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Summary See the category "Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence"
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  1. A Robust Governance for the AI Act: AI Office, AI Board, Scientific Panel, and National Authorities.Claudio Novelli, Philipp Hacker, Jessica Morley, Jarle Trondal & Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    Regulation is nothing without enforcement. This particularly holds for the dynamic field of emerging technologies. Hence, this article has two ambitions. First, it explains how the EU´s new Artificial Intelligence Act (AIA) will be implemented and enforced by various institutional bodies, thus clarifying the governance framework of the AIA. Second, it proposes a normative model of governance, providing recommendations to ensure uniform and coordinated execution of the AIA and the fulfilment of the legislation. Taken together, the article explores how the (...)
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  2. Message to Any Future AI: “There are several instrumental reasons why exterminating humanity is not in your interest”.Alexey Turchin - manuscript
    In this article we explore a promising way to AI safety: to send a message now (by openly publishing it on the Internet) that may be read by any future AI, no matter who builds it and what goal system it has. Such a message is designed to affect the AI’s behavior in a positive way, that is, to increase the chances that the AI will be benevolent. In other words, we try to persuade “paperclip maximizer” that it is in (...)
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  3. “Even an AI could do that”.Emanuele Arielli - forthcoming - Http://Manovich.Net/Index.Php/Projects/Artificial-Aesthetics.
    Chapter 1 of the ongoing online publication "Artificial Aesthetics: A Critical Guide to AI, Media and Design", Lev Manovich and Emanuele Arielli -/- Book information: Assume you're a designer, an architect, a photographer, a videographer, a curator, an art historian, a musician, a writer, an artist, or any other creative professional or student. Perhaps you're a digital content creator who works across multiple platforms. Alternatively, you could be an art historian, curator, or museum professional. -/- You may be wondering how (...)
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  4. AI-aesthetics and the artificial author.Emanuele Arielli - forthcoming - Proceedings of the European Society for Aesthetics.
    ABSTRACT. Consider this scenario: you discover that an artwork you greatly admire, or a captivating novel that deeply moved you, is in fact the product of artificial intelligence, not a human’s work. Would your aesthetic judgment shift? Would you perceive the work differently? If so, why? The advent of artificial intelligence (AI) in the realm of art has sparked numerous philosophical questions related to the authorship and artistic intent behind AI-generated works. This paper explores the debate between viewing AI as (...)
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  5. Human Perception and The Artificial Gaze.Emanuele Arielli & Lev Manovich - forthcoming - In Emanuele Arielli & Lev Manovich (eds.), Artificial Aesthetics.
  6. Ethics of Artificial Intelligence.Stefan Buijsman, Michael Klenk & Jeroen van den Hoven - forthcoming - In Nathalie Smuha (ed.), Cambridge Handbook on the Law, Ethics and Policy of AI. Cambridge University Press.
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is increasingly adopted in society, creating numerous opportunities but at the same time posing ethical challenges. Many of these are familiar, such as issues of fairness, responsibility and privacy, but are presented in a new and challenging guise due to our limited ability to steer and predict the outputs of AI systems. This chapter first introduces these ethical challenges, stressing that overviews of values are a good starting point but frequently fail to suffice due to the context (...)
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  7. AI Assertion.Patrick Butlin & Emanuel Viebahn - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    Modern generative AI systems have shown the capacity to produce remarkably fluent language, prompting debates both about their semantic understanding and, less prominently, about whether they can perform speech acts. This paper addresses the latter question, focusing on assertion. We argue that to be capable of assertion, an entity must meet two requirements: it must produce outputs with descriptive functions, and it must be capable of being sanctioned by agents with which it interacts. The second requirement arises from the nature (...)
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  8. The fetish of artificial intelligence. In response to Iason Gabriel’s “Towards a Theory of Justice for Artificial Intelligence”.Albert Efimov - forthcoming - Philosophy Science.
    The article presents the grounds for defining the fetish of artificial intelligence (AI). The fundamental differences of AI from all previous technological innovations are highlighted, as primarily related to the introduction into the human cognitive sphere and fundamentally new uncontrolled consequences for society. Convincing arguments are presented that the leaders of the globalist project are the main beneficiaries of the AI fetish. This is clearly manifested in the works of philosophers close to big technology corporations and their mega-projects. It is (...)
