Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence

Edited by Eric Dietrich (State University of New York at Binghamton)
Assistant editor: Michelle Thomas (University of Western Ontario)
About this topic
Summary

The philosophy of artificial intelligence is a collection of issues primarily concerned with whether or not AI is possible -- with whether or not it is possible to build an intelligent thinking machine.  Also of concern is whether humans and other animals are best thought of as machines (computational robots, say) themselves. The most important of the "whether-possible" problems lie at the intersection of theories of the semantic contents of thought and the nature of computation. A second suite of problems surrounds the nature of rationality. A third suite revolves around the seeming “transcendent” reasoning powers of the human mind. These problems derive from Kurt Gödel's famous Incompleteness Theorem.  A fourth collection of problems concerns the architecture of an intelligent machine.  Should a thinking computer use discrete or continuous modes of computing and representing, is having a body necessary, and is being conscious necessary.  This takes us to the final set of questions. Can a computer be conscious?  Can a computer have a moral sense? Would we have duties to thinking computers, to robots?  For example, is it moral for humans to even attempt to build an intelligent machine?  If we did build such a machine, would turning it off be the equivalent of murder?  If we had a race of such machines, would it be immoral to force them to work for us?

Key works Probably the most important attack on whether AI is possible is John Searle's famous Chinese Room Argument: Searle 1980.  This attack focuses on the semantic aspects (mental semantics) of thoughts, thinking, and computing.   For some replies to this argument, see the same 1980 journal issue as Searle's original paper.  For the problem of the nature of rationality, see Pylyshyn 1987.  An especially strong attack on AI from this angle is Jerry Fodor's work on the frame problem: Fodor 1987.  On the frame problem in general, see McCarthy & Hayes 1969.  For some replies to Fodor and advances on the frame problem, see Ford & Pylyshyn 1996.  For the transcendent reasoning issue, a central and important paper is Hilary Putnam's Putnam 1960.  This paper is arguably the source for the computational turn in 1960s-70s philosophy of mind.  For architecture-of-mind issues, see, for starters: M. Spivey's The Contintuity of Mind, Oxford, which argues against the notion of discrete representations. See also, Gelder & Port 1995.  For an argument for discrete representations, see, Dietrich & Markman 2003.  For an argument that the mind's boundaries do not end at the body's boundaries, see, Clark & Chalmers 1998.  For a statement of and argument for computationalism -- the thesis that the mind is a kind of computer -- see Shimon Edelman's excellent book Edelman 2008. See also Chapter 9 of Chalmers's book Chalmers 1996.
Introductions Chinese Room Argument: Searle 1980. Frame problem: Fodor 1987, Computationalism and Godelian style refutation: Putnam 1960. Architecture: M. Spivey's The Contintuity of Mind, Oxford and Shimon Edelman's Edelman 2008. Ethical issues: Anderson & Anderson 2011 and Müller 2020.  Conscious computers: Chalmers 2011.
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  1. What the digital world leaves behind: reiterated analogue traces in Mexican media art.David M. J. Wood - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-10.
    How might experimental media art help theorise what falls by the wayside in the digital public sphere? Working in the years immediately following the launch of YouTube in 2005, some media artists centred their creative praxis towards the end of that decade upon rescuing, revalorising, and placing back into digital circulation audiovisual media formats and technologies that appeared aged or obsolete. Although there may be a degree of nostalgia behind such practices, these artworks articulate a cogent critique of the drive (...)
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  2. Techno-Telepathy & Silent Subvocal Speech-Recognition Robotics.Virgil W. Brower - 2021 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 10 (1):232-257.
    The primary focus of this project is the silent and subvocal speech-recognition interface unveiled in 2018 as an ambulatory device wearable on the neck that detects a myoelectrical signature by electrodes worn on the surface of the face, throat, and neck. These emerge from an alleged “intending to speak” by the wearer silently-saying-something-to-oneself. This inner voice is believed to occur while one reads in silence or mentally talks to oneself. The artifice does not require spoken sounds, opening the mouth, or (...)
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  3. Ethics as a Service: A Pragmatic Operationalisation of AI Ethics.Jessica Morley, Anat Elhalal, Francesca Garcia, Libby Kinsey, Jakob Mökander & Luciano Floridi - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-18.
