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  1. The Art of Conversation: Design Cybernetics and its Ethics.Claudia Westermann - forthcoming - Kybernetes.
    Purpose This paper aims to discuss ethical principles that are implicit in second-order cybernetics, with the aim of arriving at a better understanding of how second-order cybernetics frames living in a world with others. It further investigates implications for second-order cybernetics approaches to architectural design, i.e. the activity of designing frameworks for living. Design/methodology/approach The paper investigates the terminology in the second-order cybernetics literature with specific attention to terms that suggest that there are ethical principles at work. It further relates (...)
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  2. How Did Language Evolve? Some Reflections on the Language Parasite Debate.Tzu-wei Hung - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (4):214-223.
    The language parasite approach refers to the view that language, like a parasite, is an adaptive system that evolves to fit its human hosts. Supported by recent computer simulations, LPA proponents claim that the reason that humans can use languages with ease is not because we have evolved with genetically specified linguistic instincts but because languages have adapted to the preexisting brain structures of humans. This article examines the LPA. It argues that, while the LPA has advantages over its rival, (...)
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  3. Philosophy of life science.Jianhui Li - 2006 - Beijing Normal University Press.
    本书共分九章内容:第一章论述了生命科学哲学兴起的背景,区分了生命科学哲学研究中的两种理论倾向,指出了生命科学哲学研究的主要问题,最后介绍了国内外生命科学哲学研究的进展;第二章分析了这种解释方式的合理性 及其与因果性解释方式的关系,并由此进一步讨论了生命科学的自主性问题;第三章从不同方面较详细地论述了正反两方面论证的依据,并对各种观点进行了比较,说明生物学理论缺少规律的原因;第四章讨论了还原概念和突现 概念的历史发展,分析了它们各自的认识论和本体论原因,指出了它们各自的优点和局限,最后指出了超越它们的途径;第五章着重讨论了进化论的统计特性与进化过程的决定论和非决定论问题;第六章讨论了生命难以定义的各 种原因,论述了定义生命的两种主要方法;第七章指出了人工生命提出的主要的哲学问题,从不同角度论证了强人工生命的可能性,分析了数字生命的实在论地位,揭示了人工生命所蕴含计算主义世界观;第八章分析了人类基因 组研究的价值及其所可能引起的伦理和法律问题;第九章总结了8年来关于人类克隆的主要争论和观点,并揭示了这些争论给我们的启示。.
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  4. On the Definition of Life.Jianhui Li - 2019 - Philosophy Study 9 (9):497-510.
    The definition of life is a very important issue in the philosophy of biology, but this issue has unfortunately been neglected by the mainstream philosopher of biology for many years. In this paper, the difficulties with and the reasons for defining life are illustrated, the characteristics of life on Earth are explored, ways of defining life are examined, the main definitions of life are explained and evaluated, and finally, a new information definition of life is proposed.
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  5. Levels of Organization in the Biological Sciences.Daniel Stephen Brooks, James DiFrisco & William C. Wimsatt (eds.) - forthcoming - MIT Press.
    The subject of this edited volume is the idea of levels of organization: roughly, the idea that the natural world is segregated into part-whole relationships of increasing spatiotemporal scale and complexity. The book comprises a collection of essays that raise the idea of levels into its own topic of analysis. Owing to the wide prominence of the idea of levels, the scope of the volume is aimed at theoreticians, philosophers, and practicing researchers of all stripes in the life sciences. The (...)
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  6. A Defense of Free-Roaming Cats from a Hedonist Account of Feline Well-being.C. E. Abbate - 2019 - Acta Analytica 2019:1-23.
    There is a widespread belief that for their own safety and for the protection of wildlife, cats should be permanently kept indoors. Against this view, I argue that cat guardians have a duty to provide their feline companions with outdoor access. The argument is based on a sophisticated hedonistic account of animal well-being that acknowledges that the performance of species-normal ethological behavior is especially pleasurable. Territorial behavior, which requires outdoor access, is a feline-normal ethological behavior, so when a cat is (...)
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  7. Protention and Retention in Biological Systems.Giuseppe Longo & Maël Montévil - 2011 - Theory in Biosciences 130:107-117.