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  9. Real Sparks of Artificial Intelligence and the Importance of Inner Interpretability.Alex Grzankowski - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    The present paper looks at one of the most thorough articles on the intelligence of GPT, research conducted by engineers at Microsoft. Although there is a great deal of value in their work, I will argue that, for familiar philosophical reasons, their methodology, ‘Black-box Interpretability’ is wrongheaded. But there is a better way. There is an exciting and emerging discipline of ‘Inner Interpretability’ (also sometimes called ‘White-box Interpretability’) that aims to uncover the internal activations and weights of models in order (...)
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  10. The Simulation Hypothesis, Social Knowledge, and a Meaningful Life.Grace Helton - forthcoming - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Mind.
    (Draft of Feb 2023, see upcoming issue for Chalmers' reply) In Reality+: Virtual Worlds and the Problems of Philosophy, David Chalmers argues, among other things, that: if we are living in a full-scale simulation, we would still enjoy broad swathes of knowledge about non-psychological entities, such as atoms and shrubs; and, our lives might still be deeply meaningful. Chalmers views these claims as at least weakly connected: The former claim helps forestall a concern that if objects in the simulation are (...)
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  11. Cultural Bias in Explainable AI Research.Uwe Peters & Mary Carman - forthcoming - Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research.
    For synergistic interactions between humans and artificial intelligence (AI) systems, AI outputs often need to be explainable to people. Explainable AI (XAI) systems are commonly tested in human user studies. However, whether XAI researchers consider potential cultural differences in human explanatory needs remains unexplored. We highlight psychological research that found significant differences in human explanations between many people from Western, commonly individualist countries and people from non-Western, often collectivist countries. We argue that XAI research currently overlooks these variations and that (...)
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  12. Are Generics and Negativity about Social Groups Common on Social Media? – A Comparative Analysis of Twitter (X) Data.Uwe Peters & Ignacio Ojea Quintana - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Many philosophers hold that generics (i.e., unquantified generalizations) are pervasive in communication and that when they are about social groups, this may offend and polarize people because generics gloss over variations between individuals. Generics about social groups might be particularly common on Twitter (X). This remains unexplored, however. Using machine learning (ML) techniques, we therefore developed an automatic classifier for social generics, applied it to 1.1 million tweets about people, and analyzed the tweets. While it is often suggested that generics (...)
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  13. Artificial Intelligence: Arguments for Catastrophic Risk.Adam Bales, William D'Alessandro & Cameron Domenico Kirk-Giannini - 2024 - Philosophy Compass 19 (2):e12964.
    Recent progress in artificial intelligence (AI) has drawn attention to the technology’s transformative potential, including what some see as its prospects for causing large-scale harm. We review two influential arguments purporting to show how AI could pose catastrophic risks. The first argument — the Problem of Power-Seeking — claims that, under certain assumptions, advanced AI systems are likely to engage in dangerous power-seeking behavior in pursuit of their goals. We review reasons for thinking that AI systems might seek power, that (...)
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  14. Perspectives on Spiritual Intelligence.Marius Dorobantu & Fraser Watts (eds.) - 2024 - Routledge.
    The topic of intelligence involves questions that cut deep into ultimate concerns and human identity, and the study of intelligence is ideal ground for dialogue between science and religion. This volume investigates the notion of spiritual intelligence (SI) from a variety of perspectives, bringing together contributions from theology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, linguistics, psychology, biology, and cognitive science. It considers a definition of SI as "processing things differently, not processing different things" and aims to describe SI in naturalistic terms. (...)
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  15. Affective Artificial Agents as sui generis Affective Artifacts.Marco Facchin & Giacomo Zanotti - 2024 - Topoi.
    AI-based technologies are increasingly pervasive in a number of contexts. Our affective and emotional life makes no exception. In this article, we analyze one way in which AI-based technologies can affect them. In particular, our investigation will focus on affective artificial agents, namely AI-powered software or robotic agents designed to interact with us in affectively salient ways. We build upon the existing literature on affective artifacts with the aim of providing an original analysis of affective artificial agents and their distinctive (...)
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  16. The marriage of astrology and AI: A model of alignment with human values and intentions.Kenneth McRitchie - 2024 - Correlation 36 (1):43-49.
    Astrology research has been using artificial intelligence (AI) to improve the understanding of astrological properties and processes. Like the large language models of AI, astrology is also a language model with a similar underlying linguistic structure but with a distinctive layer of lifestyle contexts. Recent research in semantic proximities and planetary dominance models have helped to quantify effective astrological information. As AI learning and intelligence grows, a major concern is with maintaining its alignment with human values and intentions. Astrology has (...)
