Philosophy of Biology

Edited by Manolo Martínez (Universitat de Barcelona)
Assistant editor: Wiseley Wong (University of Western Ontario)
120 found
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1 — 50 / 120
  1. added 2019-01-22
    Les plantes cultivées cachent-elles la forêt ?Sophie Gerber - 2018 - In Quentin and Timmermans Hiernaux (ed.), Philosophie du végétal. Paris, France: pp. 91-114.
    Le texte suivant s'appuie assez largement sur des informations scientifiques de la biologie végétale. Ce choix de philosopher à partir de la technicité et de l'historicité des objets botaniques correspond à un parti pris. La proximité de l’humain à ses objets d’étude, sa tendance à anthropomorphiser, voire anthropocentrer, les observations ou les problèmes qui se présentent à lui, a fait l’objet de multiples réflexions philosophiques et épistémologiques. Kant, pour qui « tout intérêt est finalement pratique [...] même celui de la (...)
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  2. added 2019-01-21
    The Rise of the Technobionts: Toward a New Ontology to Understand Current Planetary Crisis.Gustavo Magallanes Guijón & O. López-Corona - forthcoming - Researchers.One.
    Inhere we expand the concept of Holobiont to incorporate niche construction theory in order to increase our understanding of the current planetary crisis. By this, we propose a new ontology, the Ecobiont, as the basic evolutionary unit of analysis. We make the case of Homo Sapiens organized around modern cities (technobionts) as a different Ecobiont from classical Homo Sapiens (i.e. Hunter- gatherers Homo Sapiens). We consider that Ecobiont ontology helps to make visible the coupling of Homo Sapiens with other biological (...)
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  3. added 2019-01-21
    The Coherence of Evolutionary Theory with Its Neighboring Theories.Seungbae Park - forthcoming - Acta Biotheoretica.
    Evolutionary theory coheres with its neighboring theories, such as the theory of plate tectonics, molecular biology, electromagnetic theory, and the germ theory of disease. These neighboring theories were previously unconceived, but they were later conceived, and then they cohered with evolutionary theory. Since evolutionary theory has been strengthened by its several neighboring theories that were previously unconceived, it will be strengthened by infinitely many hitherto unconceived neighboring theories. This argument for evolutionary theory echoes the problem of unconceived alternatives. Ironically, however, (...)
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  4. added 2019-01-21
    Evolving Across the Explanatory Gap.Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2019 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 11.
    One way to express the most persistent part of the mind-body problem is to say that there is an “explanatory gap” between the physical and the mental. The gap is not usually taken to apply to all of the mental, but to subjective experience, the mind’s “qualitative” features, or what is now referred to as “phenomenal consciousness.” The “gap” formulation is due to Joseph Levine. He acknowledged the appeal of intuitions of separability between physical facts, of any kind we can (...)
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  5. added 2019-01-21
    How Biological Technology Should Inform the Causal Selection Debate.Janella Baxter - 2019 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 11.
    Causal selection is the widespread practice of singling out some causal variables from a set of causally relevant factors as explanatorily significant. The debate in the philosophy of biology literature has to do with what, if anything, justifies this practice in biology. Philosophers of biology have referred to the view that there is no explanatory justification for this practice as the causal parity thesis. Causal selection, by contrast, is the rejection of causal parity. On this view, biologists are at least (...)
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  6. added 2019-01-21
    CRISPR: A New Principle of Genome Engineering Linked to Conceptual Shifts in Evolutionary Biology.Eugene V. Koonin - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):9.
    The CRISPR-Cas systems of bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity have become a household name among biologists and even the general public thanks to the unprecedented success of the new generation of genome editing tools utilizing Cas proteins. However, the fundamental biological features of CRISPR-Cas are of no lesser interest and have major impacts on our understanding of the evolution of antivirus defense, host-parasite coevolution, self versus non-self discrimination and mechanisms of adaptation. CRISPR-Cas systems present the best known case in point (...)
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  7. added 2019-01-21
    On the Meaning of Biological Contingencies for Human Lives.Eric Desjardins - 2019 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 11.
    Turning Points by Kostas Kampourakis offers a view of human life that is opposed to teleological reasoning, or more precisely to the tendency to infer design and grounds for faith while observing and explaining human life. While this common theme in the history of philosophy of science has mostly been related to Natural Theology, Kampourakis’s arguments against the “design stance” go beyond the idea that the appearance of design implies the existence of an intelligent Being responsible for the presence of (...)
