena Kierkegaarda.Grzegorz Uzdański Przemysław Bursztyka, Maciej Kaczyński, Maciej A. Sosnowski (ed.) - 2007 - Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
  13. The Interstices of Reality. [REVIEW]Przemysław Bursztyka - 2018 - Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 1 (3):112-122.
  14. "Szczeliny w nieskończoność..." Brunona Schulza metafizyka śladu.Przemysław Bursztyka - 2014 - In Joanna Michalik & Przemysław Bursztyka (eds.), Schulz: między mitem a filozofią. Gdańsk: Wydawnictwo Słowo/Obraz Terytoria. pp. 123-153.
  15. Doświadczenie zewnętrza. Jean-Luc Mariona próba radykalizacji projektu fenomenologicznego.Przemysław Bursztyka - 2011 - In Joanna Michalik (ed.), Kultura i metoda. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo ENETEIA. pp. 97-124.
  16. Fenomen i przedstawienie. Francuska estetyka fenomenologiczna - założenia/zastosowania/konteksty.Iwona Lorenc, Mateusz Salwa & Piotr Schollenberger (eds.) - 2012 - Warszawa: Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN.
  17. Granice widzialnego. Jeana Luca Mariona fenomenologiczna koncepcja idola.Przemysław Bursztyka - 2012 - In Iwona Lorenc, Mateusz Salwa & Piotr Schollenberger (eds.), Fenomen i przedstawienie. Francuska estetyka fenomenologiczna - założenia/zastosowania/konteksty. Warszawa, Polska: Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN. pp. 287-313.
  18. Teleology and World From Different Perspectives: Philosophy of Mind and Transcendental Phenomenology.Rodolfo Giorgi & Danilo Manca - 2018 - Humana Mente 11 (34).
    During the last century, most philosophers of science have tried to expunge teleological explanations from the fields of epistemology. They took for granted that the Darwinian concepts of natural selection and evolution effectively dispense us with any presence of goal-directedness in nature: based on an anti-metaphysical attitude, they hold purposes and goals to be of religious and spiritual nature, thereby obstacles to any effective comprehension of biological processes. Accordingly, teleological categories have been abandoned in many ways in favor of mechanical (...)
  19. Phenomenology of Language in a 4e-World.Andrew Inkpin - 2016 - In Jack Alan Reynolds & Richard Sebold (eds.), Phenomenology and Science. New York, USA: Palgrave. pp. 141-159.
    In recent years there has been much productive interaction between phenomenological authors and work in (‘4e’) cognitive science emphasizing the embodied, embedded, enactive and extended nature of cognition. These interactions have centred on areas of interest common to phenomenology and philosophy of mind, such as embodiment or first-personal experience, with language receiving relatively little attention. This paper aims to broaden these interactions by showing how phenomenology of language complements systematic empirical theories in the 4e tradition. It begins by outlining a (...)
  20. Flesh and Body: The Phenomenology of Husserl.Hannah Berry - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-2.
  21. Resistance of the Sensible World an Introduction to Merleau-Ponty.Gerald Cipriani - forthcoming - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology:1-4.
  22. Reprises du Donné.Cătălina Condruz - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:369-371.
  23. Husserl Handbuch. Leben – Werk – Wirkung.Christian Ferencz-Flatz - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:371-374.
  24. Übersetzungshermeneutik. Historische und systematische Grundlegung.Saša Hrnjez - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:380-383.
  25. La métaphysique chez Merleau-Ponty. Première partie : phénoménologie et métaphysique; Seconde partie : métaphysique et ontologie.Miklos Vetö - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:375-380.
  26. Endo-Ontology and the Later Merleau-Ponty’s Thoughts on Space-Time.Michel Dalissier - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:303-328.
    In this paper, I consider the idea of space-time in its philosophical specificity. Such an approach must satisfy three main conditions. First, the inquiry must meditate on the link epitomized by the hyphen in the expression “space-time”. Second, it must not reduce either space to time or time to space, but must instead explore the significance of their in-between-ness and of their interweaving reality. Third, the inquiry must rid itself of any priority of space over time or of time over (...)