    As the range of potential uses for Artificial Intelligence, in particular machine learning, has increased, so has awareness of the associated ethical issues. This increased awareness has led to the realisation that existing legislation and regulation provides insufficient protection to individuals, groups, society, and the environment from AI harms. In response to this realisation, there has been a proliferation of principle-based ethics codes, guidelines and frameworks. However, it has become increasingly clear that a significant gap exists between the theory of (...)
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  4. Do Computers "Have Syntax, But No Semantics"?Jaroslav Peregrin - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-17.
    The heyday of discussions initiated by Searle's claim that computers have syntax, but no semantics has now past, yet philosophers and scientists still tend to frame their views on artificial intelligence in terms of syntax and semantics. In this paper I do not intend to take part in these discussions; my aim is more fundamental, viz. to ask what claims about syntax and semantics in this context can mean in the first place. And I argue that their sense is so (...)
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  5. Introduction: special issue—critical robotics research.Sofia Serholt, Sara Ljungblad & Niamh Ní Bhroin - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-7.
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  6. Moving beyond the mirror: relational and performative meaning making in human–robot communication.Petra Gemeinboeck & Rob Saunders - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-15.
    Current research in human–robot interaction often focuses on rendering communication between humans and robots more ‘natural’ by designing machines that appear and behave humanlike. Communication, in this human-centric approach, is often understood as a process of successfully transmitting information in the form of predefined messages and gestures. This article introduces an alternative arts-led, movement-centric approach, which embraces the differences of machinelike robotic artefacts and, instead, investigates how meaning is dynamically enacted in the encounter of humans and machines. Our design approach (...)
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  7. Ethics-based auditing to develop trustworthy AI.Jakob Mökander & Luciano Floridi - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-5.
    A series of recent developments points towards auditing as a promising mechanism to bridge the gap between principles and practice in AI ethics. Building on ongoing discussions concerning ethics-based auditing, we offer three contributions. First, we argue that ethics-based auditing can improve the quality of decision making, increase user satisfaction, unlock growth potential, enable law-making, and relieve human suffering. Second, we highlight current best practices to support the design and implementation of ethics-based auditing: To be feasible and effective, ethics-based auditing (...)
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  8. The Missing Ingredient in the Case for Regulating Big Tech.Bartlomiej Chomanski - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-19.
    Having been involved in a slew of recent scandals, many of the world’s largest technology companies embarked on devising numerous codes of ethics, intended to promote improved standards in the conduct of their business. These efforts have attracted largely critical interdisciplinary academic attention. The critics have identified the voluntary character of the industry ethics codes as among the main obstacles to their efficacy. This is because individual industry leaders and employees, flawed human beings that they are, cannot be relied on (...)
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  9. Will Big Data and personalized medicine do the gender dimension justice?Antonio Carnevale, Emanuela A. Tangari, Andrea Iannone & Elena Sartini - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    Over the last decade, humans have produced each year as much data as were produced throughout the entire history of humankind. These data, in quantities that exceed current analytical capabilities, have been described as “the new oil,” an incomparable source of value. This is true for healthcare, as well. Conducting analyses of large, diverse, medical datasets promises the detection of previously unnoticed clinical correlations and new diagnostic or even therapeutic possibilities. However, using Big Data poses several problems, especially in terms (...)
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  10. Eden in Iraq: a wastewater design project as bio-art—a confluence of nature and culture, design and ecology, in Southern Iraq marshes.Meridel Rubenstein & Peer Sathikh - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-12.
    Eden In Iraq is an environmental design and water remediation project in the marshes of southern Iraq using design and wastewater as bio-art, to create a restorative garden for education, cultural memory, and contemplation. Earmarked for a 20,000 m2 site at Al Manar in the marshes between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, near a probable site of the historic Garden of Eden, Eden in Iraq is a project that brings, art, design, and technology together with culture and history. Drawing on (...)
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  11. Excavating AI: the politics of images in machine learning training sets.Kate Crawford & Trevor Paglen - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-12.
    By looking at the politics of classification within machine learning systems, this article demonstrates why the automated interpretation of images is an inherently social and political project. We begin by asking what work images do in computer vision systems, and what is meant by the claim that computers can “recognize” an image? Next, we look at the method for introducing images into computer systems and look at how taxonomies order the foundational concepts that will determine how a system interprets the (...)
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  12. Discourse analysis of academic debate of ethics for AGI.Ross Graham - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    Artificial general intelligence is a greatly anticipated technology with non-trivial existential risks, defined as machine intelligence with competence as great/greater than humans. To date, social scientists have dedicated little effort to the ethics of AGI or AGI researchers. This paper employs inductive discourse analysis of the academic literature of two intellectual groups writing on the ethics of AGI—applied and/or ‘basic’ scientific disciplines henceforth referred to as technicians, and philosophy-adjacent disciplines henceforth referred to as PADs. These groups agree that AGI ethics (...)
