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  1. added 2020-05-16
    A Part-Dependent Account of Biological Individuality: Why Holobionts Are Individuals and Ecosystems Simultaneously.Javier Suárez & Adrian Stencel - 2020 - Biological Reviews.
    Given one conception of biological individuality (evolutionary, physiological, etc.), can a holobiont – that is the host + its symbiotic (mutualistic, commensalist and parasitic) microbiome – be simultaneously a biological individual and an ecological community? Herein, we support this possibility by arguing that the notion of biological individuality is part‐dependent. In our account, the individuality of a biological ensemble should not only be determined by the conception of biological individuality in use, but also by the biological characteristics of the part (...)
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  2. added 2020-04-17
    Robust Realism for the Life Sciences.Markus Eronen - 2016 - Synthese 196 (6):2341-2354.
    Although scientific realism is the default position in the life sciences, philosophical accounts of realism are geared towards physics and run into trouble when applied to fields such as biology or neuroscience. In this paper, I formulate a new robustness-based version of entity realism, and show that it provides a plausible account of realism for the life sciences that is also continuous with scientific practice. It is based on the idea that if there are several independent ways of measuring, detecting (...)
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  3. added 2020-03-10
    Methodologies of Curiosity: Epistemology, Practice, and the Question of Animal Minds.Yogi Hale Hendlin - 2019 - Biosemiotics 12 (2):349-356.
    Umwelt theory has finally come of age. The paradigm-breaking power of Jakob vonUexküll’s technical term, after decades of inquiry by scholars such as Merleau-Ponty(1962) and Kauffman (1993) has become part of the vernacular of animal studies, psychology, sociology, and other scientific domains (Buchanan 2008; Lahti 2015;Stevens et al. 2018). The newfound fame of the Umwelt frame, however, is as much a boon to the field of biosemiotics as it is a burden, due to the usual serial misinterpretation and cooptation that (...)
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  4. added 2020-03-10
    Four Ways From Universal to Particular: How Chomsky's Language-Acquisition Faculty is Not Selectionist.David Ellerman - 2016 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 3 (26):193-207.
    Following the development of the selectionist theory of the immune system, there was an attempt to characterize many biological mechanisms as being "selectionist" as juxtaposed to "instructionist." But this broad definition would group Darwinian evolution, the immune system, embryonic development, and Chomsky's language-acquisition mechanism as all being "selectionist." Yet Chomsky's mechanism (and embryonic development) are significantly different from the selectionist mechanisms of biological evolution or the immune system. Surprisingly, there is a very abstract way using two dual mathematical logics to (...)
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  5. added 2020-03-10
    Sprache Und Kommunikation Als Zentrale Struktur- Und Organisationsprinzipien Belebter Natur.Guenther Witzany - 2002 - In Ludger Albers & Ottmar Leiß (eds.), Körper-Sprache-Weltbild. Stuttgart, Deutschland: Schattauer. pp. 87-96.
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  6. added 2020-02-19
    Glycemia Regulation: From Feedback Loops to Organizational Closure.Leonardo Bich, Matteo Mossio & Ana M. Soto - 2020 - Frontiers in Physiology 11.
    Endocrinologists apply the idea of feedback loops to explain how hormones regulate certain bodily functions such as glucose metabolism. In particular, feedback loops focus on the maintenance of the plasma concentrations of glucose within a narrow range. Here, we put forward a different, organicist perspective on the endocrine regulation of glycaemia, by relying on the pivotal concept of closure of constraints. From this perspective, biological systems are understood as organized ones, which means that they are constituted of a set of (...)
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  7. added 2020-02-12
    Concepts and Methods in Evolutionary Biology.J. Dupre - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (2):292-296.
    This book is a collection of essays by a leading philosopher of biology and spans his career over almost the last twenty years. Most of the topics that have been of concern to philosophers of biology in this period are touched on to some extent, and the collection of these essays in a convenient volume will certainly be welcomed by everyone working in this field. The essays are arranged chronologically, and divided into three sections. Although the chapters in the first (...)
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  8. added 2020-02-12
    The Biology of the Spirit.Y. H. Krikorian - 1956 - Journal of Philosophy 53 (16):502-506.
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  9. added 2020-02-11
    Philosophy of Experimental Biology.Jacob Stegenga - 2009 - Erkenntnis 71 (3):431-436.