  27. Das „Ich“ als „Alibi der Wahrheit“ bei Jacques Lacan: Zum Verhältnis von Cogito und Begehren in der Psychoanalyse.Rolf Kühn - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:345-366.
    In Lacan’s perspective, the cogito is unable to account for the separation between desire and language for the individual. The fundamental difference pertaining to the signifier makes it impossible for the enunciation to ever coincide with what is enunciated. Therefore no final knowledge of self, being and reality is possible within the framework of the imaginary-symbolic life-world. This analysis, which is decisive for the therapeutic process, is then confronted with a radical-phenomenological critique that questions Lacan’s presuppositions about alterity from the (...)
  28. Le monde comme champ pré-individuel: Jacques Garelli, critique de Heidegger.Ovidiu Stanciu - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:277-302.
    The purpose of this enquiry is to lay out the core features of Garelli’s conception of the world as a “pre-individual field,” as they emerge from his confrontation with Heidegger’s thought. In the first part, I am exploring Garelli’s interpretation of the “poetical expression” and the consequences he draws from it with regard to the process of “worlding”. Then, I am restating his criticism with regard to the concept of the world Heidegger developed within the framework of “fundamental ontology” and (...)
  29. Die „Verkehrte Welt“: Er-Örterung Raumtheoretischer Dimensionen der Flucht.Giovanni Tidona - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:329-344.
    The discourse on escaping is primarily directed towards the who of escape. The question of what and how of escaping in its cultural-anthropological significance is usually neglected. The present paper claims to overcome this inadequacy by exploring escape eo ipso and as a spatial-theoretical phenomenon. For this purpose, it is necessary to rethink escape as a triple articulated phenomenological topology based on three vectors: escape as a start, escape as a transition and escape as a destination/refuge. The escape-vectors play the (...)
  30. Destruktion und formale Anzeige: Zur Erläuterung der methodischen Grundlage des frühen Heidegger am Beispiel der Bestimmungen von Geschichte und Philosophie.Hongjian Wang - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:255-275.
    From the hermeneutics of facticity to phenomenological destruction, Heidegger’s constant effort has been to achieve a non-metaphysical, pre-theoretical methodology of philosophy. His ideas finally lead to the development of the method of formal indication. In this essay, I will consider first the methodological function of historical things, in order to illustrate the method of destruction. Then, I will explain the definition of philosophy from the point of view of formal indication, thereby showing how different this method is from traditional philosophical (...)
  31. Introduction: Notes on a Troubled Reception History.Christian Ferencz-Flatz & Andrea Staiti - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:11-30.
  32. Husserls Phänomenologie biologischer Generativität.Peter Gaitsch - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:129-152.
    The present article intends to show that genetic phenomenology, as conceived by Edmund Husserl, implies an essential biological dimension. In his later research manuscripts, from the 1920s and 1930s, Husserl not only reflects on the conceivability of forms of intropathy regarding animal and plant bodies, based on dismantling reduction, but also on the embeddedness of the human monad in ontogenetic and phylogenetic generative becoming. On that basis, the article aims to locate the place of bio-generative phenomena within the field of (...)
  33. Interest and Pregivenness in Husserl’s Genealogy of Logic.Tarjei Larsen - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:49-70.
    The problem of accounting for the cognitively relevant relation between experience and thought is among the defining problems of modern philosophy. I suggest that addressing this problem provides an important motive for the “genealogy of logic” that Husserl outlines in his posthumously published Experience and Judgment. Arguing that the notions of “interest” and “pregivenness” are crucial to this approach, I seek to assess it through a detailed analysis of the use to which these notions are put in its most decisive (...)
  34. On Some Motives for Husserl’s Genetic Turn in His Research on a Foundation of the Geisteswissenschaften.Dieter Lohmar - 2018 - Studia Phaenomenologica 18:31-48.
