Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence

Edited by Eric Dietrich (State University of New York at Binghamton, University of Arizona)
About this topic

The philosophy of artificial intelligence is a collection of issues primarily concerned with whether or not AI is possible -- with whether or not it is possible to build an intelligent thinking machine.  Also of concern is whether humans and other animals are best thought of as machines (computational robots, say) themselves. The most important of the "whether-possible" problems lie at the intersection of theories of the semantic contents of thought and the nature of computation. A second suite of problems surrounds the nature of rationality. A third suite revolves around the seeming “transcendent” reasoning powers of the human mind. These problems derive from Kurt Gödel's famous Incompleteness Theorem.  A fourth collection of problems concerns the architecture of an intelligent machine.  Should a thinking computer use discrete or continuous modes of computing and representing, is having a body necessary, and is being conscious necessary.  This takes us to the final set of questions. Can a computer be conscious?  Can a computer have a moral sense? Would we have duties to thinking computers, to robots?  For example, is it moral for humans to even attempt to build an intelligent machine?  If we did build such a machine, would turning it off be the equivalent of murder?  If we had a race of such machines, would it be immoral to force them to work for us?

Key works Probably the most important attack on whether AI is possible is John Searle's famous Chinese Room Argument: Searle 1980.  This attack focuses on the semantic aspects (mental semantics) of thoughts, thinking, and computing.   For some replies to this argument, see the same 1980 journal issue as Searle's original paper.  For the problem of the nature of rationality, see Pylyshyn 1987.  An especially strong attack on AI from this angle is Jerry Fodor's work on the frame problem: Fodor 1987.  On the frame problem in general, see McCarthy & Hayes 1969.  For some replies to Fodor and advances on the frame problem, see Ford & Pylyshyn 1996.  For the transcendent reasoning issue, a central and important paper is Hilary Putnam's Putnam 1960.  This paper is arguably the source for the computational turn in 1960s-70s philosophy of mind.  For architecture-of-mind issues, see, for starters: M. Spivey's The Contintuity of Mind, Oxford, which argues against the notion of discrete representations. See also, Gelder & Port 1995.  For an argument for discrete representations, see, Dietrich & Markman 2003.  For an argument that the mind's boundaries do not end at the body's boundaries, see, Clark & Chalmers 1998.  For a statement of and argument for computationalism -- the thesis that the mind is a kind of computer -- see Shimon Edelman's excellent book Edelman 2008. See also Chapter 9 of Chalmers's book Chalmers 1996.
Introductions Chinese Room Argument: Searle 1980. Frame problem: Fodor 1987, Computationalism and Godelian style refutation: Putnam 1960. Architecture: M. Spivey's The Contintuity of Mind, Oxford and Shimon Edelman's Edelman 2008. Ethical issues: Anderson & Anderson 2011.  Conscious computers: Chalmers 2011.
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  1. Art and Human Intelligence. [REVIEW]E. J. A. - 1966 - Review of Metaphysics 19 (3):602-602.
  2. Quality Issues in Cross-Disciplinary Research: Towards a Two-Pronged Approach to Evaluation.Jens Aagaard-Hansen & Uno Svedin - 2009 - Social Epistemology 23 (2):165 – 176.
    In recent decades there has been increasing demand for and considerable efforts to conduct cross-disciplinary research. However, assessment of research quality in such endeavours still is often based on mono-disciplinary criteria and not seldom carried out by reviewers without strong cross-disciplinary experience. The authors suggest a two-pronged approach to cross-disciplinary research evaluation. One part should comprise an individual review of all the disciplines involved based on their mono-disciplinary sets of criteria. The other part should be a separate evaluation of the (...)
  3. Computational Intelligence Part II Lecture 1: Identification Using Neural Networks.Farzaneh Abdollahi - 2009 - In L. Magnani (ed.), Computational Intelligence.
  4. Artificial General Intelligence Begins with Recognition: Evaluating the Flexibility of Recognition.Tsvi Achler - 2012 - In Pei Wang & Ben Goertzel (eds.), Theoretical Foundations of Artificial General Intelligence. Springer. pp. 197--217.