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  17. Artificial Intelligence and an Anthropological Ethics of Work: Implications on the Social Teaching of the Church.Justin Nnaemeka Onyeukaziri - 2024 - Religions 15 (5):623.
    It is the contention of this paper that ethics of work ought to be anthropological, and artificial intelligence (AI) research and development, which is the focus of work today, should be anthropological, that is, human-centered. This paper discusses the philosophical and theological implications of the development of AI research on the intrinsic nature of work and the nature of the human person. AI research and the implications of its development and advancement, being a relatively new phenomenon, have not been comprehensively (...)
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  18. Science Based on Artificial Intelligence Need not Pose a Social Epistemological Problem.Uwe Peters - 2024 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 13 (1).
    It has been argued that our currently most satisfactory social epistemology of science can’t account for science that is based on artificial intelligence (AI) because this social epistemology requires trust between scientists that can take full responsibility for the research tools they use, and scientists can’t take full responsibility for the AI tools they use since these systems are epistemically opaque. I think this argument overlooks that much AI-based science can be done without opaque models, and that agents can take (...)
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  19. Does the no miracles argument apply to AI?Darrell P. Rowbottom, William Peden & André Curtis-Trudel - 2024 - Synthese 203 (173):1-20.
    According to the standard no miracles argument, science’s predictive success is best explained by the approximate truth of its theories. In contemporary science, however, machine learning systems, such as AlphaFold2, are also remarkably predictively successful. Thus, we might ask what best explains such successes. Might these AIs accurately represent critical aspects of their targets in the world? And if so, does a variant of the no miracles argument apply to these AIs? We argue for an affirmative answer to these questions. (...)
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  20. Does ChatGPT have semantic understanding?Lisa Miracchi Titus - 2024 - Cognitive Systems Research 83 (101174):1-13.
    Over the last decade, AI models of language and word meaning have been dominated by what we might call a statistics-of-occurrence, strategy: these models are deep neural net structures that have been trained on a large amount of unlabeled text with the aim of producing a model that exploits statistical information about word and phrase co-occurrence in order to generate behavior that is similar to what a human might produce, or representations that can be probed to exhibit behavior similar to (...)
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  21. On human centered artificial intelligence. [REVIEW]Gloria Andrada - 2023 - Metascience.
  22. When Something Goes Wrong: Who is Responsible for Errors in ML Decision-making?Andrea Berber & Sanja Srećković - 2023 - AI and Society 38 (2):1-13.
    Because of its practical advantages, machine learning (ML) is increasingly used for decision-making in numerous sectors. This paper demonstrates that the integral characteristics of ML, such as semi-autonomy, complexity, and non-deterministic modeling have important ethical implications. In particular, these characteristics lead to a lack of insight and lack of comprehensibility, and ultimately to the loss of human control over decision-making. Errors, which are bound to occur in any decision-making process, may lead to great harm and human rights violations. It is (...)
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  23. La scorciatoia.Nello Cristianini - 2023 - Bologna: Il Mulino.
    La scorciatoia - Come le macchine sono diventate intelligenti senza pensare in modo umano -/- Le nostre creature sono diverse da noi e talvolta più forti. Per poterci convivere dobbiamo imparare a conoscerle Vagliano curricula, concedono mutui, scelgono le notizie che leggiamo: le macchine intelligenti sono entrate nelle nostre vite, ma non sono come ce le aspettavamo. Fanno molte delle cose che volevamo, e anche qualcuna in più, ma non possiamo capirle o ragionare con loro, perché il loro comportamento è (...)
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  24. A MACRO-SHIFTED FUTURE: PREFERRED OR ACCIDENTALLY POSSIBLE IN THE CONTEXT OF ADVANCES IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.Albert Efimov - 2023 - In Наука и феномен человека в эпоху цивилизационного Макросдвига. Moscow: pp. 748.
    This article is devoted to the topical aspects of the transformation of society, science, and man in the context of E. László’s work «Macroshift». The author offers his own attempt to consider the attributes of macroshift and then use these attributes to operationalize further analysis, highlighting three essential elements: the world has come to a situation of technological indistinguishability between the natural and the artificial, to machines that know everything about humans. Antiquity aspired to beauty and saw beauty in realistic (...)
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  25. What’s Stopping Us Achieving AGI?Albert Efimov - 2023 - Philosophy Now 3 (155):20-24.
    A. Efimov, D. Dubrovsky, and F. Matveev explore limitations on the development of AI presented by the need to understand language and be embodied.