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  8. added 2019-01-21
    Revamping the Image of Science for the Anthropocene.S. Andrew Inkpen & C. Tyler DesRoches - 2019 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 11.
    In 2016, a multidisciplinary body of scholars within the International Commission on Stratigraphy—the Anthropocene Working Group—recommended that the world officially recognize the Anthropocene as a new geological epoch. The most contested claim about the Anthropocene, that humans are a major geological and environmental force on par with natural forces, has proven to be a hotbed for discussion well beyond the science of geology. One reason for this is that it compels many natural and social scientists to confront problems and systems (...)
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  9. added 2019-01-21
    Studying Animal Languages Without Translation: An Insight From Ants. By Zhanna Reznikova. [REVIEW]Stephen Francis Mann & Jessica Pfeifer - 2018 - Quarterly Review of Biology 93:38.
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  10. added 2019-01-21
    The Limits of Measuring Information in Biology: An Ontological Approach.Agustín Mercado-Reyes & Alfonso Arroyo-Santos - 2018 - Biosemiotics.
    The concept of biological information, and information in general, usually presupposes a purely quantitative view of reality. Even though actualist quantification has an important place in the description of the world, a nominalistic stance that tries to simplify reality in purely actualist terms inevitably runs into inconsistencies; these inconsistencies have been pointed out by the critical assessments of the notion of biological information. Rather than calling for an abandonment of the informational terminology, we try to rethink information as a part (...)
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  11. added 2019-01-20
    A Scientific Metaphysical Naturalisation of Information.Bruce Long - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Sydney
    The objective of this thesis is to present a naturalised metaphysics of information, or to naturalise information, by way of deploying a scientific metaphysics according to which contingency is privileged and a-priori conceptual analysis is excluded (or at least greatly diminished) in favour of contingent and defeasible metaphysics. The ontology of information is established according to the premises and mandate of the scientific metaphysics by inference to the best explanation, and in accordance with the idea that the primacy of physics (...)
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  12. added 2019-01-19
    Kant on Formative Power.Ina Goy - 2012 - Lebenswelt: Aesthetics and Philosophy of Experience 2:26-49.
    The notion of a formative power is one of the most obscure in Kant’s theory of biology. In section I of the paper, I will provide a list of all passages in which Kant uses the term, claiming that the older meaning of ‘formative power’ in Kant’s writings is an epistemological one, whereas the biological meaning of the term appears not before the mid-1780s. I will present and discuss some of these passages in closer detail, and will give a precise (...)
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  13. added 2019-01-16
    Sustainability for a Warming Planet.David M. Frank - forthcoming - Ethics, Policy and Environment:1-5.
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  14. added 2019-01-15
    Values, Regulation, and Species Delimitation.Stijn Conix - 2018 - Zootaxa 4415 (2):390-392.
    Garnett and Christidis (2017) [hereafter GC] recently proposed that the International Union of the Biological Sciences should centrally regulate the taxonomy of complex organisms. Their proposal was met with much criticism (e.g. Hołyński 2017; Thomson et al., 2018), and perhaps most extensively from Raposo et al. (2017) in this journal. The main target of this criticism was GC’s call to, first, “restrict the freedom of taxonomic action”, and, second, to let social, political and conservation values weigh in on species classification. (...)
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  15. added 2019-01-14
    The Species Category as a Scientific Kind.Caleb C. Hazelwood - forthcoming - Synthese.
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  16. added 2019-01-14
    Can Vestibular Stimulation Be Used to Treat Obesity?Paul D. McGeoch - forthcoming - Bioessays.
    It is hypothesized that repeated, non‐invasive stimulation of the vestibular (balance) system, via a small electrical current to the skin behind the ears, will cause the brain centers that control energy homeostasis to shift the body toward a leaner physique. This is because these centers integrate multiple inputs to, in effect, fix a set‐point for body fat, which though difficult to alter is not immutable. They will interpret repeated stimulation of the parts of the vestibular system that detect acceleration as (...)
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  17. added 2019-01-14
    Let's Stop the Sloppy Use of “Lamarckian”.Dave Speijer - forthcoming - Bioessays.