    This article proposes an abstract mathematical frame for describing some features of cognitive and biological time. We focus here on the so called “extended present” as a result of protentional and retentional activities (memory and anticipation). Memory, as retention, is treated in some physical theories (relaxation phenomena, which will inspire our approach), while protention (or anticipation) seems outside the scope of physics. We then suggest a simple functional representation of biological protention. This allows us to introduce the abstract notion of (...)
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  8. The Aristotelian Conception of Habit and its Contribution to Human Neuroscience.José Ignacio Murillo & Javier Bernacer - 2014 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8:1-10.
    The notion of habit used in neuroscience is an inheritance from a particular theoretical origin, whose main source is William James. Thus, habits have been characterized as rigid, automatic, unconscious, and opposed to goal-directed actions. This analysis leaves unexplained several aspects of human behavior and cognition where habits are of great importance. We intend to demonstrate the utility that another philosophical conception of habit, the Aristotelian, may have for neuroscientific research. We first summarize the current notion of habit in neuroscience, (...)
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  9. Kant, Representation, and the Nature of Organisms.Patrick R. Leland - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences.
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  10. Stefanie Buchenau and Roberto Lo Presti, eds.: Human and Animal Cognition in Early Modern Philosophy and Medicine, University of Pittsburg Press, Pittsburgh, 2017, 354 pp., ISBN: 978-0-8229-4472-0. [REVIEW]Sara Ray - 2019 - Journal of the History of Biology 52 (2):359-360.
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  11. Active Sleep Promotes Functional Connectivity in Developing Sensorimotor Networks.Carlos Del Rio‐Bermudez & Mark S. Blumberg - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (4).
    A ubiquitous feature of active sleep in mammals and birds is its relative abundance in early development. In rat pups across the first two postnatal weeks, active sleep promotes the expression of synchronized oscillatory activity within and between cortical and subcortical sensorimotor structures. Sensory feedback from self-generated myoclonic twitches – which are produced exclusively during active sleep – also triggers neural oscillations in those structures. We have proposed that one of the functions of active sleep in early infancy is to (...)
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  12. How the Hippocampus Represents Memories: Making Sense of Memory Allocation Studies.Thiago F. A. França & José M. Monserrat - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (11):800068.
  13. Comparing the New and Existing Hypotheses on Energy Metabolism and Longevity.Chen Hou - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (8):1800110.
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  14. El mecanismo evolutivo de Margulis y los niveles de selección.Javier Suárez - 2016 - Contrastes: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 1 (20):7-26.
    Margulis’ evolutionary theory entails a revision of certain core concepts of traditional biology. One of these changes is related to the hot debate about units of selection. This paper considers Margulis’ proposal as a new research tradition (RT) and evaluates its consequences to the mentioned issue. Three ideas are suggested here: firstly, that her theory represents the revision of many classical biological concepts; secondly, that her position implies a reappraisal of many traditional issues in philosophy of biology; and thirdly, that (...)
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  15. Toward a Macroevolutionary Theory of Human Evolution: The Social Protocell.Claes Andersson & Petter Törnberg - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (2):86-102.
    Despite remarkable empirical and methodological advances, our theoretical understanding of the evolutionary processes that made us human remains fragmented and contentious. Here, we make the radical proposition that the cultural communities within which Homo emerged may be understood as a novel exotic form of organism. The argument begins from a deep congruence between robust features of Pan community life cycles and protocell models of the origins of life. We argue that if a cultural tradition, meeting certain requirements, arises in the (...)
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  16. The Role of Assessor Teaching in Human Culture.Laureano Castro, Miguel Ángel Castro-Nogueira, Morris Villarroel & Miguel Ángel Toro - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (2):112-121.
    According to the dual inheritance theory, cultural learning in our species is a biased and highly efficient process of transmitting cultural traits. Here we define a model of cultural learning where social learning is integrated as a complementary element that facilitates the discovery of a specific behavior by an apprentice, and not as a mechanism that works in opposition to individual learning. In that context, we propose that the emergence of the ability to approve or disapprove of offspring behavior, orienting (...)
