Philosophy of Archaeology

Edited by Adrian Currie (Cambridge University, University of Exeter)
About this topic
Summary Archaeology has long been a philosophically and methodologically reflective science. This, in addition to being situated between the physical, social and historical sciences, makes it ideal (and typically under-utilized) fodder for philosophical analysis and understanding. This entry attempts to include both the clearly philosophical, and work attempting new, integrative approaches to archaeological reconstruction. Major issues in the philosophy of archaeology are epistemological, methodological and ethical. Epistemically, the status of archaeological evidence, and its capacity to underwrite reconstructions of prehistoric social worlds, must confront the decay of traces over time and the limited applicability of repeated experimentation so favored of physical sciences. Methodologically, archaeologists worry a lot about how best to treat their evidence: the long debates between processualists, structuralists, post-modernists, etc... are a testament to this. Moreover, archaeology is by its very nature pluralistic: it draws together many forms of evidence, from a diverse range of fields (from physics to evolutionary theory to comparative religion), making it a hot-spot for integrative and disunified approaches to science. Finally, archaeologists are often in the business of utilizing the material remains of sometimes venerated - and sometimes politically explosive - past people. This requires an ethical understanding of the delicate relationships between the scientist and the (often politically underrepresented) groups who also lay claim to such remains.
Key works For rich philosophical and historical discussion focusing largely on the epistemological and methodological issues in archaeology, Alison Wylie's work is invaluable, particularly Wylie 2002 which collects several of her papers. Another important work covering the epistemological issues is Kosso 2001's 'Knowing the past' . The papers collected in the Oxford Handbook of Archaeological Theory provide a good overview of theoretical issues in the science.
Introductions Historically, epistemological discussion in anthropology has coalesced around the evidential status of so-called 'ethnographic analogy': the use of contemporary anthropological evidence to inform pre-historical reconstruction. Alison Wylie's "The reaction against analogy" Wylie 1985 both provides a history and a philosophical analysis. Currie 2016 connects these issues to reconstruction in biology. Another good introduction to epistemological issues (which connects archaeology to wider issues in historical reconstruction) is Jeffares 2008. For a nice introduction to ethical issues in archaeology, see Bahn 1984.
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  1. Templi Ptolemaei — A look at the Purpose of the Serapeum at Alexandria.Jan M. van der Molen - Jan 28, 2019 - University of Groningen.
    The most discussed of architectural marvels tend to be the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus or the Parthenon at Athens, supposedly because they are the ones we happen to have nominated ‘world wonders’; but that doesn’t mean all the rest of temple-type sites to be found across the greater Mediterranean area have less wonder about them. On the contrary; when wanting to explore and explain the role temples played in the lives of their ‘subscribers’ and a (...)
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  2. Archaeology and the philosophy of Wittgenstein.John L. Bintliff - forthcoming - Philosophy.
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  3. Monumental Origins of Art History: Lessons from Mesopotamia.Jakub Stejskal - forthcoming - History of Humanities.
    When does art history begin? Art historiographers typically point to the Renaissance (Vasari) or, alternatively, to Hellenism (Pliny the Elder). But such origin stories become increasingly disconnected from contemporary disciplinary practices, especially as the latter try to rise to the challenge of conducting art history in a more diversified and global way. This essay provides an alternative account of art history’s origin, one that does not try to alleviate the sense of disconnect, but rather develops a global, non-Eurocentric account. The (...)
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  4. A man-of-war in pieces : fragmenting the Rikswasa of 1959.Mirja Arnshav - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  5. Marking boundaries, making connections : fragmenting the body in Bronze Age Britain.Joanna Brück - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  6. Fragmentation research and the fetichization of independence.John Chapman - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  7. Breaking, making, dismantling and reassembling : fragmentation in Iron Age Britain.Helen Chittock - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  8. Fragmented reindeer of Stállo Foundations : a multi-isotopic approach to fragmented reindeer skeletal remains from Adámvallda in Swedish Sápmi.Markus Fjellström - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  9. There is method in the madness : or how to approach fragmentation in archaeology.Bisserka Gaydarska - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  10. Describing identity : the individual and the collective in zooarchaeology.Emily H. Hull - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  11. Multiple objects : fragmentation and process in the Neolithic of Britain and Ireland.Andrew Meirion Jones - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  12. Selective fragmentation : exploring the treatment of metalwork across time and space in bronze age Britain.Matthew G. Knight - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  13. Breaking and making the ancestors : fragmentation as a key funerary practice in the creation of urnfield graves.Arjan Louwen - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  14. Bonded by pieces : fragments as means of affirming kinship in Iron Age Finland.Ulla Moilanen - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  15. Parted pairs : Viking age oval brooches in Britain, Ireland, and Iceland.Frida Espolin Norstein - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  16. Revisiting, selecting, breaking and removing : incomplete and fragmented Merovingian reopened graves in Western Europe.Astrid A. Noterman - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  17. Fusing fragments : repaired objects, refitted parts and upcycled pieces in the late bronze age metalwork of Southern Scandinavia.Karin Ojala & Anna Sörman - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  18. Four problems for archaeological refitting studies : discussion from the Taï Site and its neolithic pottery material (France).Sébastien Plutniak, Joséphine Caro & Claire Manen - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  19. House to house : fragmentation and deceptive memory-making at an early modern Swedish country house.Anna Röst - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  20. Pieces of the past, fragments for the future : broken metalwork in Nordic late bronze age hoards as memorabilia?Anna Sörman - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  21. Fragmentation in archaeological context : studying the incomplete.Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström - 2024 - In Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.), Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology. Routledge.