    Philosophers have committed sins while studying science, it is said – philosophy of science focused on physics to the detriment of biology, reconstructed idealizations of scientific episodes rather than attending to historical details, and focused on theories and concepts to the detriment of experiments. Recent generations of philosophers of science have tried to atone for these sins, and by the 1980s the exculpation was in full swing. Marcel Weber’s Philosophy of Experimental Biology is a zenith mea culpa for philosophy of (...)
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  10. added 2020-02-11
    Man and Nature, Philosophical Issues in Biology.Jill Humphries - 1974 - Philosophy of Science 41 (1):92-94.
  11. added 2020-01-13
    Unifying the Essential Concepts of Biological Networks.Daniel Kostic, Claus Hilgetag & Marc Tittgemeyer (eds.) - forthcoming - Royal Society.
  12. added 2019-10-24
    Beyond Categorical Definitions of Life: A Data-Driven Approach to Assessing Lifeness.Christophe Malaterre & Jean-François Chartier - forthcoming - Synthese.
    The concept of “life” certainly is of some use to distinguish birds and beavers from water and stones. This pragmatic usefulness has led to its construal as a categorical predicate that can sift out living entities from non-living ones depending on their possessing specific properties—reproduction, metabolism, evolvability etc. In this paper, we argue against this binary construal of life. Using text-mining methods across over 30,000 scientific articles, we defend instead a degrees-of-life view and show how these methods can contribute to (...)
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  13. added 2019-10-22
    Analytic Philosophy for Biomedical Research: The Imperative of Applying Yesterday's Timeless Messages to Today's Impasses.Sepehr Ehsani - forthcoming - In P. Glauner & P. Plugmann (eds.), Innovative Technologies for Market Leadership - Investing in the Future. Springer.
    The mantra that "the best way to predict the future is to invent it" (attributed to the computer scientist Alan Kay) exemplifies some of the expectations from the technical and innovative sides of biomedical research at present. However, for technical advancements to make real impacts both on patient health and genuine scientific understanding, quite a number of lingering challenges facing the entire spectrum from protein biology all the way to randomized controlled trials should start to be overcome. The proposal in (...)
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  14. added 2019-09-18
    Understanding Multicellularity: The Functional Organization of the Intercellular Space.Leonardo Bich, Thomas Pradeu & Jean-Francois Moreau - 2019 - Frontiers in Physiology 10.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework to understand how multicellular systems realize functionally integrated physiological entities by organizing their intercellular space. From a perspective centered on physiology and integration, biological systems are often characterized as organized in such a way that they realize metabolic self-production and self-maintenance. The existence and activity of their components rely on the network they realize and on the continuous management of the exchange of matter and energy with their environment. One (...)
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  15. added 2019-09-13
    A Conceptualist View in the Metaphysics of Species.Ciro De Florio & Aldo Frigerio - 2019 - In Richard Davies (ed.), Natural and Artifactual Objects in Contemporary Metaphysics: Exercises in Analytic Ontology. pp. 121-139.
    The species concept is one of the central concepts in biological science. Although modern systematics speculates about the existence of a complex hierarchy of nested taxa, biological species are considered particularly important for the active role they play in evolution. However, neither theoretical biologists nor philosophers of biology have come to an agreement about what a species is. In this chapter, we address two questions pertaining to biological species: (1) are they individuals or universals? and (2) are they bona fide (...)
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  16. added 2019-08-08
    “Wrongful Life” Reloaded: Logical Empiricism’s Philosophy of Biology 1934-1936.Gereon Wolters - 2018 - Philosophia Scientiæ. Travaux d'Histoire Et de Philosophie des Sciences 22:233-255.
    Ce chapitre reprend, en l’enrichissant, un article antérieur sur la philosophie de la biologie de l’empirisme logique, en en examinant les thèses centrales telles qu’elles sont exprimées lors des rencontres de Prague, de Paris et de Copenhague, rencontres décisives pour le développement du mouvement et son rayonnement dans le monde occidental. Je montre que l’empirisme logique n’a pas contribué au développement de la philosophie de la biologie, comme il l’a fait pour celui de la philosophie de la physique ou des (...)
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  17. added 2019-07-29
    Is There 'Purpose' in Modern Biology.Andrew Robinson - 1972 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 46:167.