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  17. Why is There No Successful Whole Brain Simulation (Yet)?Klaus M. Stiefel & Daniel S. Brooks - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (2):122-130.
    With the advent of powerful parallel computers, efforts have commenced to simulate complete mammalian brains. However, so far none of these efforts has produced outcomes close to explaining even the behavioral complexities of animals. In this article, we suggest four challenges that ground this shortcoming. First, we discuss the connection between hypothesis testing and simulations. Typically, efforts to simulate complete mammalian brains lack a clear hypothesis. Second, we treat complications related to a lack of parameter constraints for large-scale simulations. To (...)
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  18. Writing Papers to Be Memorable, Even When They Are Not Really Read.Thiago F. A. França & José M. Monserrat - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1900035.
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  19. Cooking a Research Project: New Trends in the Kitchen and in Scientific Policies.Dolores Queiruga & Juan Cabello - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (5):1900017.
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  20. A Metaphysical Approach to Holobiont Individuality: Holobionts as Emergent Individuals.Javier Suárez & Vanessa Triviño - 2019 - Quaderns de Filosofia 6 (1):59-76.
    Holobionts are symbiotic assemblages composed by a host plus its microbiome. The status of holobionts as individuals has recently been a subject of continuous controversy, which has given rise to two main positions: on the one hand, holobiont advocates argue that holobionts are biological individuals; on the other, holobiont detractors argue that they are just mere chimeras or ecological communities, but not individuals. Both parties in the dispute develop their arguments from the framework of the philosophy of biology, in terms (...)
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  21. The Social Amplification View of Facial Expression.Trip Glazer - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):33.
    I offer a novel view of the mechanisms underlying the spontaneous facial expression of emotion. According to my Social Amplification View, facial expressions result from the interplay of two processes: an emotional process that activates specific facial muscles, though not always to the point of visible contraction, followed by a social cognitive process that amplifies these activations so that they may function more effectively as social signals. I argue that SAV outperforms both the Neurocultural View and the Behavioral Ecology View, (...)
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  22. La biosemiotica di Jakob von Uexküll e Max Scheler: dal Bauplan al Leibschema.Guido Cusinato - 2018 - In Biosemiotic and psychopathology of the ordo amoris. Biosemiotica e psicopatologia dell'ordo amoris. In dialogo con Max Scheler. Milano: pp. 70-77.
    In questo lavoro si dimostra che l'opinione comune, secondo cui è Heidegger a introdurre Jacob von Uexküll nel dibattito filosofico è scorretta, in quanto è Scheler, due decenni prima, a scoprire e valorizzare la portata filosofica di Uexküll. -/- Pure la distinzione fra mondo (Welt) e ambiente (Umwelt), come quella fra apertura al mondo e chiusura ambientale, non è introdotta da Heidegger nel 1929 (cfr. l'Introduzione di Marco Mazzeo al testo di Uexküll, Ambienti animali e ambienti umani, p.18 e seg.) (...)
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  23. Paleobiology and Philosophy.Adrian Currie - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (2):31.
    I offer four ways of distinguishing paleobiology from neontology, and from this develop a sketch of the philosophy of paleobiology. I then situate and describe the papers in the special issue Paleobiology and Philosophy, and reflect on the value and prospects of paleontology-focused philosophy.
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  24. Code Biology, Peircean Biosemiotics, and Rosen’s Relational Biology.Marcello Barbieri - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):21-29.
    The classical theories of the genetic code claimed that its coding rules were determined by chemistry—either by stereochemical affinities or by metabolic reactions—but the experimental evidence has revealed a totally different reality: it has shown that any codon can be associated with any amino acid, thus proving that there is no necessary link between them. The rules of the genetic code, in other words, obey the laws of physics and chemistry but are not determined by them. They are arbitrary, or (...)
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  25. The Nature of Programmed Cell Death.Pierre M. Durand & Grant Ramsey - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):30-41.
    In multicellular organisms, cells are frequently programmed to die. This makes good sense: cells that fail to, or are no longer playing important roles are eliminated. From the cell’s perspective, this also makes sense, since somatic cells in multicellular organisms require the cooperation of clonal relatives. In unicellular organisms, however, programmed cell death poses a difficult and unresolved evolutionary problem. The empirical evidence for PCD in diverse microbial taxa has spurred debates about what precisely PCD means in the case of (...)
