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  1. Structure, Shape, Topology: Entangled Concepts in Molecular Chemistry.Elena Ghibaudi, Luigi Cerruti & Giovanni Villani - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-29.
    The concepts of molecular structure and molecular shape are ubiquitous in the chemical literature, where they are often taken as synonyms, with unavoidable drawbacks in chemistry teaching. A third concept, molecular topology, is less frequent but it is a reference term in molecular research domains such as Quantitative Structure–Activity Relationships. The present paper proposes an epistemological analysis of these three notions, aimed at clarifying the nature of their relationship, as well as the contiguities and differences between them. At first, we (...)
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  2. Five Ideas in Chemical Education That Must Die.Eric R. Scerri - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-9.
    The article concerns five traditionally difficult issues that chemical educators encounter and how they should be resolved. In some cases I propose the examination of necessary and sufficient conditions in order to cast light on the relationships under discussion. The five educational issues are, the notion that a pH value of seven implies a neutral solution of water and vice versa, the use of Le Châtelier’s Principle, the relative occupation and ionization of 4s and 3d orbitals, the explanation of anomalous (...)
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  3. Incompatible Models in Chemistry: The Case of Electronegativity.Hernán Lucas Accorinti - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-11.
    During the second half of the nineteenth century, electronegativity has been one of the most relevant chemical concepts to explain the relationships between chemical substances and their possible reactions. Specifically, EN is a property of the substances that allows them to attract external electrons in bonding situations. The problem arises because EN cannot be measured directly. Indeed, the only way to measure it is through different properties that do can be directly measured, for instance enthalpy, ionization energies or electron affinities. (...)
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  4. Émile Meyerson and Mass Conservation in Chemical Reactions: A Priori Expectations Versus Experimental Tests.Roberto de Andrade Martins - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-16.
    In his celebrated historic-epistemological work Identité et réalité, Émile Meyerson claimed that the scientific conservation principles were first suggested and accepted for philosophical reasons, and only afterwards were submitted to experimental tests. One of the instances he discussed in his book is the principle of mass conservation in chemical reactions. Meyerson pointed out that several authors, from Antiquity to Kant, accepted the idea of quantitative conservation of matter; and Lavoisier himself was strongly influenced by a priori ideas, using this principle (...)
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  5. A New Chapter in the Problem of the Reduction of Chemistry to Physics: The Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules.Jesus Alberto Jaimes Arriaga, Sebastian Fortin & Olimpia Lombardi - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-12.
    The problem of the reduction of chemistry to physics has been traditionally addressed in terms of classical structural chemistry and standard quantum mechanics. In this work, we will study the problem from the perspective of the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules, proposed by Richard Bader in the nineties. The purpose of this article is to unveil the role of QTAIM in the inter-theoretical relations between chemistry and physics. We argue that, although the QTAIM solves two relevant obstacles to reduction (...)
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  6. The Function of Microstructure in Boyle’s Chemical Philosophy: ‘Chymical Atoms' and Structural Explanation.Marina Paola Banchetti-Robino - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-9.
    One of several important issues that inform contemporary philosophy of chemistry is the issue of structural explanation, precisely because modern chemistry is primarily concerned with microstructure. This paper argues that concern over microstructure, albeit understood differently than it is today, also informs the chemical philosophy of Robert Boyle. According to Boyle, the specific microstructure of ‘chymical atoms’, understood in geometric terms, accounts for the unique essential properties of different chemical substances. Because he considers the microstructure of ‘chymical atoms’ as semi-permanent, (...)
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  7. The Problem of Optical Isomerism and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.Juan Camilo Martínez González - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-11.
    When young Kant meditated upon the distinction between his right and left hands, he could not foresee that the problem of incongruent counterparts would revive in the twentieth century under a new form. In the early days of quantum chemistry, Friedrich Hund developed the so-called Hund paradox that arises from the supposed inability of quantum mechanics to account for the difference between enantiomers. In this paper, the paradox is expressed as a case of quantum measurement, stressing that decoherence does not (...)