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  18. added 2019-07-19
    Sobre la polaridad simpatía-antipatía en la interpretación hipocrática de la phýsis humana.Ruy J. Henriquez Garrido - 2019 - Agora 38 (2).
    The purpose of this paper is studying the importance of the antithetical pair sympathy-antipathy, as an interpretive instrument of the human phýsis in the Hippocratic medical epistemology. His study aims to be a contribution to the understanding of the methods of inference developed by ancient medicine, in parallel to the demonstrative method.
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  19. added 2019-07-10
    Review of Jacob Klapwijk, Purpose in the Living World? Creation and Emergent Evolution[REVIEW]Christopher V. Mirus - 2009 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (11).
  20. added 2019-06-07
    Dennis R. Alexander and Ronald L. Numbers : Biology and Ideology: From Descartes to Dawkins.Massimo Pigliucci - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (2):405-409.
    Science has always strived for objectivity, for a ‘‘view from nowhere’’ that is not marred by ideology or personal preferences. That is a lofty ideal toward which perhaps it makes sense to strive, but it is hardly the reality. This collection of thirteen essays assembled by Denis R. Alexander and Ronald L. Numbers ought to give much pause to scientists and the public at large, though historians, sociologists and philosophers of science will hardly be surprised by the material covered here.
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  21. added 2019-06-06
    Philosophies of the Sciences: A Guide. [REVIEW]Thomas A. C. Reydon - 2011 - Acta Biotheoretica 59 (3-4):319-325.
    Fritz Allhoff: Philosophies of the Sciences: A Guide Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 319-325 DOI 10.1007/s10441-011-9129-x Authors Thomas A. C. Reydon, Institute of Philosophy & Center for Philosophy and Ethics of Science (ZEWW), Leibniz Universität Hannover, Im Moore 21, 30161 Hannover, Germany Journal Acta Biotheoretica Online ISSN 1572-8358 Print ISSN 0001-5342 Journal Volume Volume 59 Journal Issue Volume 59, Numbers 3-4.
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    The Philosophy of Biology: An Episodic History. [REVIEW]James M. Okapal - 2010 - Tradition and Discovery 37 (2):60-63.
    A review of Grene and Depew: Philosophy of Biology.
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    Ernst Mayr: What Makes Biology Unique?: Considerations on the Autonomy of a Scientific Discipline. [REVIEW]Andrew Hamilton - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (2):255-257.
  24. added 2019-06-06
    H. T. HUANG, Science and Civilisation in China. Volume 6: Biology and Biological Technology. Part V: Fermentations and Food Science. Joseph Needham: Science and Civilisation in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. Pp. Xviii+741. ISBN 0-521-65270-7. £95.00. [REVIEW]Donald Wagner - 2005 - British Journal for the History of Science 38 (1):103-104.
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  25. added 2019-06-06
    On Polanyi, Clayton, and Biology: Some Musings of a Recovering Reductionist.Martinez Hewlett - 2002 - Tradition and Discovery 29 (3):20-22.
    Michael Polanyi critiqued the then burgeoning field of molecular biology and the neo-Darwinian synthesis that has since come to characterize the structure of modern biology. He pointed out correctly that the reductionistic approach lacked explanatory power in the case of living systems. Philip Clayton addresses the importance of Polanyi’s thinking, even though it was not appreciated at the time it was presented. He argues, however, that while some aspects of Polanyi’s biological perspective are important in considering emergent phenomenon, other ideas (...)
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  26. added 2019-06-06
    Pediatric Anesthesia Monitoring with the Help of EEG and ECG.F. Carré, P. Pladys, E. Wodey, H. Gauvrit, G. Carrault & L. Senhadji - 2000 - Acta Biotheoretica 48 (3-4):289-302.
    This paper presents research regarding the monitoring of the brain and the adequacy of anesthesia during surgery. Particular variables are derived from EEG and ECG signals and are correlated to anesthetic gas concentration, in pediatric anesthesia. The methods used for parameter extraction are based on change detection theory and time-frequency representation. Preliminary results show that the expired anesthetic gas concentration modulates both the heart rate variability and the duration of the burst suppression. Monitors of the central nervous system and autonomic (...)
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  27. added 2019-06-06
    Kim Sterleny and Paul E. Griffiths, Sex and Death: An Introduction to Philosophy of Biology. [REVIEW]Valerie Hardcastle - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20 (3):227-228.