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  18. added 2019-01-14
    The Role of Assessor Teaching in Human Culture.Laureano Castro, Miguel Ángel Castro-Nogueira, Morris Villarroel & Miguel Ángel Toro - forthcoming - Biological Theory:1-10.
    According to the dual inheritance theory, cultural learning in our species is a biased and highly efficient process of transmitting cultural traits. Here we define a model of cultural learning where social learning is integrated as a complementary element that facilitates the discovery of a specific behavior by an apprentice, and not as a mechanism that works in opposition to individual learning. In that context, we propose that the emergence of the ability to approve or disapprove of offspring behavior, orienting (...)
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  19. added 2019-01-14
    How to Use Fitness Landscape Models for the Analysis of Collective Decision-Making: A Case of Theory-Transfer and its Limitations.Peter Marks, Lasse Gerrits & Johannes Marx - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):7.
    There is considerable correspondence between theories and models used in biology and the social sciences. One type of model that is in use in both biology and the social sciences is the fitness landscape model. The properties of the fitness landscape model have been applied rather freely in the social domain. This is partly due to the versatility of the model, but it is also due to the difficulties of transferring a model to another domain. We will demonstrate that in (...)
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  20. added 2019-01-10
    Institutional Legitimacy and Geoengineering Governance.Daniel Edward Callies - forthcoming - Ethics, Policy and Environment:1-17.
    ABSTRACTThere is general agreement amongst those involved in the normative discussion about geoengineering that if we are to move forward with significant research, development, and certainly any future deployment, legitimate governance is a must. However, while we agree that the abstract concept of legitimacy ought to guide geoengineering governance, agreement surrounding the appropriate conception of legitimacy has yet to emerge. Relying upon Allen Buchanan’s metacoordination view of institutional legitimacy, this paper puts forward a conception of legitimacy appropriate for geoengineering governance, (...)
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  21. added 2019-01-10
    Climate Change, Climate Engineering, and the ‘Global Poor’: What Does Justice Require?Marion Hourdequin - forthcoming - Ethics, Policy and Environment:1-19.
    ABSTRACTIn recent work, Joshua Horton and David Keith argue on distributive and consequentialist grounds that research into solar radiation management geoengineering is justified because the resulting knowledge has the potential to benefit everyone, particularly the ‘global poor.’ I argue that this view overlooks procedural and recognitional justice, and thus relegates to the background questions of how SRM research should be governed. In response to Horton and Keith, I argue for a multidimensional approach to geoengineering justice, which entails that questions of (...)
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  22. added 2019-01-10
    Two Concepts of Wrongful Harm: A Response.Idil Boran - forthcoming - Ethics, Policy and Environment:1-4.
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  23. added 2019-01-10
    Toward Legitimate Governance of Solar Geoengineering Research: A Role for Sub-State Actors.Sikina Jinnah, Simon Nicholson & Jane Flegal - forthcoming - Ethics, Policy and Environment:1-20.
    ABSTRACTTwo recently proposed solar radiation management experiments in the United States have highlighted the need for governance mechanisms to guide SRM research. This paper draws on the literatures on legitimacy in global governance, responsible innovation, and experimental governance to argue that public engagement is a necessary condition for any legitimate SRM governance regime. We then build on the orchestration literature to argue that, in the absence of federal leadership, U.S. states, such as California, New York, and other existing leaders in (...)
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  24. added 2019-01-08
    Recognitional Justice, Climate Engineering, and the Care Approach.Christopher Preston & Wylie Carr - forthcoming - Ethics, Policy and Environment:1-16.
    ABSTRACTGiven the existing inequities in climate change, any proposed climate engineering strategy to solve the climate problem must meet a high threshold for justice. In contrast to an overly thin paradigm for justice that demands only a science-based assessment of potential temperature-related benefits and harms, we argue for the importance of attention to recognitional justice. Recognitional justice, we go on to claim, calls for a different type of assessment tool. Such an assessment would pay attention to neglected considerations such as (...)
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  25. added 2019-01-07
    Michel Anctil, Luminous Creatures: The History and Science of Light Production in Living Organisms , 486 pp., 56 photos, C$ 49.95 Cloth, ISBN: 9780773553125. [REVIEW]Samantha Muka - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Biology:1-3.
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  26. added 2019-01-07
    The Many Meanings of “Cost” and “Benefit:” Biological Altruism, Biological Agency, and the Identification of Social Behaviours.Peter J. Woodford - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):4.