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  22. Archaeological theory: the basics.Robert Chapman - 2023 - New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
    Archaeological Theory: The Basics is an accessible introduction to an indispensable part of what archaeologists do. The book guides the reader to an understanding of what theory is, how it works, and the range of theories used in archaeology. The growth of theory and the adoption of theories drawn from both the natural and social sciences have broadened our ability to produce trustworthy knowledge about the past. This book helps readers to see the value of archaeological theory and beyond what (...)
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  23. Archaeology for today and tomorrow.Craig N. Cipolla - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge. Edited by Rachel Crellin & Oliver J. T. Harris.
    Archaeology for Today and Tomorrow explores how cutting-edge archaeological theories have implications not only for how we study the past, but also how we think about and prepare for the future. Ranging from how we understand migration or political leadership to how we think about violence or ecological crisis, the book argues that archaeology should embrace a "future-oriented" attitude. Behind the traditional archaeological gaze on the past are a unique and useful collection of skills, tools, and orientations for rethinking the (...)
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  24. Neues System der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundriss. Band IV: Biologie, Naturgeschichte, Neurowissenschaft.Dirk Hartmann - 2023 - Paderborn: mentis.
    Volume IV (which comprises two half-volumes) focuses on the life sciences, whose object of research is life itself, that which (necessarily) mediates between the physical and the psyche. Typical philosophical questions in this context include: What is “life” in the sense of the term relevant to the life sciences? How do we know that life has not “always existed” but must have arisen in the course of abiogenesis from inanimate nature? And how is it possible to know something about how (...)
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  25. Cognitive Archaeology and the Minimum Necessary Competence Problem.Anton Killin & Ross Pain - 2023 - Biological Theory 18 (4):269-283.
    Cognitive archaeologists attempt to infer the cognitive and cultural features of past hominins and their societies from the material record. This task faces the problem of _minimum necessary competence_: as the most sophisticated thinking of ancient hominins may have been in domains that leave no archaeological signature, it is safest to assume that tool production and use reflects only the lower boundary of cognitive capacities. Cognitive archaeology involves selecting a model from the cognitive sciences and then assessing some aspect of (...)
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  26. How WEIRD is Cognitive Archaeology? Engaging with the Challenge of Cultural Variation and Sample Diversity.Anton Killin & Ross Pain - 2023 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 14 (2):539-563.
    In their landmark 2010 paper, “The weirdest people in the world?”, Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan outlined a serious methodological problem for the psychological and behavioural sciences. Most of the studies produced in the field use people from Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich and Democratic (WEIRD) societies, yet inferences are often drawn to the species as a whole. In drawing such inferences, researchers implicitly assume that either there is little variation across human populations, or that WEIRD populations are generally representative of the (...)
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  27. Archaeological situations: archaeological theory from the inside out.Gavin Lucas - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This book is an introduction to theory in archaeology--but with a difference. Archaeological Situations avoids talking about theory as if it was something you apply but rather as something embedded in archaeological practice from the start. Rather than see theory as something worked from the outside in, this book explores theory from the inside out, which means it focuses on specific archaeological practices rather than specific theories. It starts from the kinds of situations that students find themselves in and learn (...)
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  28. Broken bodies, places and objects: new perspectives on fragmentation in archaeology.Anna Sörman, Astrid A. Noterman & Markus Fjellström (eds.) - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    Broken bodies, places and objects demonstrates the breadth of fragmentation and fragment use in prehistory and history, and provides an up-to-date insight into the current archaeological thinking around the topic. A seal broken and shared by two trade parties, dog jaws accompanying the dead in Mesolithic burials, fragments of ancient warships commodified as souvenirs, parts of an ancient dynastic throne split up between different colonial collections... Pieces of the past are everywhere around us. Fragments have a special potential precisely because (...)