    My contribution tries to outline some of the motives that lead Husserl to genetic phenomenology. The starting point are the analyses he wrote to include in Ideas I and Ideas II, which are dedicated to the founding of human sciences during the period 1910–1916. Here we find an intertwinement of investigations concerned with an understanding of others and their contribution to the constitution of objectivity, and new research of the genesis of the way in which individual experience shapes our access (...)
  35. The Phantasmatic Reality: A Phenomenological Study of the Cinematic Imagination.Przemysław Bursztyka - 2017 - In Christine Reeh & José Manuel Martins (eds.), Thinking Reality and Time through Film. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 35-47.
  36. Pomiędzy doświadczeniem zależności a psychozą. Problem podmiotu w fenomenologii J.- L. Mariona.Przemysław Bursztyka - 2017 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 102 (2):195-212.
  37. La phénoménologie de la vie chez Erwin Straus.Charles Bobant - 2018 - Études Phénoménologiques 2:199-215.
    This paper focuses on Erwin Straus' phenomenology of life. I start by clarifying its object - the human being - and its purpose - to found a human nosology. I then reframe two well-known aspects of his thought. First, the "primary animal situation" which includes many conceptual dualities (animal/human, sensing/perceiving, landscape/geography, life-world/world of perception, schizophrenia/melancholy) as well as a major philosophical proposition: the identity between sensing and movement. Second, I took at the I-World relation, understood by Straus as a relation (...)
  38. Heidegger, Dreyfus, and the Intelligibility of Practical Comportment.Leslie A. MacAvoy - 2018 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (1):68-86.
    ABSTRACTMost scholars agree that meaning and intelligibility are central to Heidegger’s account of Dasein and Being-in-the-world, but there is some confusion about the nature of this intelligibility. In his debate with McDowell, Dreyfus draws on phenomenologists like Heidegger to argue that there are two kinds of intelligibility: a basic, nonconceptual, practical intelligibility found in practical comportment and a conceptual, discursive intelligibility. I explore two possible ways that Dreyfus might ground this twofold account of intelligibility in Heidegger: first in the distinction (...)
  39. A Phenomenological Grounding of Feminist Ethics.Anya Daly - 2018 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (1):1-18.
    ABSTRACTThe central hypothesis of this paper is that the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty offers significant philosophical groundwork for an ethics that honours key feminist commitments – embodiment, situatedness, diversity and the intrinsic sociality of subjectivity. Part I evaluates feminist criticisms of Merleau-Ponty. Part II defends the claim that Merleau-Ponty’s non-dualist ontology underwrites leading approaches in feminist ethics, notably Care Ethics and the Ethics of Vulnerability. Part III examines Merleau-Ponty’s analyses of embodied percipience, arguing that these offer a powerful critique of the (...)
  40. Patočka and Foucault: Taking Care of the Soul and Taking Care of the Self.Vladislav Suvák - 2018 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (1):19-36.
    ABSTRACTThe paper deals with Jan Patočka’s and Michel Foucault’s influential interpretations of the ancient Greek approach to care. At first sight, it might seem that Foucault’s care of the self is opposed to Patočka’s care of the soul. On closer reading, however, it becomes clear that the two interpretations lead to similar conclusions, as exemplified by the way the two authors interpret Plato’s Laches: both of them see it in relation to the issue of how to live one’s life. Further (...)
  41. The Relevance of Fink’s Notion of Operative Concepts for Derrida’s Deconstruction.Pietro Terzi - 2018 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 50 (1):50-67.
    ABSTRACTIn the literature on Derrida’s philosophical formation, the name of Eugen Fink is usually forgotten. When it is recalled, it is most often because of his 1930s articles on phenomenology. In this paper, I claim on the contrary that Fink’s writings exerted a lasting influence on Derrida’s thought, well beyond his early phenomenological works. More specifically, I focus on a 1957 paper presented at a conference on Husserl’s thought where Fink formulates an important distinction between operative and thematic concepts. By (...)