    The puzzle of how altruism can evolve has been at the center of recent debates over Hamilton’s Rule, inclusive fitness, and kin-selection. In this paper, I use recent debates over altruism and Hamilton’s legacy as an example to illustrate a more general problem in evolutionary theory that has philosophical significance; I attempt to explain this significance and to draw a variety of conclusions about it. The problem is that specific behaviours and general concepts of organism agency and intentionality are defined (...)
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  27. added 2019-01-07
    CRISPR-Cas Immunity: Beyond Nonself and Defence.Thomas Pradeu & Jean-François Moreau - 2019 - Biology and Philosophy 34 (1):6.
    In this commentary of Koonin’s target paper, we defend an extended view of CRISPR-Cas immunity by arguing that CRISPR-Cas includes, but cannot be reduced to, defence against nonself. CRISPR-Cas systems can target endogenous elements and tolerate exogenous elements. We conclude that the vocabulary of “defence” and “nonself” might be misleading when describing CRISPR-Cas systems.
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  28. added 2019-01-07
    Pluralization through epistemic competition: scientific change in times of data-intensive biology.Fridolin Gross, Nina Kranke & Robert Meunier - 2019 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 41 (1):1.
    We present two case studies from contemporary biology in which we observe conflicts between established and emerging approaches. The first case study discusses the relation between molecular biology and systems biology regarding the explanation of cellular processes, while the second deals with phylogenetic systematics and the challenge posed by recent network approaches to established ideas of evolutionary processes. We show that the emergence of new fields is in both cases driven by the development of high-throughput data generation technologies and the (...)
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  29. added 2019-01-07
    Haben menschliche Embryonen eine Disposition zur Personalität?Anne Sophie Meincke - 2018 - In Markus Rothhaar, Martin Hähnel & Roland Kipke (eds.), Der manipulierbare Embryo. Münster, Germany: pp. 147-171.
    Do human embryos have a disposition to personhood? This has been argued within recent attempts to reformulate the classical argument from potentiality for the protection of human embryos with the help of the concept of disposition. In this paper, I analyse the central ontological premise of this new approach and show that any hopes of rehabilitating in dispositionalist terms the idea of a potential to personhood inherent in human embryos are mistaken. The dispositionalist version of the potentiality argument navigates in (...)
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  30. added 2019-01-07
    Persons as Biological Processes: A Bio-Processual Way Out of the Personal Identity Dilemma.Anne Sophie Meincke - 2018 - In Daniel J. Nicholson & John Dupre (eds.), Everything Flows. Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology. Oxford, UK: pp. 357-378.
    Human persons exist longer than a single moment in time; they persist through time. However, so far it has not been possible to make this natural and widespread assumption metaphysically comprehensible. The philosophical debate on personal identity is rather stuck in a dilemma: reductionist theories explain personal identity away, while non-reductionist theories fail to give any informative account at all. This chapter argues that this dilemma emerges from an underlying commitment, shared by both sides of in the debate, to an (...)
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  31. added 2019-01-07
    Potentialität und Disposition in der Diskussion über den Status des menschlichen Embryos: Zur Ontologie des Potentialitätsarguments.Anne Sophie Meincke - 2015 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 122 (2):271-303.
    The argument from potentiality for embryo protection relies on the assumption of a specific developmental potential of human embryos: as human embryos under normal conditions naturally developing into beings whose strong moral status is uncontroversial, namely into human persons, they likewise enjoy strong moral status. In my paper, I endeavour to spell out the ontological foundations of the argument from potentiality and to discuss them critically in the light of new empirical findings in embryology. Particular attention is hereby paid to (...)
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  32. added 2019-01-07
    Review Article.David L. Hull - 1994 - Biology and Philosophy 9 (1):105-112.
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  33. added 2019-01-03
    Hidup di Antara Batas: Relasi Hewan dan Manusia.Ni Nyoman Oktaria Asmarani - 2018 - BALAIRUNG: Jurnal Multidisipliner Mahasiswa Indonesia 1 (2):166-174.