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  29. Objects of Authority: A Postformalist Aesthetics.Jakub Stejskal - 2023 - New York, USA: Routledge.
    Is the celebrated elegance of Cycladic marble figurines an effect their Early Bronze Age producers intended? Can one adequately appreciate an Assyrian regal statue described by a cuneiform inscription as beautiful? What to make of the apparent aesthetic richness of the traditional cultures of Melanesia, which, however, engage in virtually no recognizable aesthetic discourse? Questions such as these have been formulated and discussed by scholars of remote cultures against the backdrop of a general scepticism about the prospects of escaping the (...)
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  30. Bones without Flesh and (Trans)Gender without Bodies: Querying Desires for Trans Historicity.Avery Rose Everhart - 2022 - Hypatia 37 (4):601-618.
    In 2011, a 5,000-year-old “male” skeleton buried in a “female” way was discovered by an archaeological team just outside of modern-day Prague. This article queries the impulse to name such a discovery as evidence of transgender identity, and bodies, in an increasingly ancient past. To do so, it takes up the work of Denise Ferreira da Silva, Sylvia Wynter, and Hortense Spillers as a means to push back against the impetus to name such discoveries “transgender” in order to shore up (...)
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  31. Cultivating trust, producing knowledge: The management of archaeological labour and the making of a discipline.Allison Mickel & Nylah Byrd - 2022 - History of the Human Sciences 35 (2):3-28.
    Like any science, archaeology relies on trust between actors involved in the production of knowledge. In the early history of archaeology, this epistemic trust was complicated by histories of Orientalism in the Middle East and colonialism more broadly. The racial and power dynamics underpinning 19th- and early 20th-century archaeology precluded the possibility of interpersonal moral trust between foreign archaeologists and locally hired labourers. In light of this, archaeologists created systems of reward, punishment, and surveillance to ensure the honest behaviour of (...)
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  32. Evidence and analogy in Archaeoastronomy.Francesco Nappo, Giulio Magli & Giovanni Valente - 2022 - Synthese 200 (6):1-25.
    This paper addresses the role of analogical reasoning in archaeoastronomy - the discipline which studies the connections between the ancient monuments and the heavens. Archaeoastronomy is a highly interdisciplinary science, placed at the border between the humanities – especially archaeology – and the scientific approach to cultural heritage. As a consequence, its scientific foundations are a delicate matter. We plan to investigate here the question of what constitutes the evidence for analogical inferences in archaeoastronomy and to what extent one can (...)
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  33. What Makes the Identity of a Scientific Method? A History of the “Structural and Analytical Typology” in the Growth of Evolutionary and Digital Archaeology in Southwestern Europe (1950s–2000s).Sébastien Plutniak - 2022 - Journal of Paleolithic Archaeology 5 (1).
    Usual narratives among prehistoric archaeologists consider typological approaches as part of a past and outdated episode in the history of research, subsequently replaced by technological, functional, chemical, and cognitive approaches. From a historical and conceptual perspective, this paper addresses several limits of these narratives, which (1) assume a linear, exclusive, and additive conception of scientific change, neglecting the persistence of typological problems; (2) reduce collective developments to personal work (e.g. the “Bordes’” and “Laplace’s” methods in France); and (3) presuppose the (...)
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  34. Archaeology and intentionality: understanding ethics and freedom in past and present societies.Artur Seang Ping Ribeiro - 2022 - New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
    Archaeology and Intentionality explores perhaps one of the most overlooked topics in archaeology, that of intentionality. In archaeology, most explanations of human behaviour rely on intentionality and this book fills a surprising gap in the literature. By identifying the historical trajectory of the notion of intentionality, this book reframes our understanding of what it means to act intentionally and how archaeologists provide explanations concerning past (and present) societies. In general, this book presents a strong framework for archaeological research, one that (...)
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  35. The Archaeology and Philosophy of Health: Navigating the New Normal Problem.Carl Brusse - 2021 - In Anton Killin & Sean Allen Hermanson (eds.), Explorations in Archaeology and Philosophy. Cham: pp. 101-122.
    It is often taken for granted that notions of health and disease are generally applicable across the biological world, in that they are not restricted to contemporary human beings, and can be unproblematically applied to a variety of organisms both past and present (taking relevant differences between species into account). In the historical sciences it is also common to normatively contrast health states of individuals and populations from different times and places: e.g., to say that due to nutrition or pathogen (...)