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  8. Re-Evaluating Semi-Empirical Computer Simulations in Quantum Chemistry.María Silvia Polzella & Penélope Lodeyro - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-13.
    Usually within the context of computer simulations in quantum chemistry practices, there is a distinction between ab initio and semi-empirical methods. Related to this, a controversy within the scientific and philosophical communities came about regarding the superiority of the ab initio methods due to their theoretical rigor. In this article we re-evaluate the condition of the semi-empirical simulations in this area of research. We examine some of the aspects of this debate that have been considered in philosophy and provide additional (...)
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  9. Let Us Build Better Boats. An Answer to Jeffrey Seeman's "Moving Beyond Insularity in the History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Chemistry".Sebastian Fortin, Olimpia Lombardi & Juan Camilo Martínez - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 2 (3):261-264.
    In his recent Editorial Article, Jeffrey Seeman calls for the promotion of collaborative work among different disciplines, focusing on the case of the interaction between chemistry, the history of chemistry and the philosophy of chemistry. From a general viewpoint, it is difficult to disagree with this claim; moreover, the interest of scientists in the history and the philosophy of science is always welcome. However, the devil is in the details: there are several points that, we think, must be discussed more (...)
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  10. Thermodynamic Foundations of Physical Chemistry: Reversible Processes and Thermal Equilibrium Into the History.Raffaele Pisano, Abdelkader Anakkar, Emilio Marco Pellegrino & Maxime Nagels - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-27.
    In the history of science, the birth of classical chemistry and thermodynamics produced an anomaly within Newtonian mechanical paradigm: force and acceleration were no longer citizens of new cited sciences. Scholars tried to reintroduce them within mechanistic approaches, as the case of the kinetic gas theory. Nevertheless, Thermodynamics, in general, and its Second Law, in particular, gradually affirmed their role of dominant not-reducible cognitive paradigms for various scientific disciplines: more than twenty formulations of Second Law—a sort of indisputable intellectual wealth—are (...)
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  11. Chemical Identity Crisis: Glass and Glassblowing in the Identification of Organic Compounds: Essay in Honour of Alan J. Rocke.Catherine M. Jackson - 2015 - Annals of Science 72 (2):187-205.
    SummaryThis essay explains why and how nineteenth-century chemists sought to stabilize the melting and boiling points of organic substances as reliable characteristics of identity and purity and how, by the end of the century, they established these values as ‘Constants of Nature’. Melting and boiling points as characteristic values emerge from this study as products of laboratory standardization, developed by chemists in their struggle to classify, understand and control organic nature. A major argument here concerns the role played by the (...)
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  12. Guest Editorial.Marina Banchetti-Robino - 2017 - Foundations of Chemistry 19 (1):3-4.
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  13. The Relationship Between Chemistry and Physics From the Perspective of Bohmian Mechanics.Juan González, Olimpia Lombardi & Sebastian Fortin - 2017 - Foundations of Chemistry 19 (1):43-59.
    Although during the last decades the philosophy of chemistry has greatly extended its thematic scope, the main difficulties appear in the attempt to link the chemical description of atoms and molecules and the description supplied by quantum mechanics. The aim of this paper is to analyze how the difficulties that threaten the continuous conceptual link between molecular chemistry and quantum mechanics can be overcome or, at least, moderated from the perspective of BM. With this purpose, in “The quantum-mechanical challenges” section (...)
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  14. Isomerism and Decoherence.Juan Martínez González, Olimpia Lombardi & Sebastian Fortin - 2016 - Foundations of Chemistry 18 (3):225-240.
    In the present paper we address the problem of optical isomerism embodied in the socalled “Hund’s paradox”, which points to the difficulty to account for chirality by means of quantum mechanics. In particular, we explain the answer to the problem proposed by the theory of decoherence. The purpose of this article is to challenge this answer on the basis of a conceptual analysis of the phenomenon of decoherence, that reveals the limitations of the theory of decoherence to solve the difficulties (...)
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  15. Let Us Build Better Boats: An Answer to Jeffrey Seeman’s “Moving Beyond Insularity in the History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Chemistry”.Juan Martínez González, Olimpia Lombardi & Sebastian Fortin - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):261-264.