  34. added 2019-01-02
    Bio-Agency and the Possibility of Artificial Agents.Anne Sophie Meincke - 2018 - In Alexander Christian, David Hommen, Nina Retzlaff & Gerhard Schurz (eds.), Philosophy of Science - Between the Natural Sciences, the Social Sciences, and the Humanities. Selected Papers from the 2016 conference of the German Society of Philosophy of Science. Dordrecht, Netherlands: pp. 65-93.
    Within the philosophy of biology, recently promising steps have been made towards a biologically grounded concept of agency. Agency is described as bio-agency: the intrinsically normative adaptive behaviour of human and non-human organisms, arising from their biological autonomy. My paper assesses the bio-agency approach by examining criticism recently directed by its proponents against the project of embodied robotics. Defenders of the bio-agency approach have claimed that embodied robots do not, and for fundamental reasons cannot, qualify as artificial agents because they (...)
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  35. added 2019-01-02
    Bio-agency: Können Organismen handeln?Anne Sophie Meincke - 2014 - In Meincke & Daniel Wehinger (eds.), Vermögen und Handlung. Der dispositionale Realismus und unser Selbstverständnis als Handelnde. Münster, Germany: pp. 191-224.
  36. added 2019-01-01
    Buckets From an English Sea: 1832 and the Making of Charles Darwin by Louis B. Rosenblatt. [REVIEW]Charles H. Pence - 2018 - The Quarterly Review of Biology 93 (4):356.
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  37. added 2018-12-24
    The Unfinished Synthesis?: Paleontology and Evolutionary Biology in the 20th Century.David Sepkoski - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Biology:1-21.
    In the received view of the history of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis, paleontology was given a prominent role in evolutionary biology thanks to the significant influence of paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson on both the institutional and conceptual development of the Synthesis. Simpson's 1944 Tempo and Mode in Evolution is considered a classic of Synthesis-era biology, and Simpson often remarked on the influence of other major Synthesis figures–such as Ernst Mayr and Theodosius Dobzhansky–on his developing thought. Why, then, did paleontologists of (...)
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  38. added 2018-12-24
    Inevitable Decay: Debates Over Climate, Food Security, and Plant Heredity in Nineteenth-Century Britain.John Lidwell-Durnin - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Biology:1-22.
    Climate change and the failure of crops are significant but overlooked events in the history of heredity. Bad weather and dangerously low harvests provided momentum and urgency for answers to questions about how best to improve and acclimatize staple varieties. In the 1790s, a series of crop failures in Britain led to the popularization of and widespread debate over Thomas Andrew Knight’s suggestion that poor weather was in fact largely unconnected to the bad harvests. Rather, Knight argued, Britain’s older varieties—particularly (...)
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  39. added 2018-12-24
    Scientific Knowledge in the Age of Computation: Explicated, Computable and Manageable?Sophia Efstathiou, Rune Nydal, Astrid Lægreid & Martin Kuiper - forthcoming - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia.
    Through an empirical account of Knowledge Management-enabled research in systems biology, we argue that computational KM helps produce new first-order biological knowledge, in new ways. KM is enabled by conceiving of ‘knowledge’ as an object for computational science: explicated in the text of biological articles and computable via appropriate data and metadata. These founded concepts risk underestimating practice-based knowing in ensuring the validity of ‘manageable’ knowledge as knowledge.
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  40. added 2018-12-24
    Correction To: Method as a Function of “Disciplinary Landscape”: C.D. Darlington and Cytology, Genetics and Evolution, 1932–1950.Oren Soloman Harman - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Biology:1-1.
    It has come to my attention that a number of formulations in the section “Disciplinary Landscape: Cytology and Genetics” of my article “Method as a Function of Disciplinary Landscape: C.D. Darlington and the History of Cytology 1925–1950,” _Journal of the History of Biology_, 39, 2006, pp. 165–197, do not provide due credit to a source. While Franz Schrader, “Three Quarter Centuries of Cytology,” _Science_ 107 : 155–159, is cited in the article, his reminiscences and analysis of the historical development of (...)
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  41. added 2018-12-24
    Speciation Post Synthesis: 1960–2000.Anya Plutynski - forthcoming - Journal of the History of Biology:1-28.
    Speciation—the origin of new species—has been one of the most active areas of research in evolutionary biology, both during, and since the Modern Synthesis. While the Modern Synthesis certainly shaped research on speciation in significant ways, providing a core framework, and set of categories and methods to work with, the history of work on speciation since the mid-twentieth century is a history of divergence and diversification. This piece traces this divergence, through both theoretical advances, and empirical insights into how different (...)