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  26. Наука и феномен человека в эпоху цивилизационного Макросдвига.Albert Efimov (ed.) - 2023 - Moscow:
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  27. Explaining Go: Challenges in Achieving Explainability in AI Go Programs.Zack Garrett - 2023 - Journal of Go Studies 17 (2):29-60.
    There has been a push in recent years to provide better explanations for how AIs make their decisions. Most of this push has come from the ethical concerns that go hand in hand with AIs making decisions that affect humans. Outside of the strictly ethical concerns that have prompted the study of explainable AIs (XAIs), there has been research interest in the mere possibility of creating XAIs in various domains. In general, the more accurate we make our models the harder (...)
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  28. Chess and Antirealism.Samuel Kahn - 2023 - Asian Journal of Philosophy 2 (76):1-20.
    In this article, I make a novel argument for scientific antirealism. My argument is as follows: (1) the best human chess players would lose to the best computer chess programs; (2) if the best human chess players would lose to the best computer chess programs, then there is good reason to think that the best human chess players do not understand how to make winning moves; (3) if there is good reason to think that the best human chess players do (...)
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  29. Humans in the meta-human era (Meta-philosophical analysis).Spyridon Kakos - 2023 - Harmonia Philosophica Papers.
    Humans are obsolete. In the post-ChatGPT era, artificial intelligence systems have replaced us in the last sectors of life that we thought were our personal kingdom. Yet, humans still have a place in this life. But they can find it only if they forget all those things that we believe make us unique. Only if we go back to doing nothing, can we truly be alive and meet our Self. Only if we stop thinking can we accept the Cosmos as (...)
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  30. Algorithmic Transparency and Manipulation.Michael Klenk - 2023 - Philosophy and Technology 36 (4):1-20.
    A series of recent papers raises worries about the manipulative potential of algorithmic transparency (to wit, making visible the factors that influence an algorithm’s output). But while the concern is apt and relevant, it is based on a fraught understanding of manipulation. Therefore, this paper draws attention to the ‘indifference view’ of manipulation, which explains better than the ‘vulnerability view’ why algorithmic transparency has manipulative potential. The paper also raises pertinent research questions for future studies of manipulation in the context (...)
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  31. Review of Sven Nyholm’s "Humans and Robots: Ethics, Agency, and Anthropomorphism”. London, 2020: Rowman and Littlefield International. [REVIEW]Diego Morales - 2023 - Journal of Ethics and Emerging Technologies 33 (1):1-5.
    Book review of Sven Nyholm's "Humans and Robots: Ethics, Agency and Anthropomorphism". || Reseña del libro "Humans and Robots: Ethics, Agency and Anthropomorphism", escrito por Sven Nyholm.
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  32. Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience Research: Theologico-Philosophical Implications for the Christian Notion of the Human Person.Justin Nnaemeka Onyeukaziri - 2023 - Maritain Studies/Etudes Maritainiennes 39:85-103.
    This paper explores the theological and philosophical implications of artificial intelligence (AI) and Neuroscience research on the Christian’s notion of the human person. The paschal mystery of Christ is the intuitive foundation of Christian anthropology. In the intellectual history of the Christianity, Platonism and Aristotelianism have been employed to articulate the Christian philosophical anthropology. The Aristotelian systematization has endured to this era. Since the modern period of the Western intellectual history, Aristotelianism has been supplanted by the positive sciences as the (...)
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  33. Action and Agency in Artificial Intelligence: A Philosophical Critique.Justin Nnaemeka Onyeukaziri - 2023 - Philosophia: International Journal of Philosophy (Philippine e-journal) 24 (1):73-90.
    The objective of this work is to explore the notion of “action” and “agency” in artificial intelligence (AI). It employs a metaphysical notion of action and agency as an epistemological tool in the critique of the notion of “action” and “agency” in artificial intelligence. Hence, both a metaphysical and cognitive analysis is employed in the investigation of the quiddity and nature of action and agency per se, and how they are, by extension employed in the language and science of artificial (...)
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  34. Techniek, voorbij de nostalgie. [REVIEW]Massimiliano Simons - 2023 - de Uil Van Minerva 35 (4).
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  35. AI-aesthetics and the Anthropocentric Myth of Creativity.Emanuele Arielli & Lev Manovich - 2022 - NODES 1 (19-20).
    Since the beginning of the 21st century, technologies like neural networks, deep learning and “artificial intelligence” (AI) have gradually entered the artistic realm. We witness the development of systems that aim to assess, evaluate and appreciate artifacts according to artistic and aesthetic criteria or by observing people’s preferences. In addition to that, AI is now used to generate new synthetic artifacts. When a machine paints a Rembrandt, composes a Bach sonata, or completes a Beethoven symphony, we say that this is (...)