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  13. Artificial intelligence in marketing: friend or foe of sustainable consumption?Erik Hermann - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-2.
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  14. Algorithmic abstractions of ‘fashion identity’ and the role of privacy with regard to algorithmic personalisation systems in the fashion domain.Daria Onitiu - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-10.
    This paper delves into the nuances of ‘fashion’ in recommender systems and social media analytics, which shape and define an individual’s perception and self-relationality. Its aim is twofold: first, it supports a different perspective on privacy that focuses on the individual’s process of identity construction considering the social and personal aspects of ‘fashion’. Second, it underlines the limitations of computational models in capturing the diverse meaning of ‘fashion’, whereby the algorithmic prediction of user preferences is based on individual conscious and (...)
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  15. Towards World Identification in Description Logics.Farshad Badie - forthcoming - Logical Investigations.
    Logical analysis of the applicability of nominals (which are introduced by hybrid logic) in the formal descriptions of the world (within modern knowledge representation and semantics-based systems) is very important because nominals, as second sorts of propositional symbols, can support logical identification of the described world at specific [temporal and/or spacial] states. This paper will focus on answering the philosophical-logical question of ‘how a fundamental world description in description logic (DL) and a nominal can be related to each other?’. Based (...)
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  16. Pasquale, Frank. New Laws of Robotics: Defending Human Expertise in the Age of AI. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2020.Daryl Li - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-2.
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  17. The Klein bottle of digital identity.Kimberly Cass - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-2.
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  18. What overarching ethical principle should a superintelligent AI follow?Atle Ottesen Søvik - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    What is the best overarching ethical principle to give a possible future superintelligent machine, given that we do not know what the best ethics are today or in the future? Eliezer Yudkowsky has suggested that a superintelligent AI should have as its goal to carry out the coherent extrapolated volition of humanity, the most coherent way of combining human goals. The article discusses some problems with this proposal and some alternatives suggested by Nick Bostrom. A slightly different proposal is then (...)
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  19. Intelligent inspection robotics: an open innovation project.Bahadur Ibrahimov - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-10.
    According to the World Bank review, National Oil Companies control approximately 90% of the world’s oil reserves and 75% of production and many major oil and gas infrastructure systems. However, NOCs fall behind many smaller companies in terms of innovation. The reason is the closed nature of their business, which constrains innovations. It has been suggested that this problem can be solved by the application of an “Open Innovation” paradigm. The concepts of Open Innovation suggest firms who would like to (...)
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  20. In principle obstacles for empathic AI: why we can’t replace human empathy in healthcare.Carlos Montemayor, Jodi Halpern & Abrol Fairweather - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-7.
    What are the limits of the use of artificial intelligence in the relational aspects of medical and nursing care? There has been a lot of recent work and applications showing the promise and efficiency of AI in clinical medicine, both at the research and treatment levels. Many of the obstacles discussed in the literature are technical in character, regarding how to improve and optimize current practices in clinical medicine and also how to develop better data bases for optimal parameter adjustments (...)
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  21. Correction to: Epistemic practices in Bio Art.Suzanne Anker - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-1.
    A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-021-01233-w.
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  22. Moral Difference Between Humans and Robots: Paternalism and Human-Relative Reason.Tsung-Hsing Ho - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    According to some philosophers, if moral agency is understood in behaviourist terms, robots could become moral agents that are as good as or even better than humans. Given the behaviourist conception, it is natural to think that there is no interesting moral difference between robots and humans in terms of moral agency. However, such moral differences exist: based on Strawson’s account of participant reactive attitude and Scanlon’s relational account of blame, I argue that a distinct kind of reason available to (...)
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  23. Varieties of Artifacts: Embodied, Perceptual, Cognitive, and Affective.Richard Heersmink - 2021 - Topics in Cognitive Science:1-24.
    The primary goal of this essay is to provide a comprehensive overview and analysis of the various relations between material artifacts and the embodied mind. A secondary goal of this essay is to identify some of the trends in the design and use of artifacts. First, based on their functional properties, I identify four categories of artifacts co-opted by the embodied mind, namely (1) embodied artifacts, (2) perceptual artifacts, (3) cognitive artifacts, and (4) affective artifacts. These categories can overlap and (...)