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  16. The Limb Limps. [REVIEW]Thomas Vogt - 2018 - Hyle 24:105-107.
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  17. Further Light on the Philosophical Significance of Mackay’s Theoretical Discovery of Crystalline Pure Possibilities.Amihud Gilead - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-12.
    As early as 1981, about 1 year before Shechtman’s discovery of an actual quasicrystal, Alan L. Mackay discussed, in a seminal paper, the first steps for the expansion of crystallography toward its modern phase. In this phase, new possibilities of structures and order, such as the structures of five-fold symmetry, for crystals have been discovered. Medieval Islamic decorators as well as Albrecht Dürer, Johannes Kepler, Roger Penrose, Mackay himself, and other pioneer crystallographers raised important contributions to the theoretical discovery of (...)
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  18. Suggestions for Thinking and Talking About Science and Religion From the Soviet Resonance Controversy, a Chemical Counterpoint to Lysenkoism.Stephen Contakes & Garrett Johnson - 2013 - Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 4 (65):1-14.
    The Soviet resonance controversy was a chemical counterpart to Lysenkoism in which Soviet ideologues charged that Linus Pauling’s resonance concept was hostile to Marxism. We study it here to illustrate the role of social factors in science-faith dialogue. Because Soviet chemists were attentive to ideological dimensions of the controversy, they were not only willing to engage in public dialogue but also offered a response that decoupled the scientific aspects of resonance from ideological hostility, largely by modifying how they talked about (...)
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  19. Ethical Responsibilities in Military-Related Work: The Case of Napalm.Stephen Contakes & Taylor Jashinsky - 2016 - Hyle: International Journal for Philosophy of Chemistry 1 (22):31-53.
    Two case studies are presented illustrating how leaders of chemical enterprises addressed ethical questions posed by the incendiary napalm. The first one examines how the chemist Louis Fieser grappled with the ethical questions posed by his development of the napalm incendiaries used against military and civilian targets in the Second World War. The second involves the Dow Napalm Controversy, in which Dow Chemical engaged protests over its role as a supplier of napalm to the American military in Vietnam. Dow weighted (...)
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  20. Theory Comparison and Choice in Chemistry, 1766–1791.Geoffrey Blumenthal & James Ladyman - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):169-189.
    This is the second of a pair of papers, of which the first showed how each of the main late phlogistic theories effectively reached impasses due to internal problems or included features which made them unacceptable even to other phlogistians. This paper deals with theory comparison and theory change. It gives an unprecedentedly detailed comparison between the available theories in 1790–1791, and shows that this was overwhelmingly in favour of the new chemistry. This time period correlates well with many chemists (...)
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  21. Let Us Build Better Boats: An Answer to Jeffrey Seeman’s “Moving Beyond Insularity in the History, Philosophy, and Sociology of Chemistry”.Sebastian Fortin, Olimpia Lombardi & Juan Camilo Martínez González - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):261-264.
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  22. On the Position of Helium and Neon in the Periodic Table of Elements.Wojciech Grochala - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):191-207.
    Helium and neon, the two lightest noble gases, have been traditionally positioned by IUPAC in the Group 18 of the Periodic Table of Elements, together with argon, and other unreactive or moderately reactive gaseous elements, and oganesson. In this account we revive the old discussion on the possible placement of helium in the Group 2, while preserving the position of neon in Group 18. We provide quantum-chemical arguments for such scenario—as well as other qualitative and quantitative arguments—and we describe previous (...)
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  23. “Climate Change” and the “Butterfly Effect” in an Eighteenth Century Monograph.KelleyAnne Malinen & Chérif F. Matta - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):265-268.
    Long before the phrases “climate change” and “butterfly effect” were incorporated into the mainstream literature, these phrases appeared in an appropriate context almost verbatim in the first Chapter of a book entitled “The Emigrant” published in the mid-nineteenth century by Sir Francis Bond Head. Head was Upper Canada’s sixth Lieutenant Governor under King George IV and Queen Victoria. Head claimed that forest wildfires were “changing the climate” of North America as manifested in a warming effect “on the thermometer”. In that (...)