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  36. Prehistoric Stone Tools and their Epistemic Complexity.Manjari Chakrabarty - 2021 - In Zachary Pirtle, David Tomblin & Guru Madhavan (eds.), Engineering and Philosophy: Reimagining Technology and Social Progress. Springer Verlag. pp. 101-121.
    In his 1997 paper “Technology and Complexity” Dasgupta draws a distinction between systematic and epistemic complexity. Entities are called systematically complex when they are composed of a large number of parts that interact in complicated ways. This means that even if one knows the properties of the parts one may not be able to infer the behaviour of the system as a whole. In contrast, epistemic complexity refers to the knowledge that is used in, or generated by the making of (...)
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  37. Archaeological theory in dialogue: situating relationality, ontology, posthumanism, and indigenous paradigms.Rachel Crellin - 2021 - New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. Edited by Craig N. Cipolla, Lindsay M. Montgomery, Oliver J. T. Harris & Sophie V. Moore.
    Archaeological Theory in Dialogue presents an innovative conversation between five scholars from different backgrounds on a range of central issues facing archaeology today. Interspersing detailed investigations of critical theoretical issues with dialogues between the authors, the book interrogates the importance of four themes at the heart of much contemporary theoretical debate: relations, ontology, posthumanism, and Indigenous paradigms. The authors, who work in Europe and North America, explore how these themes are shaping the ways that archaeologists conduct fieldwork, conceptualize the past, (...)
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  38. Book Review: Neanderthal Language: Demystifying the Linguistic Powers of Our Extinct Cousins. [REVIEW]Petar Gabrić - 2021 - Frontiers in Psychology 12:702361.
    Recently, we have witnessed an explosion of studies and discussions claiming that Neanderthals engaged in a range of “symbolic” behaviors, including personal ornament use (Radovčić et al., 2015), funerary practices (Balzeau et al., 2020), visual arts (Hoffmann et al., 2018), body aesthetics (Roebroeks et al., 2012), etc. In Paleolithic archaeology, it has become mainstream to axiomatically infer from these putative behaviors that Neanderthals engaged in symbol use and that Neanderthals thus possessed some form of language. Rudolf Botha's bombastic title "Neanderthal (...)
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  39. Music Archaeology, Signaling Theory, Social Differentiation.Anton Killin - 2021 - In Sean Allen-Hermanson Anton Killin (ed.), Explorations in Archaeology and Philosophy. Synthese Library. Springer Verlag. pp. 85-100.
    Musical flutes constructed from bird bone and mammoth ivory begin to appear in the archaeological record from around 40,000 years ago. Due to the different physical demands of acquiring and working with these source materials in order to produce a flute, researchers have speculated about the significance—aesthetic or otherwise—of the use of mammoth ivory as a raw material for flutes. I argue that biological signaling theory provides a theoretical basis for the proposition that mammoth ivory flute production is a signal (...)
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  40. The Twain Shall Meet: Themes at the Intersection of Archaeology and Philosophy.Anton Killin & Sean Allen-Hermanson - 2021 - In Sean Allen-Hermanson Anton Killin (ed.), Explorations in Archaeology and Philosophy. Synthese Library. Springer Verlag. pp. 1-4.
    Explorations in Archaeology and Philosophy grew out of an interdisciplinary conference on the Upper Palaeolithic, “Digging Deeper: Archaeological and Philosophical Perspectives”, held on Miami Beach, Florida, in December 2017. The previous decade had seen increasing numbers of publications on topics of interest to both philosophers and archaeologists, so the time was ripe for a conference which served to generate constructive dialogue between researchers from both disciplines. Themes discussed included art, music, the mind, symbols, mortuary practices, and archaeological methodology. This volume (...)
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  41. Explorations in Archaeology and Philosophy.Anton Killin & Sean Allen-Hermanson (eds.) - 2021 - Springer Verlag.
    This volume explores various themes at the intersection of archaeology and philosophy: inference and theory; interdisciplinary connections; cognition, language and normativity; and ethical issues. Showcasing this heterogeneity, its scope ranges from the method of analogical inference to the evolution of the human mind; from conceptual issues in assessing the health of past populations to the ethics of cultural heritage tourism. It probes the archaeological record for evidence of numeracy, curiosity and creativity, and social complexity. Its contributors comprise an interdisciplinary cluster (...)
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  42. Psychoanalysis and the antinomies of an archaeologist: Andrea Carandini, the ruins of Rome, and the writing of history.Tom McCaskie - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (3-4):49-75.