  42. Hans-Georg Gadamer: 11th February 1900–13th March 2002.Nicholas Davey - 2002 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 33 (3):343-344.
  43. The Bloomsbury Companion to Existentialism, Edited by Felicity Joseph, Jack Reynolds, and Ashley Woodward: London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2014, Pp. X + 406, AU$49.99. [REVIEW]Simon Lumsden - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (1):207-208.
  44. Nishida and the Historical World: An Examination of Active Intuition, the Body, and Time.Elizabeth McManaman Grosz - 2014 - Comparative and Continental Philosophy 6 (2):143-157.
    This article will examine the phase of Nishida’s thought in which he turns to the historical world and present the benefits of this turn to his overall philosophical project. In “The Philosophy of History in the ‘Later’ Nishida,” Woo-Sung Huh claims that Nishida Kitaro’s attempt to integrate history into his earlier writings on self-consciousness is a “wrong turn.” I will demonstrate how Huh’s criticism of Nishida’s writings on history stems from Huh’s own ontological assumption that consciousness and the historical world (...)
  45. Wonder and the Elemental: Suffering Beyond Ethics.Jason Kemp Winfree - 2013 - Comparative and Continental Philosophy 5 (1):9-18.
    This paper approaches the experience of wonder phenomenologically. The account is descriptive. I suggest that in addition to the familiar treatments of wonder as constituted through a break with everyday involvement, on the one hand, and an awareness of the sheer fact of existence, on the other, the experience of wonder involves an intensification of the primary contact by which the world is given. That contact is prior to and presupposed by both our involvement with objects as implements of mediation (...)
  46. In Search of Lost Sense: The Aesthetics of Opacity in Anne Carson’s Nox.Jill Marsden - 2013 - Comparative and Continental Philosophy 5 (2):189-198.
    When the brother of the poet Anne Carson died she wrote an elegy for him “in the form of an epitaph.” Her 2010 work Nox is a beguiling and beautiful work, as difficult to characterize as the brother it seeks to commemorate. This article explores the sensory experience of reading Nox, a text, which appeals to an elusive awareness at the edge of memory and imagination. In describing her brother, Carson evokes “a certain fundamental opacity of human being, which likes (...)
  47. Merleau-Ponty and the Radical Sciences of Mind.Robin M. Muller - forthcoming - Synthese:1-35.
    In this paper, I critically reconstruct the development of Merleau-Pontyan phenomenology and “radical embodied cognitive science” out of Berlin-School Gestalt theory. I first lay out the basic principles of Gestalt theory and then identify two ways of revising that theory: one route, followed by enactivism and ecological psychology, borrows Gestaltist resources to defend a pragmatic ontology. I argue, however, that Merleau-Ponty never endorses this kind of ontology. Instead, I track his second route toward an ontology of “flesh.” I show how (...)
  48. On the Subject Matter of Phenomenological Psychopathology.Anthony Vincent Fernandez & Allan Køster - forthcoming - In Giovanni Stanghellini, Matthew Broome, Anthony Vincent Fernandez, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Andrea Raballo & René Rosfort (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Phenomenological Psychopathology.
    “On the Subject Matter of Phenomenological Psychopathology” provides a framework for the phenomenological study of mental disorders. The framework relies on a distinction between (ontological) existentials and (ontic) modes. Existentials are the categorial structures of human existence, such as intentionality, temporality, selfhood, and affective situatedness. Modes are the particular, concrete phenomena that belong to these categorial structures, with each existential having its own set of modes. In the first section, we articulate this distinction by drawing primarily on the work of (...)
  49. Merleau-Ponty and the Ethics of Intersubjectivity, Written by Anya Daly.Susi Ferrarello - 2018 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 49 (2):247-251.
  50. Erwin Straus: Suggestion and Hypnosis.Stephen J. Rojcewicz & James A. Beshai - 2018 - Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 49 (2):197-213.
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