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  24. On the ‘True Position’ of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table.Vladimir M. Petruševski & Julijana Cvetković - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):251-260.
    Several attempts have recently been made to point to ‘the proper place’ for hydrogen in the Periodic Table of the elements. There are altogether five different types of arguments that lead to the following conclusions: hydrogen should be placed in group 1, above lithium; hydrogen should be placed in group 17, above fluorine; hydrogen is to be placed in group 14, above carbon; hydrogen should be positioned above both lithium and fluorine and hydrogen should be treated as a stand-alone element, (...)
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  25. From “Multiple Simultaneous Independent Discoveries” to the Theory of “Multiple Simultaneous Independent Errors”: A Conduit in Science.Jeffrey I. Seeman - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (3):219-249.
    Multiple simultaneous independent discoveries, so well enunciated by Robert K. Merton in the early 1960s but already discussed for several hundreds of years, is a classic concept in the sociology of science. In this paper, the concept of multiple simultaneous independent errors is proposed, analyzed, and discussed. The concept of Selective Pessimistic Induction is proposed and used to connect MIDs with MIEs. Five types of MIEs are discussed: multiple errors in the interpretation of experimental data or computational results; multiple misjudgments (...)
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  26. Is the Periodic Table Appears Doubled? Two Variants of Division of Elements Into Two Subsets. Internal and Secondary Periodicity.Naum S. Imyanitov - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-30.
    Demarcation of elements for two subsets appears to be the most fundamental approach to their classification. If one draws a vertical straight line through the middle of each block of elements in the Periodic table, all the elements are divided into two subsets: “early” and “later”. For example, in the d-block, the early ones are Sc–Mn, and the late ones, respectively, are Fe–Zn. Later elements partially repeat the properties of the early ones, and this is defined as the internal periodicity. (...)
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  27. Compounds and Mixtures.Paul Needham - 2012 - In Hend Hend, Paul Needham & Andrea Woody (eds.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Science, Vol 6: Philosophy of Chemistry. Amsterdam, Nederländerna: pp. 271-290.
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  28. Modality, Mereology and Substance.Paul Needham - 2012 - In Robin Hendry, Paul Needham & Andrea Woody (eds.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Science, Vol 6: Philosophy of Chemistry. Amsterdam, Nederländerna: pp. 232-254.
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  29. Pierre Duhem (1861–1916).Paul Needham - 2012 - In Robin Hendry, Paul Needham & Andrea Woody (eds.), Handbook of the Philosophy of Science, Vol 6: Philosophy of Chemistry. Amsterdam, Nederländerna: pp. 113-124.
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  30. Water and the Development of the Concept of Chemical Substance.Paul Needham - 2010 - In Terje Tvedt & Terje Oestigaard (eds.), A History of Water, Series II, Vol. 1: Ideas of Water from Antiquity to Modern Times. London, Storbritannien: pp. 86.123.
    The historical development of the understanding of water is traced in the light of the development of the general concept of chemical substance. From the times of the earliest known ancient Greek philosophers, water has played a central role in the conception of the material constitution of the world. But it was Aristotle who developed the most sophisticated understanding of water to have come down to us from the ancients. He viewed it as part of an intricate and systematic theory (...)
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  31. One Substance or More?Paul Needham - 2015 - In Eric Scerri & Lee McIntyre (eds.), Philosophy of Chemistry: Growth of a New Discipline. Berlin, Tyskland: Springer. pp. 91-105.
    Chemistry builds on distinctions of substance, which presupposes that matter can be divided into substances and compared with other matter and itself on different occasions as being of the same substance. Even identifying a quantity of matter as comprising a single substance presupposes the same substance relation, it being a quantity all of whose spatial parts are the same substance. But criteria of purity have been important for isolating substances and investigating their characteristic properties, which can in turn be used (...)
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  32. Research of Chemical Elements and Chemical Bonds From the View of Complex Network.Runzhan Liu, Guoyong Mao & Ning Zhang - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-14.