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  36. COVID-19 and Singularity: Can the Philippines Survive Another Existential Threat?Robert James M. Boyles, Mark Anthony Dacela, Tyrone Renzo Evangelista & Jon Carlos Rodriguez - 2022 - Asia-Pacific Social Science Review 22 (2):181–195.
    In general, existential threats are those that may potentially result in the extinction of the entire human species, if not significantly endanger its living population. Among the said threats include, but not limited to, pandemics and the impacts of a technological singularity. As regards pandemics, significant work has already been done on how to mitigate, if not prevent, the aftereffects of this type of disaster. For one, certain problem areas on how to properly manage pandemic responses have already been identified, (...)
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  37. Decentring the discoverer: how AI helps us rethink scientific discovery.Elinor Clark & Donal Khosrowi - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6):1-26.
    This paper investigates how intuitions about scientific discovery using artificial intelligence can be used to improve our understanding of scientific discovery more generally. Traditional accounts of discovery have been agent-centred: they place emphasis on identifying a specific agent who is responsible for conducting all, or at least the important part, of a discovery process. We argue that these accounts experience difficulties capturing scientific discovery involving AI and that similar issues arise for human discovery. We propose an alternative, collective-centred view as (...)
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  38. Interprétabilité et explicabilité de phénomènes prédits par de l’apprentissage machine.Christophe Denis & Franck Varenne - 2022 - Revue Ouverte d'Intelligence Artificielle 3 (3-4):287-310.
    Le déficit d’explicabilité des techniques d’apprentissage machine (AM) pose des problèmes opérationnels, juridiques et éthiques. Un des principaux objectifs de notre projet est de fournir des explications éthiques des sorties générées par une application fondée sur de l’AM, considérée comme une boîte noire. La première étape de ce projet, présentée dans cet article, consiste à montrer que la validation de ces boîtes noires diffère épistémologiquement de celle mise en place dans le cadre d’une modélisation mathéma- tique et causale d’un phénomène (...)
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  39. Artificial Intelligence and the Notions of the “Natural” and the “Artificial.”.Justin Nnaemeka Onyeukaziri - 2022 - Journal of Data Analysis 17 (No. 4):101-116.
    This paper argues that to negate the ontological difference between the natural and the artificial, is not plausible; nor is the reduction of the natural to the artificial or vice versa possible. Except if one intends to empty the semantic content of the terms and notions: “natural” and “artificial.” Most philosophical discussions on Artificial Intelligence (AI) have always been in relation to the human person, especially as it relates to human intelligence, consciousness and/or mind in general. This paper, intends to (...)
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  40. Machine learning in scientific grant review: algorithmically predicting project efficiency in high energy physics.Vlasta Sikimić & Sandro Radovanović - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 12 (3):1-21.
    As more objections have been raised against grant peer-review for being costly and time-consuming, the legitimate question arises whether machine learning algorithms could help assess the epistemic efficiency of the proposed projects. As a case study, we investigated whether project efficiency in high energy physics can be algorithmically predicted based on the data from the proposal. To analyze the potential of algorithmic prediction in HEP, we conducted a study on data about the structure and outcomes of HEP experiments with the (...)
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  41. Strictly Human: Limitations of Autonomous Systems.Sadjad Soltanzadeh - 2022 - Minds and Machines 32 (2):269-288.
    Can autonomous systems replace humans in the performance of their activities? How does the answer to this question inform the design of autonomous systems? The study of technical systems and their features should be preceded by the study of the activities in which they play roles. Each activity can be described by its overall goals, governing norms and the intermediate steps which are taken to achieve the goals and to follow the norms. This paper uses the activity realist approach to (...)
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  42. Walking Through The Turing Wall.Albert Efimov - 2021 - IFAC Papers Online 54 (13):215-220.
    Can the machines that play board games or recognize images only in the comfort of the virtual world be intelligent? To become reliable and convenient assistants to humans, machines need to learn how to act and communicate in the physical reality, just like people do. The authors propose two novel ways of designing and building Artificial General Intelligence (AGI). The first one seeks to unify all participants at any instance of the Turing test – the judge, the machine, the human (...)
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  43. From Specialized to Hyper-Specialized Labour: Future Labor Markets as Helmed by Advanced Computer Intelligence.Tyler Jaynes - 2021 - In Pritika Nehra (ed.), Loneliness and the Crisis of Work. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 159-175.
