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Summary Archaeology has long been a philosophically and methodologically reflective science. This, in addition to being situated between the physical, social and historical sciences, makes it ideal (and typically under-utilized) fodder for philosophical analysis and understanding. This entry attempts to include both the clearly philosophical, and work attempting new, integrative approaches to archaeological reconstruction. Major issues in the philosophy of archaeology are epistemological, methodological and ethical. Epistemically, the status of archaeological evidence, and its capacity to underwrite reconstructions of prehistoric social worlds, must confront the decay of traces over time and the limited applicability of repeated experimentation so favored of physical sciences. Methodologically, archaeologists worry a lot about how best to treat their evidence: the long debates between processualists, structuralists, post-modernists, etc... are a testament to this. Moreover, archaeology is by its very nature pluralistic: it draws together many forms of evidence, from a diverse range of fields (from physics to evolutionary theory to comparative religion), making it a hot-spot for integrative and disunified approaches to science. Finally, archaeologists are often in the business of utilizing the material remains of sometimes venerated - and sometimes politically explosive - past people. This requires an ethical understanding of the delicate relationships between the scientist and the (often politically underrepresented) groups who also lay claim to such remains.
Key works For rich philosophical and historical discussion focusing largely on the epistemological and methodological issues in archaeology, Alison Wylie's work is invaluable, particularly Wylie 2002 which collects several of her papers. Another important work covering the epistemological issues is Kosso 2001's 'Knowing the past' . The papers collected in the Oxford Handbook of Archaeological Theory provide a good overview of theoretical issues in the science.
Introductions Historically, epistemological discussion in anthropology has coalesced around the evidential status of so-called 'ethnographic analogy': the use of contemporary anthropological evidence to inform pre-historical reconstruction. Alison Wylie's "The reaction against analogy" Wylie 1985 both provides a history and a philosophical analysis. Currie 2016 connects these issues to reconstruction in biology. Another good introduction to epistemological issues (which connects archaeology to wider issues in historical reconstruction) is Jeffares 2008. For a nice introduction to ethical issues in archaeology, see Bahn 1984.
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  1. Robert W. Ackerman (1975). Arthur's Britain: History and Archaeology, A.D. 367-634Leslie Alcock. Speculum 50 (4):711-713.
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  2. W. V. Adams & E. W. Adams (1991). Archaeological Typology and Practical Reality: A Dialectical Approach to Artifact Classification and Sorting. Cambridge University Press.
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  3. Chahryar Adle, Claude Cosandey, Henri-Paul Francfort & Eric Fouache (2015). Greater Khorasan: History, Geography, Archaeology and Material Culture. De Gruyter.
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  4. Dorothy Africa (2002). The Archaeology of Medieval BookbindingJ. A. Szirmai. Speculum 77 (3):999-1002.
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  5. Fernando Lâopez Aguilar (1990). Elementos Para Una Construcci'on Te'orica En Arqueolog'ia.
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  6. Stuart Albert & Suzanne Kessler (1976). Processes for Ending Social Encounters: The Conceptual Archaeology of a Temporal Place1. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 6 (2):147-170.
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  7. Ben Alberti, Severin Fowles, Martin Holbraad, Yvonne Marshall & Chris Whitmore, "Worlds Otherwise": Archaeology, Anthropology, and Ontological Difference.
    The debate concerning ontology is heating up in the social sciences. How is this impacting anthropology and archaeology? What contributions can these disciplines make? Following a session at the 2010 Theoretical Archaeology Group conference at Brown University (“‘Worlds Otherwise’: Archaeology, Theory, and Ontological Difference,” convened by Ben Alberti and Yvonne Marshall), a group of archaeologists and anthropologists have continued to discuss the merits, possibilities, and problems of an ontologically oriented approach. The current paper is a portion of this larger conversation— (...)
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  8. Kristin Armstrong Oma & Lynda Birke (2013). Guest Editors’ Introduction Archaeology and Human-Animal Studies. Society and Animals 21 (2):113-119.
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  9. C. J. Arnold (1986). Archaeology and History. In J. L. Bintliff & C. F. Gaffney (eds.), Archaeology at the Interface: Studies in Archaeology's Relationships with History, Geography, Biology, and Physical Science. B.A.R..
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  10. Michael C. Astour (1978). The Archaeology of Palestine: A Collective Work. Journal of the American Oriental Society 98 (2):152.
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  11. Walter E. Aufrecht & Walter E. Rast (1995). Through the Ages in Palestinian Archaeology: An Introductory Handbook. Journal of the American Oriental Society 115 (3):549.
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  12. Ludwig Bachhofer (1937). Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology for the Year 1932. Journal of the American Oriental Society 57 (3):331.
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  13. Paul Bahn (1984). Do Not Disturb? Archaeology and the Rights of the Dead. Journal of Applied Philosophy 1 (2):213-225.
  14. E. B. Banning, Yoshihiro Nishiaki & Toshio Matsutani (2004). Tell Kosak Shamali, Vol. 1: The Archaeological Investigations on the Upper Euphrates, Syria: Chalcolithic Architecture and the Earlier Prehistoric Remains. Journal of the American Oriental Society 124 (1):154.
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  15. Ian Bapty & Tim Yates (eds.) (1990). Archaeology After Structuralism: Post-Structuralism and the Practice of Archaeology. Routledge.
    Introduction: Archaeology and Post-Structuralism Ian Bapty and Tim Yates i If it recedes one day, leaving behind its works and signs on the shores of our ...