    Though complex networks have been widely applied in the research of chemistry, there is hardly any introduction about the establishment of networks using chemical bonds. In this paper, we consider chemical elements as a system linked by chemical bonds and create the undirected chemical bond network by abstracting nodes from elements and undirected edges from bonds. Connectivity, heterogeneity, small world and disassortativity of this network show the macro structural rationality of this system. The degree and k-order neighbors of an element, (...)
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  33. A Historical/Epistemological Account of the Foundation of the Key Ideas Supporting Chemical Equilibrium Theory.Juan Quílez - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-32.
    In this paper it is performed a historical account of the theoretical roots that grounded the following four key basic ideas of chemical equilibrium: ‘incomplete reaction’, ‘reversibility’, ‘equilibrium constant’ and ‘molecular dynamics’. These notions developed in nineteenth-century as a consequence of the evolution of the concept of chemical affinity. The discussion begins with the presentation of the earliest affinity table [‘Table des rapports’] published in 1718 by Geoffroy. Afterwards, it is examined Bergman’s compilation. The theory supporting this arrangement assumed that (...)
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  34. The Network Theory: A New Language for Speaking About Chemical Elements Relations Through Stoichiometric Binary Compounds.Rosana del P. Suárez - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-14.
    Traditionally the study of chemical elements has been limited to well-known concepts like the periodic properties and chemical families. However, current information shows a new and rich language that allows us to observe relations in the elements that are not limited to their positions in the table. These relations are evident when reactions are represented through networks, as in the case of similar reactivity of organic compounds sharing functional groups. For the past two decades, it has been argued that network (...)
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  35. A Novel Approach to Emergence in Chemistry.Alexandru Manafu - 2015 - In Eric Scerri & L. McIntyre (eds.), Philosophy of Chemistry. Growth of a New Discipline. Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. Volume 306. pp. 39-55.
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  36. Concepts of Emergence in Chemistry.Alexandru Manafu - 2013 - In J. P. Llored (ed.), The Philosophy of Chemistry: Practices, Methodologies and Concepts. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: pp. 659-674.
  37. The Periodic Table: Revelation by Quest Rather Than by Revolution.Peter Hodder - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (2):99-110.
    The concept of major scientific advances occurring as a short-term ‘revolutionary’ change in thinking interspersed by long periods of so-called ‘normal’ science seems to be losing ground to more ecological models, which are more inimical of the twists and turns of life. From this idea it is a short step to charting science’s progress against stages used in fictional storytelling, which after all is life-based. This paper explores the development of the periodic table in terms of the achievement of a (...)
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  38. Early Industrial Roots of Green Chemistry and the History of the BHC Ibuprofen Process Invention and its Quality Connection.Mark Murphy - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (2):121-165.
    Conventional wisdom and many published histories of “Green Chemistry” describe its start as being a result of governmental and/or regulatory actions at the US Environmental Protection Agency during the early 1990’s. But there were many Real World industrial examples of environmentally friendly commercial processes in the oil and commodity chemicals industries for decades prior to the 1990s. Some early examples of commercial “Green Chemistry” are briefly described in this article. The Boots/Hoechst Celanese Ibuprofen process was one of the earliest multiple-award-winning (...)
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  39. The Orbital: A Pivotal Concept in the Relationship Between Chemistry and Physics? A Comment to the Work by Fortin and Coauthors.Giovanni Villani, Elena Ghibaudi & Luigi Cerruti - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (2):89-97.
    The present work is a comment of a recent paper by Fortin and coauthors in which the authors propose the introduction of Bohmian mechanics in the philosophy of chemistry and the use of standard quantum mechanics as a mere instrument of prediction. This way would allow overcoming the obstacles found in linking molecular chemistry and quantum mechanics. Starting from some remarks on the orbital concept, we highlight and discuss some general issues that need to be taken into account when two (...)
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  40. Tetrahedral and Spherical Representations of the Periodic System.Philip J. Stewart - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (2):111-120.
    The s, p, d and f blocks of the elements, as delimited by Charles Janet in 1928, can be represented as parallel slices of a regular tetrahedron. They also fit neatly on to the surface of a sphere. The reasons for this are discussed and the possible objections examined. An attempt is made to see whether there are philosophical implications of this unexpected geometrical regularity. A new tetrahedral design in transparent plastic is presented.