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  26. Task Allocation and the Logic of Research Questions: How Ants Challenge Human Sociobiology.Ryan Ketcham - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):52-68.
    After biologist Deborah Gordon made a series of experimental discoveries in the 1980s, she argued that a change in terminology regarding the division of labor among castes of specialists was needed. Gordon’s investigations of the interactive effects of ants in colonies led her to believe that the established approach Edward O. Wilson had pioneered was biased in a way that made some alternative candidate adaptive explanations invisible. Gordon argued that this was because the term “division of labor” implied a division (...)
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  27. Neural Reuse and the Modularity of Mind: Where to Next for Modularity?John Zerilli - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):1-20.
    The leading hypothesis concerning the “reuse” or “recycling” of neural circuits builds on the assumption that evolution might prefer the redeployment of established circuits over the development of new ones. What conception of cognitive architecture can survive the evidence for this hypothesis? In particular, what sorts of “modules” are compatible with this evidence? I argue that the only likely candidates will, in effect, be the columns which Vernon Mountcastle originally hypothesized some 60 years ago, and which form part of the (...)
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  28. Agonism Management Through Agonistic Vocal Signaling in Subterranean Rodents: A Neglected Factor Facilitating Sociality?Gabriel Francescoli & Cristian Schleich - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):42-51.
    Communication is inherent to social relationships. Previous papers addressed the correlation between social and communicative complexity, and the origin of sociality in rodents. In subterranean social species, as the number of animals in the same burrow increases, so do interindividual contact rates. This is because of limitations in actually used tunnel length and diameter, leading to an increasing number of agonistic situations probably resulting in time loss, threatening, and fighting with danger of injuries. To avoid this, social species are expected (...)
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  29. Biosemiotic and psychopathology of the ordo amoris. Biosemiotica e psicopatologia dell'ordo amoris. In dialogo con Max Scheler.Guido Cusinato - 2018 - Milano MI, Italia: FrancoAngeli.
    How comes that two organisms can interact with each other or that we can comprehend what the other experiences? The theories of embodiment, intersubjectivity or empathy have repeatedly taken as their starting point an individualistic assumption (the comprehension of the other comes after the self-comprehension) or a cognitivist one (the affective dimension follows the cognitive process). The thesis of this book is that there are no two isolated entities at the origin which successively interact with each other. There is, rather, (...)
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  30. S ara G reen , Philosophy of Systems Biology: Perspectives from Scientists and Philosophers, Springer International Publishing, 2017, 265 pp, ISBN 978-3-319-47000-9. [REVIEW]Jonathan Davies - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (1):9.
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  31. Phronesis and Automated Science: The Case of Machine Learning and Biology.Emanuele Ratti - 2019 - In Fabio Sterpetti & M. Bertolaso (eds.), Will Science Remain Human? Springer.
    The applications of machine learning and deep learning to the natural sciences has fostered the idea that the automated nature of algorithmic analysis will gradually dispense human beings from scientific work. In this paper, I will show that this view is problematic, at least when ML is applied to biology. In particular, I will claim that ML is not independent of human beings and cannot form the basis of automated science. Computer scientists conceive their work as being a case of (...)
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  32. Coordination of Timers and Sensors in Cell Signaling.Junbin Qian, Lendert Gelens & Mathieu Bollen - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800217.
    Timers and sensors are common devices that make our daily life safer, more convenient, and more efficient. In a cellular context, they arguably play an even more crucial role as they ensure the survival of cells in the presence of various extrinsic and intrinsic stresses. Biological timers and sensors generate distinct signaling profiles, enabling them to produce different types of cellular responses. Recent data suggest that they can work together to guarantee correct timing and responsiveness. By exploring examples of cellular (...)
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  33. Sentience and Consciousness in Single Cells: How the First Minds Emerged in Unicellular Species.František Baluška & Arthur Reber - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800229.