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  16. George A. Barton & William Foxwell Albright (1932). The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible. Journal of the American Oriental Society 52 (2):197.
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  17. Caroline Bassett (2012). Jussi Parikka, Insect Media: An Archaeology of Animals and Technology. Radical Philosophy 173:52.
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  18. Rhonda R. Bathurst (2000). Keeping Up With the Jones's: Addressing Aspects of Archaeological Representation. Nexus 14 (1):1.
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  19. J. Bayley, G. J. Wainwright & English Heritage (1998). Science in Archaeology an Agenda for the Future.
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  20. Gary Beckman & Edward Fox (2003). Sacred Geography: A Tale of Murder and Archaeology in the Holy Land. Journal of the American Oriental Society 123 (1):253.
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  21. Gary Beckman & Wendy M. K. Shaw (2004). Possessors and Possessed: Museums, Archaeology, and the Visualization of History in the Late Ottoman Empire. Journal of the American Oriental Society 124 (1):203.
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  22. J. A. Bell (forthcoming). Book Review: Can There Be a Philosophy of Archaeology? By William Harvey Krieger. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences.
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  23. James A. Bell (2008). Book Review: Krieger, WH (2006). Can There Be a Philosophy of Archaeology? Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 38 (4):560-564.
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  24. Tony Bennett (2002). Archaeological Autopsy: Objectifying Time and Cultural Governance. Cultural Values 6 (1-2):29-47.
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  25. R. Alexander Bentley & Herbert D. G. Maschner (2003). Complex Systems and Archaeology.
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  26. Constance Berman (1995). Gender and Material Culture. The Archaeology of Religious Women. [REVIEW] The Medieval Review 8.
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  27. Reinhard Bernbeck (1997). Theorien in der Archäologie.
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  28. J. Bernstein (2003). Melancholy As Form: Towards An Archaeology Of Modernism. In John J. Joughin & Simon Malpas (eds.), The New Aestheticism. Manchester University Press. pp. 167--190.
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  29. Kathleen Biddick (1991). Medieval Archaeology. [REVIEW] Speculum 66 (4):939-942.
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  30. Kathleen Biddick (1991). Medieval Archaeology.Charles L. Redman. Speculum 66 (4):939-942.
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  31. Kathleen Biddick (1986). The Archaeology of Medieval England. [REVIEW] Speculum 61 (2):395-396.
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  32. Kathleen Biddick (1986). The Archaeology of Medieval EnglandHelen Clarke. Speculum 61 (2):395-396.
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  33. Amilcare Bietti, International Union of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences & International Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences (1996). Theoretical and Methodological Problems.
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  34. Can Bilsel (2012). Antiquity on Display: Regimes of the Authentic in Berlin's Pergamon Museum. Oxford University Press.
    In this volume, Bilsel argues that the museum has produced a modern decor, an iconic image, which has replaced the lost antique originals, rather than creating an explicitly hypothetical representation of Antiquity.
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  35. L. Binford (1962). Archaeology as Anthropology. In M. Leone (ed.), Contemporary Archaeology. Southern Illinois University. pp. 93-101.
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  36. Lewis Roberts Binford (1983). Working at Archaeology. Academic Press.
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  37. J. L. Bintliff (1991). The Annales School and Archaeology.
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  38. J. L. Bintliff (1988). Extracting Meaning From the Past.
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  39. J. L. Bintliff (1986). Archaeology at the Interface. In J. L. Bintliff & C. F. Gaffney (eds.), Archaeology at the Interface: Studies in Archaeology's Relationships with History, Geography, Biology, and Physical Science. B.A.R..
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  40. J. L. Bintliff & C. F. Gaffney (eds.) (1986). Archaeology at the Interface: Studies in Archaeology's Relationships with History, Geography, Biology, and Physical Science. B.A.R..
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  41. John L. Bintliff (forthcoming). Archaeology and the Philosophy of Wittgenstein. Philosophy.
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  42. Elizabeth Bloch-Smith, Prescott H. Williams & Theodore Hiebert (2001). Realia Dei: Essays in Archaeology and Biblical Interpretation in Honor of Edward F. Campbell, Jr. At His Retirement. Journal of the American Oriental Society 121 (3):531.
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  43. J. Boardman (2015). Appropriating the Past: Philosophical Perspectives on the Practice of Archaeology. Common Knowledge 21 (1):108-108.
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  44. J. Boardman (1996). Review. Archaeology and Theory. Time, Tradition and Society in Greek Archaeology: Bridging the 'Great Divide'. N Spencer (Ed). [REVIEW] The Classical Review 46 (2):344-345.
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  45. John Boardman (2016). Artifact and Artifice: Classical Archaeology and the Ancient Historian. Common Knowledge 22 (1):130.1-130.
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  46. John Boardman (2011). To Wake the Dead: A Renaissance Merchant and the Birth of Archaeology. Common Knowledge 17 (1):191-192.
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  47. John Boardman (2010). Archaeology as Political Action. Common Knowledge 16 (1):150-150.
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  48. John Boardman (2009). The Nation and Its Ruins: Antiquity, Archaeology, and National Imagination in Greece. Common Knowledge 15 (3):503-504.
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  49. Sheila Bonde (1987). Twenty-Five Years of Medieval Archaeology. [REVIEW] Speculum 62 (1):201-Sheila Bonde.
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  50. Sheila Bonde & Clark Maines (1992). Norton Priory: The Archaeology of a Medieval Religious House. [REVIEW] Speculum 67 (4):972-973.
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