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  24. Entropies and the Anthropocene crisis.Maël Montévil - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-21.
    The Anthropocene crisis is frequently described as the rarefaction of resources or resources per capita. However, both energy and minerals correspond to fundamentally conserved quantities from the perspective of physics. A specific concept is required to understand the rarefaction of available resources. This concept, entropy, pertains to energy and matter configurations and not just to their sheer amount. However, the physics concept of entropy is insufficient to understand biological and social organizations. Biological phenomena display both historicity and systemic properties. A (...)
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  25. AI and social theory.Jakob Mökander & Ralph Schroeder - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-15.
    In this paper, we sketch a programme for AI-driven social theory. We begin by defining what we mean by artificial intelligence in this context. We then lay out our specification for how AI-based models can draw on the growing availability of digital data to help test the validity of different social theories based on their predictive power. In doing so, we use the work of Randall Collins and his state breakdown model to exemplify that, already today, AI-based models can help (...)
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  26. On the Hermeneutics of Screen Time.Jesper Aagaard, Emma Steninge & Yibin Zhang - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-9.
    Screen time has become a hot button issue in psychology with researchers fiercely debating its mental effects. If we want to understand the psychological dynamics of technology use, however, a numerical conceptualization of screen time will lead us to gloss over crucial distinctions. To make this point, the present article takes a hermeneutic approach to a negative form of screen time known as ‘phubbing’, which is the practice of snubbing conversational partners in favor of one’s phone. Using interview data, it (...)
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  27. Social Robots and the Risks to Reciprocity.Aimee van Wynsberghe - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-7.
    A growing body of research can be found in which roboticists are designing for reciprocity as a key construct for successful human–robot interaction. Given the centrality of reciprocity as a component for our moral lives, this paper confronts the possibility of what things would look like if the benchmark to achieve perceived reciprocity were accomplished. Through an analysis of the value of reciprocity from the care ethics tradition the richness of reciprocity as an inherent value is revealed: on the micro-level, (...)
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  28. Artificial Intelligence and Global Power Structure: Understanding Through Luhmann's Systems Theory.Arun Teja Polcumpally - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-17.
    This research attempts to construct a second order observation model in understanding the significance of Artificial intelligence in changing the global power structure. Because of the inevitable ubiquity of AI in the world societies’ near future, it impacts all the sections of society triggering socio-technical iterative developments. Its horizontal impact and states’ race to become leader in the AI world asks for a vivid understanding of its impact on the international system. To understand the latter, Triple Helix model along with (...)
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  29. Correction To: The AI Doctor Will See You Now: Assessing the Framing of AI in News Coverage.Mercedes Bunz & Marco Braghieri - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-1.
    A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-021-01218-9.
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  30. Service Robots for Affective Labor: A Sociology of Labor Perspective.Anna Dobrosovestnova, Glenda Hannibal & Tim Reinboth - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    Profit-oriented service sectors such as tourism, hospitality, and entertainment are increasingly looking at how professional service robots can be integrated into the workplace to perform socio-cognitive tasks that were previously reserved for humans. This is a work in which social and labor sciences recognize the principle role of emotions. However, the models and narratives of emotions that drive research, design, and deployment of service robots in human–robot interaction differ considerably from how emotions are framed in the sociology of labor and (...)
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  31. Can Communication with Social Robots Influence How Children Develop Empathy? Best-Evidence Synthesis.Ekaterina Pashevich - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    Social robots are gradually entering children’s lives in a period when children learn about social relationships and exercise prosocial behaviors with parents, peers, and teachers. Designed for long-term emotional engagement and to take the roles of friends, teachers, and babysitters, such robots have the potential to influence how children develop empathy. This article presents a review of the literature in the fields of human–robot interaction, psychology, neuropsychology, and roboethics, discussing the potential impact of communication with social robots on children’s social (...)
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  32. A Critical Analysis of the Representations of Older Adults in the Field of Human–Robot Interaction.Dafna Burema - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    This paper argues that there is a need to critically assess bias in the representations of older adults in the field of Human–Robot Interaction. This need stems from the recognition that technology development is a socially constructed process that has the potential to reinforce problematic understandings of older adults. Based on a qualitative content analysis of 96 academic publications, this paper indicates that older adults are represented as; frail by default, independent by effort; silent and technologically illiterate; burdensome; and problematic (...)
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  33. Should My Robot Know What's Best for Me? Human–Robot Interaction Between User Experience and Ethical Design.Nora Fronemann, Kathrin Pollmann & Wulf Loh - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-17.