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    Helmut Müller-Sievers, Self-Generation: Biology, Philosophy, and Literature Around 1800. [REVIEW]Karen Detlefsen - 1998 - Philosophy in Review 18 (4):285-287.
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  29. added 2019-06-06
    Biology and Society: Reflections on Methodology. [REVIEW]Kim Sterelny - 1998 - Dialogue 37 (1):168-172.
    Kathleen Okruhlik argues that science is gendered. Suppose scientists act independently of ideology in evaluating theory against evidence. Even so, theory acceptance is always comparative; X is accepted because it is better than Y or Z with respect to the currently available evidence. But ideological assumptions play a role in the generation of theories. So gender plays a role in the construction of the alternatives between which scientists choose. Hence, the very content of science may be sexist. No doubt there (...)
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  30. added 2019-06-06
    Life Sciences Studies in the Philosophy of Biology: Reduction and Related Problems. Ed. By Francisco Jose Ayala and Theodosius Dobzhansky. London: Macmillan, 1972. Pp. Xix + 390. £12.00. [REVIEW]Roger Smith - 1976 - British Journal for the History of Science 9 (3):333-334.
  31. added 2019-06-06
    The Philosophy of Biology.Ronald Munson - 1974 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 5 (1):73-85.
  32. added 2019-06-06
    The Philosophy of Biology. [REVIEW]A. C. C. - 1974 - Review of Metaphysics 28 (2):355-356.
    Presupposing little knowledge of biology, this introductory work focuses on the question of "whether or not biology is a science like the sciences of physics and chemistry." In so doing, it attempts to unify various philosophical issues arising in biology; namely, the relationships among Mendelian, population and molecular genetics, the connection between evidence and conclusion in evolutionary theory, the definitional basis for taxonomy, and the epistemological status of teleology. In support of his claim that "evolutionists have the hypothetico-deductive model as (...)
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  33. added 2019-06-06
    The Evolution of Biology. By M. J. Sirks and Conway Zirkle. Pp. Vi + 376. New York: Ronald Press Company, 1964. $6.E. Underwood - 1966 - British Journal for the History of Science 3 (2):197-197.
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  34. added 2019-06-06
    Formalization of the Fundamental Concepts in Some Fields of Biology.Chr P. Raven - 1948 - Synthese 7 (1):93-99.
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  35. added 2019-06-06
    Frontiers of Modern Biology and Philosophy.Cornelius J. Connolly - 1930 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 6:32.
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  36. added 2019-06-06
    The Biological Basis of Individuality.Julian S. Huxley - 1926 - Journal of Philosophical Studies 1 (3):305-319.
    The problem of individuality, physical and mental, is one which obviously has great interest for philosophy. The unity and continuity of the ordinary human consciousness—the “ ego,” the “personality—give us the concrete standard by which we ordinarily judge other systems which have tended towards individuation. A comparative and evolutionary study of biological data, however, will provide us with many facts which throw a new light on the problem. They are often puzzling, but must be taken into account.
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  37. added 2019-06-06
    The Relation of Biology to Neo-Scholasticism.Alphonse M. Schwitalla - 1926 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 1:50.
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  38. added 2019-06-05
    Philosophy of Behavioral Biology.Kathryn S. Plaisance & Thomas A. C. Reydon (eds.) - 2011 - Springer.
    This volume provides a broad overview of issues in the philosophy of behavioral biology, covering four main themes: genetic, developmental, evolutionary, and neurobiological explanations of behavior. It is both interdisciplinary and empirically informed in its approach, addressing philosophical issues that arise from recent scientific findings in biological research on human and non-human animal behavior. Accordingly, it includes papers by professional philosophers and philosophers of science, as well as practicing scientists. Much of the work in this volume builds on presentations given (...)
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  39. added 2019-06-05
    Mohan Matthen and Christopher Stephens, Handbook of the Philosophy of Science: Philosophy of Biology. Amsterdam: North‐Holland , 618 Pp., $165. [REVIEW]Gregory Morgan - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (2):246-249.
  40. added 2019-06-05
    The Philosophy of Evolutionary Biology in Theory and Practice: Making Sense of Evolution: The Conceptual Foundations of Evolutionary Biology Massimo Pigliucci and Jonathan Kaplan Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2006.Alirio Rosales - 2007 - Biological Theory 2 (2):205-207.