  5. Artificial Knowing: Gender and the Thinking Machine.Alison Adam - 2006 - Routledge.
    _Artificial Knowing_ challenges the masculine slant in the Artificial Intelligence view of the world. Alison Adam admirably fills the large gap in science and technology studies by showing us that gender bias is inscribed in AI-based computer systems. Her treatment of feminist epistemology, focusing on the ideas of the knowing subject, the nature of knowledge, rationality and language, are bound to make a significant and powerful contribution to AI studies. Drawing from theories by Donna Haraway and Sherry Turkle, and using (...)
  6. What Can the History of AI Learn From the History of Science?Alison E. Adam - 1990 - AI and Society 4 (3):232-241.
    There have been few attempts, so far, to document the history of artificial intelligence. It is argued that the “historical sociology of scientific knowledge” can provide a broad historiographical approach for the history of AI, particularly as it has proved fruitful within the history of science in recent years. The article shows how the sociology of knowledge can inform and enrich four types of project within the history of AI; organizational history; AI viewed as technology; AI viewed as cognitive science (...)
  7. The Mark of the Cognitive: Reply to Elpidorou.Fred Adams & Rebecca Garrison - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (2):213-216.
  8. Design and Simulation of a Polar Mobile Robot. Agah & Akers - 2008 - Journal of Intelligent Systems 17 (4):379-404.
  9. Heuristic Computer-Assisted, Not Computerized: Comments on Simon 's Project.Joseph Agassi - 1992 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 6 (1):15 – 18.
  10. Interaction Between Human and Robot: An Affect-Inspired Approach.Pramila Agrawal, Changchun Liu & Nilanjan Sarkar - 2008 - Interaction Studiesinteraction Studies Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems 9 (2):230-257.
  11. Index of Authors of Volume 12.D. Ahn, G. Ben-Avi, D. Ben Shalom, Ph Besnard, K. Borthen, C. Caleiro, W. A. Carnielli, M. E. Coniglio, R. Cooper & N. Dimitri - 2003 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (531):531.
  12. Index of Authors of Volume 10.M. Aiello, D. Beaver, M. de Rijke, M. Egg, T. Fernando, C. Gardent, K. Hartmann, H. Hendriks, J. Hintikka & W. Hodges - 2001 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (525):525.
  13. Guest Editor's Introduction: Artificial Intelligence.Varol Akman - manuscript
    Founded in 1993, ELEKTRIK: Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, has gradually become better known and is fast establishing itself as a research oriented publication outlet with high academic standards. In a modest attempt to advance this trend, this special issue of ELEKTRIK brings together five papers exemplifying the state of the art in artificial intelligence (AI). Written by experts, the papers are especially aimed at readers interested in gaining a better appraisal of the applications side of the (...)
  14. Social Robots: Things or Agents?Morana Alač - 2016 - AI and Society 31 (4):519-535.
  15. Index of Authors of Volume 8.B. Aldag, G. Antoniou, T. Aoto, P. Blackburn, K. Britz, M. Brown, A. Bundy, R. Cox, M. De Rijke & S. Demri - 1999 - Journal of Logic, Language, and Information 8 (485):485.
  16. Index of Authors of Volume 14.N. Alechina, A. Altman, V. Becher, G. A. Bodanza, T. Braüner, A. Branco, P. Buitelaar, J. Cantwell, H. De Nivelle & S. Degeilh - 2005 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 14 (4):489.
  17. Answer Set Programming on Expert Feedback to Populate and Extend.Colin Allen - unknown
    dynamic ontologies must be inferred and populated in part from the reference corpora themselves, but ontological rela-.
  18. Who Shapes the Future?: Problem Framings and the Development of Handheld Computers.Jonathan P. Allen - 1998 - Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 28 (2):3-8.
  19. A Constructionist Philosophy of Logic.Patrick Allo - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-20.
    This paper develops and refines the suggestion that logical systems are conceptual artefacts that are the outcome of a design-process by exploring how a constructionist epistemology and meta-philosophy can be integrated within the philosophy of logic.