    To integrate social robots in real-life contexts, it is crucial that they are accepted by the users. Acceptance is not only related to the functionality of the robot but also strongly depends on how the user experiences the interaction. Established design principles from usability and user experience research can be applied to the realm of human–robot interaction, to design robot behavior for the comfort and well-being of the user. Focusing the design on these aspects alone, however, comes with certain ethical (...)
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  34. Robots Beyond Science Fiction: Mutual Learning in Human–Robot Interaction on the Way to Participatory Approaches.Astrid Weiss & Katta Spiel - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-15.
    Putting laypeople in an active role as direct expert contributors in the design of service robots becomes more and more prominent in the research fields of human–robot interaction and social robotics. Currently, though, HRI is caught in a dilemma of how to create meaningful service robots for human social environments, combining expectations shaped by popular media with technology readiness. We recapitulate traditional stakeholder involvement, including two cases in which new intelligent robots were conceptualized and realized for close interaction with humans. (...)
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  35. Michael Polányi’s Fiduciary Program Against Fake News and Deepfake in the Digital Age.Zsolt Ziegler - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-9.
    This paper argues that Michael Polányi’s account of how science, as an institution, establishes knowledge can provide a structure for a future institution capable of countering misinformation, or fake news, and deepfakes. I argue that only an institutional approach can adequately take up the challenge against the corresponding institution of fake news. The fact of filtering news and information may be bothering. It is the threat of censorship and free speech limitation. Instead, I propose that we should indicate reliable information (...)
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  36. Prolegomena to Social Studies of Digital Innovation.Jadranka Švarc - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    The rise of the digital economy, in terms of digital innovation, requires the reconsideration of the notion of innovation to clarify its conceptualisation in a post–industrial digital economy. The current science, technology, innovation, and social studies of innovation are lacking conceptual, theoretical, and analytical grounds for the exploration of DI, despite their pervasive impact on our lives. The aim of this study is to provide a conceptual framework for the exploration of DI, driven by growing recognition of the fact that (...)
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  37. The wizard and I: How transparent teleoperation and self-description (do not) affect children’s robot perceptions and child-robot relationship formation.Caroline L. Van Straten, Jochen Peter, Rinaldo Kühne & Alex Barco - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-17.
    It has been well documented that children perceive robots as social, mental, and moral others. Studies on child-robot interaction may encourage this perception of robots, first, by using a Wizard of Oz set-up and, second, by having robots engage in self-description. However, much remains unknown about the effects of transparent teleoperation and self-description on children’s perception of, and relationship formation with a robot. To address this research gap initially, we conducted an experimental study with a 2 × 2 between-subject design (...)
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  38. Empathic responses and moral status for social robots: an argument in favor of robot patienthood based on K. E. Løgstrup.Simon N. Balle - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    Empirical research on human–robot interaction has demonstrated how humans tend to react to social robots with empathic responses and moral behavior. How should we ethically evaluate such responses to robots? Are people wrong to treat non-sentient artefacts as moral patients since this rests on anthropomorphism and ‘over-identification’ —or correct since spontaneous moral intuition and behavior toward nonhumans is indicative for moral patienthood, such that social robots become our ‘Others’?. In this research paper, I weave extant HRI studies that demonstrate empathic (...)
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  39. Writing in water: dense responsive media in place of relational interfaces.Xin Wei Sha - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-9.
    In this essay we explore extensive modes of enactive engagement among humans, physical and computational media richer than the modes represented by classical notions of interaction and relation. We make use of a radically material and a potential-theoretic account of event to re-conceive ad hoc, non-pre-schematized activity in responsive environments. We can regard such activity as sense-making via dehomogenization of material that co-articulates subjects and objects.
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  40. What is the message of the robot medium? Considering media ecology and mobilities in critical robotics research.Julia M. Hildebrand - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    This article makes the case for including frameworks of media ecology and mobilities research in the shaping of critical robotics research for a human-centered and holistic lens onto robot technologies. The two meta-disciplines, which align in their attention to relational processes of communication and movement, provide useful tools for critically exploring emerging human–robot dimensions and dynamics. Media ecology approaches human-made technologies as media that can shape the way we think, feel, and act. Relatedly, mobilities research highlights various kinds of influential (...)
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  41. The wiseman in the mirror.Karl Kristian Larsson - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-2.