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  41. Macroscopic Metaphysics: Middle-Sized Objects and Longish Processes.Paul Needham - 2017 - Springer.
    This book is about matter. It involves our ordinary concept of matter in so far as this deals with enduring continuants that stand in contrast to the occurrents or processes in which they are involved, and concerns the macroscopic realm of middle-sized objects of the kind familiar to us on the surface of the earth and their participation in medium term processes. The emphasis will be on what science rather than philosophical intuition tells us about the world, and on chemistry (...)
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  42. Getting It Right is Not Equivalent to Getting It Wrong.Philip J. Stewart - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-2.
    Mendeleev’s successful predictions were the fruit of his insight into the structure of the periodic system. His failures were the result of pursuing the pattern he had perceived beyond the limits of its applicability. These two things are not equivalent.
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  43. What is Chemistry That I May Teach It?Peter G. Nelson - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-13.
    This article presents a personal answer to the question “What is chemistry?”, set out in terms of six propositions. These cover “pure” and “applied” chemistry, different levels of description, and the broader context of chemistry.
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  44. Priestley’s Views on the Composition of Water and Related Airs.Geoffrey Blumenthal - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-32.
    In some views in the history, philosophy and social studies of chemistry, Joseph Priestley is at least as well-known and cited for his objections to the new chemistry and his promotion of his own late version of the theory of phlogiston, as for his early series of discoveries about types of air for which he had become famous. These citations are generally not associated with any detailed indications about his late work from 1788 onwards and his late phlogistic theory, of (...)
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  45. Mendeleev’s Predictions: Success and Failure.Philip J. Stewart - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-7.
    Dmitri Mendeleev’s detailed prediction in 1871 of the properties of three as yet unknown elements earned him enormous prestige. Eleven other predictions, thrown off without elaboration, were less uniformly successful, thanks mainly his unbending adherence to the structure of his table and his failure to account for the lanthanides. At the end of his life he returned to his table without making the required changes, and added a theoretical discussion of elements lighter than hydrogen. The overall balance of success and (...)
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  46. Correction To: Valencies of the Lanthanides.David A. Johnson & Peter G. Nelson - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-2.
    The authors regret that there are errors in equation and subsequent discussion. The correct version is as follows.
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  47. Chemistry as a Creative Science.Le Dolino - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (1):3-13.
    How do we teach chemistry as a different science from physics? This paper looks into a fundamental distinguishing property of chemistry as a science. It is characterized in this paper that chemistry, unlike many other sciences that are largely descriptive, is primarily creative. In this sense, the various fields of chemistry may seek to create as an end goal, and not merely to create as a means to an end as commonly seen in allied sciences. This distinction is important as (...)
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  48. An Allegory on Molecular Periodicity.Ray Hefferlin - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (1):43-49.
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  49. Basic Principles of the Strategy Concerning the Elucidation of Configuration of Chiral Centers of Linear Isomeric Aldohexoses.Dumitru Iga - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (1):31-41.
    Fischer’s approach for structure elucidation of linear aldohexoses is still the most widespread alternative in textbooks for carbohydrates. However, in post-Fischer era, a series of remarkable discoveries and inventions were made in different laboratories, and by their use a more comprehensive and coherent strategy for structure elucidation of linear isomeric aldohexoses can be elaborated. Fischer used the exceptional properties of d-mannose for the knowledge of configuration of C-2 and called it the key of the gate to stereochemistry. We bring the (...)
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  50. Valencies of the Lanthanides.David A. Johnson & Peter G. Nelson - 2018 - Foundations of Chemistry 20 (1):15-27.
    The valencies of the lanthanides vary more than was once thought. In addition to valencies associated with a half-full shell, there are valencies associated with a quarter- and three-quarter-full shell. This can be explained on the basis of Slater’s theory of many-electron atoms. The same theory explains the variation in complexing constants in the trivalent state. Valency in metallic and organometallic compounds is also discussed.
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1 — 50 / 2811