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  42. added 2018-12-24
    Can All Major Ros Forming Sites of the Respiratory Chain Be Activated by High FADH2/NADH Ratios?Peter Schönfeld - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800225.
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  43. added 2018-12-24
    A Perspective on the Potential Utility of a Viscosupplement Multifunctional Biotherapeutic.James Melrose - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800215.
  44. added 2018-12-24
    “Memetic Engineering”, Please! Thought, Values and Behaviour Are as Important as Technology!Andrew Moore - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800242.
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  45. added 2018-12-24
    Can All Major ROS Forming Sites of the Respiratory Chain Be Activated By High FADH2 /NADH Ratios?Dave Speijer - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800180.
    Aspects of peroxisome evolution, uncoupling, carnitine shuttles, supercomplex formation, and missing neuronal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) are linked to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in respiratory chains. Oxidation of substrates with high FADH2/NADH (F/N) ratios (e.g., FAs) initiate ROS formation in Complex I due to insufficient availability of its electron acceptor (Q) and reverse electron transport from QH2, e.g., during FAO or glycerol‐3‐phosphate shuttle use. Here it is proposed that the Q‐cycle of Complex III contributes to enhanced ROS formation going (...)
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  46. added 2018-12-24
    The LKB1‐AMPK and mTORC1 Metabolic Signaling Networks in Schwann Cells Control Axon Integrity and Myelination.Bogdan Beirowski - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800075.
    The Liver kinase B1 with its downstream target AMP activated protein kinase (LKB1‐AMPK), and the key nutrient sensor mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) form two signaling systems that coordinate metabolic and cellular activity with changes in the environment in order to preserve homeostasis. For example, nutritional fluctuations rapidly feed back on these signaling systems and thereby affect cell‐specific functions. Recent studies have started to reveal important roles of these strategic metabolic regulators in Schwann cells for the trophic support (...)
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  47. added 2018-12-24
    Chromatin Stability as a Target for Cancer Treatment.Katerina V. Gurova - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1):1800141.
    In this essay, I propose that DNA‐binding anti‐cancer drugs work more via chromatin disruption than DNA damage. Success of long‐awaited drugs targeting cancer‐specific drivers is limited by the heterogeneity of tumors. Therefore, chemotherapy acting via universal targets (e.g., DNA) is still the mainstream treatment for cancer. Nevertheless, the problem with targeting DNA is insufficient efficacy due to high toxicity. I propose that this problem stems from the presumption that DNA damage is critical for the anti‐cancer activity of these drugs. DNA (...)
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  48. added 2018-12-24
    HIV Disease Progression: Overexpression of the Ectoenzyme CD38 as a Contributory Factor?Juan C. Rodríguez‐Alba, Amayrani Abrego‐Peredo, Carlos Gallardo‐Hernández, Jocelyn Pérez‐Lara, Wendolaine Santiago‐Cruz, Wei Jiang & Enrique Espinosa - 2019 - Bioessays 41 (1).
    Despite abundant evidence associating CD38 overexpression and CD4 T cell depletion in HIV infection, no causal relation has been investigated. To address this issue, a series of mechanisms are proposed, supported by evidence from different fields, by which CD38 overexpression can facilitate CD4 T cell depletion in HIV infection. According to this model, increased catalytic activity of CD38 may reduce CD4 T cells’ cytoplasmic nicotin‐amide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), leading to a chronic Warburg effect. This will reduce mitochondrial function. Simultaneously, CD38's (...)
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  49. added 2018-12-24
    Revisiting the Pouchet–Pasteur Controversy Over Spontaneous Generation: Understanding Experimental Method.Nils Roll-Hansen - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (4):68.
    Louis Pasteur’s defeat of belief in spontaneous generation has been a classical rationalist example of how the experimental approach of modern science can reveal superstition. Farley and Geison told a counter-story of how Pasteur’s success was due to political and ideological support rather than superior experimental science. They claimed that Pasteur violated proper norms of scientific method, and that the French Academy of Science did not see this, or did not want to. Farley and Geison argued that Pouchet’s experiments were (...)
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  50. added 2018-12-24
    J Oel F Aflak , Marking Time: Romanticism and Evolution.Andrea Gambarotto - 2018 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (4):72.
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