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  42. “Magic through many minor measures”: How introducing a flowline production mode in six steps enables journalist team autonomy in local news organizations.Aina Landsverk Hagen, Ingrid M. Tolstad & Arne Lindseth Bygdås - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-15.
    While facing cuts, downsizing and revenue losses, media organizations experience paradoxical demands in being organized for print or linear production with daily deadlines and simultaneously striving to be ‘digital first’ and produce and publish stories online on a continuous basis throughout the day. In this paper, we describe efforts applied when introducing the metaphor flowline in a medium-sized newspaper organization in Norway with the aim of aligning their production and publishing processes to readers’ consumption of online news. Both the production (...)
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  43. Political machines: a framework for studying politics in social machines.Orestis Papakyriakopoulos - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-18.
    In the age of ubiquitous computing and artificially intelligent applications, social machines serves as a powerful framework for understanding and interpreting interactions in socio-algorithmic ecosystems. Although researchers have largely used it to analyze the interactions of individuals and algorithms, limited attempts have been made to investigate the politics in social machines. In this study, I claim that social machines are per se political machines, and introduce a five-point framework for classifying influence processes in socio-algorithmic ecosystems. By drawing from scholars from (...)
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  44. Systematic Description of Functional Knowledge Based on Functional Ontologies and Its Use for Supporting Design of Functional Structuresオントロジーに基づく機能的知識の体系的記述とその機能構造設計支援における利用.Yoshinobu Kitamura, Toshinobu Kasai, Mariko Yoshikawa, Masaru Takahashi, Kouji Kozaki & Riichiro Mizoguchi - 2002 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 17:73-84.
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  45. A critique of robotics in health care.Arne Maibaum, Andreas Bischof, Jannis Hergesell & Benjamin Lipp - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    When the social relevance of robotic applications is addressed today, the use of assistive technology in care settings is almost always the first example. So-called care robots are presented as a solution to the nursing crisis, despite doubts about their technological readiness and the lack of concrete usage scenarios in everyday nursing practice. We inquire into this interconnection of social robotics and care. We show how both are made available for each other in three arenas: innovation policy, care organization, and (...)
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  46. Robotification & ethical cleansing.Marco Nørskov - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-17.
    Robotics is currently not only a cutting-edge research area, but is potentially disruptive to all domains of our lives—for better and worse. While legislation is struggling to keep pace with the development of these new artifacts, our intellectual limitations and physical laws seem to present the only hard demarcation lines, when it comes to state-of-the-art R&D. To better understand the possible implications, the paper at hand critically investigates underlying processes and structures of robotics in the context of Heidegger’s and Nishitani’s (...)
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  47. Citizenship as the Exception to the Rule: An Addendum.Tyler L. Jaynes - forthcoming - AI and Society.
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  48. The Ethical Application of Biometric Facial Recognition Technology.Marcus Smith & Seumas Miller - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-9.
    Biometric facial recognition is an artificial intelligence technology involving the automated comparison of facial features, used by law enforcement to identify unknown suspects from photographs and closed circuit television. Its capability is expanding rapidly in association with artificial intelligence and has great potential to solve crime. However, it also carries significant privacy and other ethical implications that require law and regulation. This article examines the rise of biometric facial recognition, current applications and legal developments, and conducts an ethical analysis of (...)
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  49. The Future of Artificial Intelligence, Posthumanism and the Inflection of Pixley Isaka Seme’s African Humanism.Malesela John Lamola - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    Increasingly, innovation in artificial intelligence technologies portends the re-conceptualization of human existentiality along the paradigm of posthumanism. An exposition of this through a critical culturo-historical methodology uncloaks the Eurocentric genitive basis of the philosophical anthropology that underpins this technological posthumanism, as well as its dystopian possibilities. As a contribution to obviating the latter, an Africanist civilizational humanism proclaimed by Pixley ka Isaka Seme is proffered as a plausible alternative paradigm for humanity’s technological advancement. Seme, a pan-Africanist thinker of the early (...)
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  50. New Pythias of public administration: ambiguity and choice in AI systems as challenges for governance.Fernando Filgueiras - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-14.
    As public administrations adopt artificial intelligence, we see this transition has the potential to transform public service and public policies, by offering a rapid turnaround on decision making and service delivery. However, a recent series of criticisms have pointed to problematic aspects of mainstreaming AI systems in public administration, noting troubled outcomes in terms of justice and values. The argument supplied here is that any public administration adopting AI systems must consider and address ambiguities and uncertainties surrounding two key dimensions: (...)
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