    A reductionistic, bottom‐up, cellular‐based concept of the origins of sentience and consciousness has been put forward. Because all life is based on cells, any evolutionary theory of the emergence of sentience and consciousness must be grounded in mechanisms that take place in prokaryotes, the simplest unicellular species. It has been posited that subjective awareness is a fundamental property of cellular life. It emerges as an inherent feature of, and contemporaneously with, the very first life‐forms. All other varieties of mentation are (...)
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  34. Veins and Arteries Build Hierarchical Branching Patterns Differently: Bottom‐Up Versus Top‐Down.Kristy Red-Horse & Arndt F. Siekmann - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (3):1800198.
    A tree‐like hierarchical branching structure is present in many biological systems, such as the kidney, lung, mammary gland, and blood vessels. Most of these organs form through branching morphogenesis, where outward growth results in smaller and smaller branches. However, the blood vasculature is unique in that it exists as two trees (arterial and venous) connected at their tips. Obtaining this organization might therefore require unique developmental mechanisms. As reviewed here, recent data indicate that arterial trees often form in reverse order. (...)
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  35. Mathematical Assessment of the Role of Early Latent Infections and Targeted Control Strategies on Syphilis Transmission Dynamics.D. Okuonghae, A. B. Gumel, B. O. Ikhimwin & E. Iboi - 2019 - Acta Biotheoretica 67 (1):47-84.
    A new multi-stage deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of syphilis, which incorporates disease transmission by individuals in the early latent stage of syphilis infection and the reversions of early latent syphilis to the primary and secondary stages, is formulated and rigorously analysed. The model is used to assess the population-level impact of preventive and therapeutic measures against the spread of the disease in a community. It is shown that the disease-free equilibrium of the model is globally-asymptotically stable whenever the (...)
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  36. Can Vestibular Stimulation Be Used to Treat Obesity?Paul D. McGeoch - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (2):1800197.
    It is hypothesized that repeated, non‐invasive stimulation of the vestibular (balance) system, via a small electrical current to the skin behind the ears, will cause the brain centers that control energy homeostasis to shift the body toward a leaner physique. This is because these centers integrate multiple inputs to, in effect, fix a set‐point for body fat, which though difficult to alter is not immutable. They will interpret repeated stimulation of the parts of the vestibular system that detect acceleration as (...)
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  37. Let's Stop the Sloppy Use of “Lamarckian”.Dave Speijer - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (2):1800258.
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  38. Moving Past the Levels of Selection Debates: Samir Okasha, Evolution and the Levels of Selection, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006.Stephen M. Downes - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):703-709.
  39. Studying Animal Languages Without Translation: An Insight From Ants. By Zhanna Reznikova. [REVIEW]Stephen Francis Mann & Jessica Pfeifer - 2018 - Quarterly Review of Biology 93:38.
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  40. CRISPR: A New Principle of Genome Engineering Linked to Conceptual Shifts in Evolutionary Biology.Eugene V. Koonin - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):9.
    The CRISPR-Cas systems of bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity have become a household name among biologists and even the general public thanks to the unprecedented success of the new generation of genome editing tools utilizing Cas proteins. However, the fundamental biological features of CRISPR-Cas are of no lesser interest and have major impacts on our understanding of the evolution of antivirus defense, host-parasite coevolution, self versus non-self discrimination and mechanisms of adaptation. CRISPR-Cas systems present the best known case in point (...)
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  41. How Biological Technology Should Inform the Causal Selection Debate.Janella Baxter - 2019 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 11.
    Waters’s (2007) actual difference making and Weber’s (2013, 2017) biological normality approaches to causal selection have received many criticisms, some of which miss their target. Disagreement about whether Waters’s and Weber’s views succeed in providing criteria that uniquely singles out the gene as explanatorily significant in biology has led philosophers to overlook a prior problem. Before one can address whether Waters’s and Weber’s views successfully account for the explanatory significance of genes, one must ask whether either view satisfactorily meets the (...)
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  42. Evolving Across the Explanatory Gap.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2019 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 11.
    One way to express the most persistent part of the mind-body problem is to say that there is an “explanatory gap” between the physical and the mental. The gap is not usually taken to apply to all of the mental, but to subjective experience, the mind’s “qualitative” features, or what is now referred to as “phenomenal consciousness.” The “gap” formulation is due to Joseph Levine. He acknowledged the appeal of intuitions of separability between physical facts, of any kind we can (...)