  41. added 2019-06-05
    The Uncertainty of Philosophical Experiments: Philosophy of Experimental Biology Marcel Weber Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 2005 (358 Pp; $75.00 Hbk; ISBN 0521829453).Henning Schmidgen - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (4):434-435.
  42. added 2019-06-05
    The Coverage of Human Evolution in High School Biology Textbooks in the 20th Century and in Current State Science Standards.Gerald Skoog - 2005 - Science & Education 14 (3-5):395-422.
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  43. added 2019-06-05
    Philosophical Problems in Biology. Vincent E. Smith.Judith Wubnig - 1968 - Philosophy of Science 35 (3):300-301.
  44. added 2019-06-05
    Philosophy of Biology.T. A. Goudge & Vincent E. Smith - 1963 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 23 (3):457.
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  45. added 2019-05-28
    Physiological Anthropology. Edited by Albert Damon. Pp. Xiii + 367. Price £11.50 , £5.10.J. P. Garlick - 1977 - Journal of Biosocial Science 9 (3):378-380.
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  46. added 2019-04-08
    D avid L ivingstone S mith , How Biology Shapes Philosophy: New Foundations for Naturalism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, xiv + 351 pp., £78.99. [REVIEW]Shane N. Glackin - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (2):17.
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  47. added 2019-04-07
    Race and Reference.Adam Hochman - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):32.
    The biological race debate is at an impasse. Issues surrounding hereditarianism aside, there is little empirical disagreement left between race naturalists and anti-realists about biological race. The disagreement is now primarily semantic. This would seem to uniquely qualify philosophers to contribute to the biological race debate. However, philosophers of race are reluctant to focus on semantics, largely because of their worries about the ‘flight to reference’. In this paper, I show how philosophers can contribute to the debate without taking the (...)
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  48. added 2019-03-17
    Overcoming Disagreement: A Roadmap for Placebo Studies.Charlotte Blease & Marco Annoni - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):18.
    In the field of placebo studies residual disagreement about the terminology ‘placebo’ and ‘placebo effect’ still persists. We differentiate between the conceptualization of placebos in clinical trials; and placebo effects understood as a psychobiological phenomenon. With respect to the latter, we argue that a scientific ‘placebo paradigm’ has emerged, indicating that—at least among placebo scientists—there exists relatively stable consensus about how to conceive of placebo effects. We claim that existence of a placebo paradigm does not protect concepts from revision; nonetheless, (...)
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  49. added 2019-03-17
    Epidemiology Without Biology: False Paradigms, Unfounded Assumptions, and Specious Statistics in Radiation Science.Bill Sacks, Gregory Meyerson & Jeffry A. Siegel - 2016 - Biological Theory 11 (2):69-101.
    Radiation science is dominated by a paradigm based on an assumption without empirical foundation. Known as the linear no-threshold hypothesis, it holds that all ionizing radiation is harmful no matter how low the dose or dose rate. Epidemiological studies that claim to confirm LNT either neglect experimental and/or observational discoveries at the cellular, tissue, and organismal levels, or mention them only to distort or dismiss them. The appearance of validity in these studies rests on circular reasoning, cherry picking, faulty experimental (...)
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  50. added 2019-03-17
    A Piecewise Aggregation of Philosophers’ and Biologists’ Perspectives: William C. Wimsatt: Re-Engineering Philosophy for Limited Beings: Piecewise Approximations to Reality; Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 2007, 472 Pp., $65.50 Hbk, ISBN 978-0-674-01545-6.Werner Callebaut, Martin Schlumpp, Julia Lang, Christoph Frischer, Stephan Handschuh, Miles MacLeod & Isabella Sarto-Jackson - 2016 - Biological Theory 11 (1):1-10.
    Re-Engineering Philosophy for Limited Beings is about new approaches to many of the big topics in philosophy of science today, but with a very different take. To begin with, we are urged to reject the received Cartesian-Laplacean myths: Descartes’ certainty and Laplace’s computational omniscience. Instead, Wimsatt re-engineers a philosophy for human beings with all their cognitive limitations. His approaches find their starting point in the actual practices of scientists themselves, which he strongly identifies with engineering practices as the source of (...)
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