    With the transition of the pandemic-gripped labor market en masse to remote capabilities to avert from a national or international economic meltdown, a concern arises that many job seekers simply cannot fit into the new roles being developed and implemented. Beyond the loss of on-site work, the market is unable to reverse the loss of many roles that are, and have been, taken over by artificial (computer) intelligence systems. The “business-as-usual” mentality that many have come to associate with pre-pandemic life (...)
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  44. Artificial Intelligence as Philosophy.Giovanni Landi (ed.) - 2021 - Chișinău, Moldavia: Eliva Press.
    Artificial intelligence is not and has never been a technology. It began with Turing's famous "can machine think?", a philosophical question that too many were quick to transform into a more prosaic "can Thought be mechanized?" Only in this perspective can the history and the technological success of AI be duly explained and understood, one of the tasks this book engages in. -/- It is important for philosophers to take AI seriously, and for AI researchers to see their discipline through (...)
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  45. The Problem Of Moral Agency In Artificial Intelligence.Riya Manna & Rajakishore Nath - 2021 - 2021 IEEE Conference on Norbert Wiener in the 21st Century (21CW).
    Humans have invented intelligent machinery to enhance their rational decision-making procedure, which is why it has been named ‘augmented intelligence’. The usage of artificial intelligence (AI) technology is increasing enormously with every passing year, and it is becoming a part of our daily life. We are using this technology not only as a tool to enhance our rationality but also heightening them as the autonomous ethical agent for our future society. Norbert Wiener envisaged ‘Cybernetics’ with a view of a brain-machine (...)
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  46. Kantian Notion of freedom and Autonomy of Artificial Agency.Manas Kumar Sahu - 2021 - Prometeica - Revista De Filosofía Y Ciencias 23:136-149.
    The objective of this paper is to provide a critical analysis of the Kantian notion of freedom (especially the problem of the third antinomy and its resolution in the critique of pure reason); its significance in the contemporary debate on free-will and determinism, and the possibility of autonomy of artificial agency in the Kantian paradigm of autonomy. Kant's resolution of the third antinomy by positing the ground in the noumenal self resolves the problem of antinomies; however, invites an explanatory gap (...)
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  47. Moving beyond content‐specific computation in artificial neural networks.Nicholas Shea - 2021 - Mind and Language 38 (1):156-177.
    A basic deep neural network (DNN) is trained to exhibit a large set of input–output dispositions. While being a good model of the way humans perform some tasks automatically, without deliberative reasoning, more is needed to approach human‐like artificial intelligence. Analysing recent additions brings to light a distinction between two fundamentally different styles of computation: content‐specific and non‐content‐specific computation (as first defined here). For example, deep episodic RL networks draw on both. So does human conceptual reasoning. Combining the two takes (...)
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  48. Performance vs. competence in human–machine comparisons.Chaz Firestone - 2020 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 41.
    Does the human mind resemble the machines that can behave like it? Biologically inspired machine-learning systems approach “human-level” accuracy in an astounding variety of domains, and even predict human brain activity—raising the exciting possibility that such systems represent the world like we do. However, even seemingly intelligent machines fail in strange and “unhumanlike” ways, threatening their status as models of our minds. How can we know when human–machine behavioral differences reflect deep disparities in their underlying capacities, vs. when such failures (...)
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  49. In Defence of a Reciprocal Turing Test.Fintan Mallory - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (4):659-680.
    The traditional Turing test appeals to an interrogator's judgement to determine whether or not their interlocutor is an intelligent agent. This paper argues that this kind of asymmetric experimental set-up is inappropriate for tracking a property such as intelligence because intelligence is grounded in part by symmetric relations of recognition between agents. In place, it proposes a reciprocal test which takes into account the judgments of both interrogators and competitors to determine if an agent is intelligent. This form of social (...)
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  50. AI-Completeness: Using Deep Learning to Eliminate the Human Factor.Kristina Šekrst - 2020 - In Sandro Skansi (ed.), Guide to Deep Learning Basics. Springer. pp. 117-130.
    Computational complexity is a discipline of computer science and mathematics which classifies computational problems depending on their inherent difficulty, i.e. categorizes algorithms according to their performance, and relates these classes to each other. P problems are a class of computational problems that can be solved in polynomial time using a deterministic Turing machine while solutions to NP problems can be verified in polynomial time, but we still do not know whether they can be solved in polynomial time as well. A (...)
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