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  43. CRISPR-Cas Immunity: Beyond Nonself and Defence.Thomas Pradeu & Jean-François Moreau - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):6.
    In this commentary of Koonin’s target paper, we defend an extended view of CRISPR-Cas immunity by arguing that CRISPR-Cas includes, but cannot be reduced to, defence against nonself. CRISPR-Cas systems can target endogenous elements and tolerate exogenous elements. We conclude that the vocabulary of “defence” and “nonself” might be misleading when describing CRISPR-Cas systems.
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  44. Haben menschliche Embryonen eine Disposition zur Personalität?Anne Sophie Meincke - 2018 - In Markus Rothhaar, Martin Hähnel & Roland Kipke (eds.), Der manipulierbare Embryo. Münster, Germany: pp. 147-171.
    Do human embryos have a disposition to personhood? This has been argued within recent attempts to reformulate the classical argument from potentiality for the protection of human embryos with the help of the concept of disposition. In this paper, I analyse the central ontological premise of this new approach and show that any hopes of rehabilitating in dispositionalist terms the idea of a potential to personhood inherent in human embryos are mistaken. The dispositionalist version of the potentiality argument navigates in (...)
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  45. Potentialität und Disposition in der Diskussion über den Status des menschlichen Embryos: Zur Ontologie des Potentialitätsarguments.Anne Sophie Meincke - 2015 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 122 (2):271-303.
    The argument from potentiality for embryo protection relies on the assumption of a specific developmental potential of human embryos: as human embryos under normal conditions naturally developing into beings whose strong moral status is uncontroversial, namely into human persons, they likewise enjoy strong moral status. In my paper, I endeavour to spell out the ontological foundations of the argument from potentiality and to discuss them critically in the light of new empirical findings in embryology. Particular attention is hereby paid to (...)
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  46. Persons as Biological Processes: A Bio-Processual Way Out of the Personal Identity Dilemma.Anne Sophie Meincke - 2018 - In Daniel J. Nicholson & John Dupre (eds.), Everything Flows. Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology. Oxford, UK: pp. 357-378.
    Human persons exist longer than a single moment in time; they persist through time. However, so far it has not been possible to make this natural and widespread assumption metaphysically comprehensible. The philosophical debate on personal identity is rather stuck in a dilemma: reductionist theories explain personal identity away, while non-reductionist theories fail to give any informative account at all. This chapter argues that this dilemma emerges from an underlying commitment, shared by both sides of in the debate, to an (...)
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  47. The Many Meanings of “Cost” and “Benefit:” Biological Altruism, Biological Agency, and the Identification of Social Behaviours.Peter Woodford - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):4.
    The puzzle of how altruism can evolve has been at the center of recent debates over Hamilton’s Rule, inclusive fitness, and kin-selection. In this paper, I use recent debates over altruism and Hamilton’s legacy as an example to illustrate a more general problem in evolutionary theory that has philosophical significance; I attempt to explain this significance and to draw a variety of conclusions about it. The problem is that specific behaviours and general concepts of organism agency and intentionality are defined (...)
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  48. “Memetic Engineering”, Please! Thought, Values and Behaviour Are as Important as Technology!Andrew Moore - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800242.
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  49. Can All Major ROS Forming Sites of the Respiratory Chain Be Activated By High FADH2 /NADH Ratios?Dave Speijer - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800180.
    Aspects of peroxisome evolution, uncoupling, carnitine shuttles, supercomplex formation, and missing neuronal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) are linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in respiratory chains. Oxidation of substrates with high FADH2/NADH (F/N) ratios (e.g., FAs) initiate ROS formation in Complex I due to insufficient availability of its electron acceptor (Q) and reverse electron transport from QH2, e.g., during FAO or glycerol‐3‐phosphate shuttle use. Here it is proposed that the Q‐cycle of Complex III contributes to enhanced ROS formation going (...)
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  50. A Perspective on the Potential Utility of a Viscosupplement Multifunctional Biotherapeutic.James Melrose - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800215.
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