  20. Donald W. Loveland, Richard E. Hodel, and S. G. Sterrett: Three Views of Logic: Mathematics, Philosophy and Computer Science. [REVIEW]Patrick Allo - 2015 - Minds and Machines 25 (3):291-296.
  21. Artificial Intelligence and Musical Composition: How Can Intelligent Computers Help Compose Music.C. Ames - 1990 - In R. Kurzweil (ed.), The Age of Intelligent Machines. MIT Press.
  22. Interactive Fiction: Artificial Intelligence as a Mode of Sign Production.Peter Bøgh Andersen & Berit Holmqvist - 1989 - AI and Society 4 (4):291-313.
    Interactive media need their own idioms that exploit the characteristics of the computer based sign. The fact that the reader can physically influence the course of events in the system changes the author's role, since he no longer creates a linear text but anarrative space that the reader can use to generate stories. Although stories are not simulations of the real world, they must still contain recognizable parts where everyday constraints of time and space hold. AI-techniques can be used to (...)
  23. Recognition: A Study in the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence.Alan Ross Anderson & Kenneth M. Sayre - 1965 - Philosophical Quarterly 16 (65):387.
  24. A Self-Help Guide for Autonomous Systems.Michael Anderson - manuscript
    When things go badly, we notice that something is amiss, figure out what went wrong and why, and attempt to repair the problem. Artificial systems depend on their human designers to program in responses to every eventuality and therefore typically don’t even notice when things go wrong, following their programming over the proverbial, and in some cases literal, cliff. This article describes our work on the Meta-Cognitive Loop, a domain-general approach to giving artificial systems the ability to notice, assess, and (...)
  25. Home Projects People Publications Links.Michael L. Anderson - unknown
    However, there has also been growing interest in trying to create, and investigate the potential benefits of, intelligent systems which are themselves metacognitive. It is thought that systems that monitor themselves, and proactively respond to problems, can perform better, for longer, with less need for (expensive) human intervention. Thus has IBM widely publicized their "autonomic computing" initiative, aimed at developing computers which are (in their words) self-aware, selfconfiguring, self-optimizing, self-healing, self-protecting, and self-adapting. More ambitiously, it is hypothesized that metacognitive awareness (...)
  26. Context and Background. Dreyfus and Cognitive Science. Andler - 2000 - In W. Wrathall (ed.), Heidegger, Coping and Cognitive Science, Cambridge.
    In Hubert Dreyfus’s critique of artificial intelligence1, considerable importance is given to the matter of context –used here as a blanket term covering an immense and possibly heterogeneous phenomenon, which includes situation, background, circumstances, occasion and possibly more. Perhaps the best way to point to context in this most general sense is to proceed dialectically, and take as a first approximation context to be whatever is revealed as an obstacle whenever one attempts to account for mental dynamics on the formal (...)
  27. Evolution and Dynamics of Node-Weighted Networks for Cellular Automata Computation.A. Andreica & C. Chira - 2015 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 23 (3):400-409.
  28. How to Play the Flute: A Commentary on Dreyfus's “Intelligence Without Representation”. [REVIEW]Louise M. Antony - 2002 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 1 (4):395-401.
  29. On the Proper Treatment of the Connection Between Connectionism and Symbolism.Louise Antony & Joseph Levine - 1988 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1):23.
  30. Facing the Swarm: Encountering a Non-Human War Machine.John Appleby - 1998 - Pli 7:143-154.
  31. Joëlle Proust: The Philosophy of Metacognition: Mental Agency and Self-Awareness.Santiago Arango-Muñoz - 2015 - Minds and Machines 25 (3):297-300.
  32. Coherence: Insights From Philosophy, Jurisprudence and Artificial Intelligence.Michał Araszkiewicz & Jaromir Savelka (eds.) - 2013 - Springer.
  33. Many Levels: More Than One is Algorithmic.Michael A. Arbib - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):478.
  34. Of Schemas, Neural Nets, and Rana Computatrix.Michael A. Arbib - 1987 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):451.
  35. Neurolinguistics Must Be Computational.Michael A. Arbib & David Caplan - 1979 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2 (3):449-460.