    Freud’s fascination with the ruins of ancient Rome was an element in the formation and development of psychology. This article concerns the intersection of psychoanalysis with archaeology and history in the study of that city. Its substantive content is an analysis of the life and career of Andrea Carandini, the best-known Roman archaeologist of the past 40 years. He has said and written much about his changing views of himself and about what he is trying to do in his approach (...)
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  43. Aesthetic Archaeology.Jakub Stejskal - 2021 - Critical Inquiry 48 (1):144-166.
    The article’s aim is to clear the ground for the idea of aesthetic archaeology as an aesthetic analysis of remote artifacts divorced from aesthetic criticism. On the example of controversies surrounding the early Cycladic figures, it discusses an anxiety motivating the rejection of aesthetic inquiry in archaeology, namely, the anxiety about the heuristic reliability of one’s aesthetic instincts vis-à-vis remote artifacts. It introduces the claim that establishing an aesthetic mandate of a remote artifact should in the first place be part (...)
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  44. “I’m Not Saying It Was Aliens”: An Archaeological and Philosophical Analysis of a Conspiracy Theory.Derek D. Turner & Michelle I. Turner - 2021 - In Sean Allen-Hermanson Anton Killin (ed.), Explorations in Archaeology and Philosophy. Synthese Library. Springer Verlag. pp. 7-24.
    This chapter draws upon the archaeological and philosophical literature to offer an analysis and diagnosis of the popular ‘ancient aliens’ theory. First, we argue that ancient aliens theory is a form of conspiracy theory. Second, we argue that it differs from other familiar conspiracy theories because it does distinctive ideological work. Third, we argue that ancient aliens theory is a form of non-contextualized inquiry that sacrifices the very thing that makes archaeological research successful, and does so for the sake of (...)
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  45. L'ideologia degli archeologi: egemonie e tradizioni epistemologiche alla fine del postmoderno.Edoardo Vanni - 2021 - Oxford: BAR Publishing.
    This book focuses on the relationship between different epistemological and theoretical advances in archaeology within different academic and philosophical traditions."--Publisher's web site.
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  46. Change and Archaeology.Rachel Crellin - 2020 - New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
    Change and Archaeology explores how archaeologists have historically described, interpreted, and explained change and argues that change has been under-theorised. The study of change is central to the discipline of archaeology but change is complex and this makes it challenging to write about in nuanced ways that effectively capture the nature of our world. Relational approaches offer archaeologists more scope to explore change in complex and subtle ways. Change and Archaeology presents a posthumanist, post-anthropocentric, new materialist approach to change. It (...)
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  47. Cinematosophical introduction to the theory of archaeology: understanding archaeology through cinema, philosophy, literature and some incongruous extremes.Aleksander Dzbyński - 2020 - Wilmington, Delaware: Vernon Press. Edited by Maciej Adamski.
    What is archaeology? A research field dealing with monuments? A science? A branch of philosophy? Dzbyński suggests the simple but thoughtful equation: Archaeology = History = Knowledge. This book consists of 8 chapters presenting a collection of characteristic philosophical attitudes important for archaeology. It discusses the historicity of archaeological sources, the source of the algorithmic approach in archaeological reasoning, and the accuracy of logical and irrational thinking. In general, this book is concerned with the history of archaeologists' search for a (...)
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  48. Rewriting history: changing perceptions of the archaeological past.Dennis Harding - 2020 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Every generation re-writes history in its own way'. Re-writing History applies Collingwood's dictum to a series of topics and themes, some of which have been central to prehistoric and protohistoric archaeology for the past century or more, while some have been triggered by more recent changes in technology or social attitudes. Some issues are highly controversial, like the proposals for the Stonehenge World Heritage sites. Others challenge long-held popular myths, like the deconstruction of the Celts and by extension the Picts. (...)
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  49. Theoretical and Philosophical Examinations of the Foundations in Japanese Archaeology(日本考古学の理論的・哲学的基礎:発掘報告書と型式(学)を中心に).Nakao Hisashi - 2020 - כוורת 16:1-9.
    The present article examines the theoretical foundations of Japanese archaeology epistemologically. The section 2 epistemologically examines excavation reports as one of the foundational works in Japanese archaeology, i.e., what excavation reports are and should be. It is argued that with a lack of epistemological justification of excavation reports, their epistemological status is highly puzzling. The section 3 also epistemologically and methodologically examines types or typology as one of the foundational methods in Japanese archaeology and it is claimed that definition of (...)
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  50. Introduction: Archaeology and Philosophy.Anton Killin & Sean Allen-Hermanson - 2020 - Topoi 40 (1):203-205.
    This paper introduces a Special Issue of Topoi entitled "Archaeology and philosophy".
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