  36. Emotions: From Brain to Robot.Michael A. Arbib & Jean-Marc Fellous - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (12):554-561.
  37. Racing to the Precipice: A Model of Artificial Intelligence Development.Stuart Armstrong, Nick Bostrom & Carl Shulman - forthcoming - AI and Society.
  38. Inner Speech Generation in a Video Game Non-Player Character: From Explanation to Self?Raúl Arrabales - 2012 - International Journal of Machine Consciousness 4 (2):367-381.
  39. Information and the Internet: An Analysis From the Perspective of the Science of the Artificial.Arrojo Maria Jose - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-24.
    This paper provides a novel philosophical approach to the role of information on the internet. The link information-internet is analyzed from the perspective of the sciences of the artificial, to highlight aspects of this field that Herbert Simon did not consider. The analysis follows three steps: the study of the development of Artificial Intelligence as the support of internet for communication processes. This analysis is made to clarify the new communicative designs. The role creativity in the new communication designs is (...)
  40. Hans Moravec, Robot. Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1999, Ix + 227 Pp., $25.00 , ISBN 0-19-511630-5. [REVIEW]Peter Asaro - 2004 - Minds and Machines 11 (1):143-147.
  41. Induction, Prediction, and Decision-Making in Cybernetic Systems.W. Ross Ashby - 1963 - In Henry Ely Kyburg & Ernest Nagel (eds.), Induction: Some Current Issues. Middletown, Conn., Wesleyan University Press. pp. 55--66.
  42. Clarifying the Interaction Between Ideas and Architectural Works in the Achaemenid Era.Nasim Ashrafi & Mohammad Naghizadeh - forthcoming - AI and Society.
  43. The Artificiality of Computer Models.Margaret Atherton - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (1):100.
  44. Artificial Intelligence and Natural Man.Martin Atkinson & Margaret A. Boden - 1979 - Philosophical Quarterly 29 (116):278.
  45. The Computer Revolution in Philosophy.Martin Atkinson & Aaron Sloman - 1980 - Philosophical Quarterly 30 (119):178.
  46. The 'Virtual Hand' of Jihad.Scott Atran - unknown
    The presidential commission on WMDs and the 9/11 commission have condemned the status quo mentality of the intelligence community, which they see as being preoccupied with today's "current operations" and tactical requirements, and inattentive to tomorrow's far-ranging problems and strategic solutions. Both commissions call for steps to improve analysis and encourage diversity, including routine critiques of finished intelligence and alternative assessments by outside experts. But the overriding emphasis in both commissions' reports is on further vertically integrating intelligence collection, analysis, and (...)
  47. Discovery-Led Refinement in E-Discovery Investigations: Sensemaking, Cognitive Ergonomics and System Design. [REVIEW]Simon Attfield & Ann Blandford - 2010 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (4):387-412.
    Given the very large numbers of documents involved in e-discovery investigations, lawyers face a considerable challenge of collaborative sensemaking. We report findings from three workplace studies which looked at different aspects of how this challenge was met. From a sociotechnical perspective, the studies aimed to understand how investigators collectively and individually worked with information to support sensemaking and decision making. Here, we focus on discovery-led refinement; specifically, how engaging with the materials of the investigations led to discoveries that supported refinement (...)
  48. Models of Herbert A. Simon.Mie Augier - 2000 - Perspectives on Science 8 (4):407-443.
    : The work of Herbert A. Simon has drawn increasing attention from modern scholars who argue that Simon's work changed during the Cold War. This is due to the fact that Simon seemingly changed the substance of his research in the 1950s. This paper argues that Simon did not change in any significant way, but was lead by his interest in decision making and rationality into areas of economics, political science, sociology, psychology, organization theory, and computer science. He used elements (...)
  49. Logic for Programming, Artificial Intelligence, and Reasoning 9th International Conference, Lpar 2002, Tbilisi, Georgia, October 14-18, 2002 : Proceedings. [REVIEW]Matthias Baaz & A. Voronkov - 2002
  50. Heidegger on Technology and Gelassenheit: Wabi-Sabi and the Art of Verfallenheit.Babette Babich - 2017 - AI and Society 32 (2):157-166.
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