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  1. Periodic law, chemical elements and scientific discoveries: considerations from Norwood Hanson and Thomas Kuhn.Cristina Spolti Lorenzetti, Anabel Cardoso Raicik & Luiz O. Q. Peduzzi - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-19.
    The theme surrounding scientific discoveries is quite neglected in and about the sciences, especially in terms of historical and epistemological understanding. Discoveries are often treated as simple information about dates, places, and people. This work presents discussions centered on historical episodes related to chemical elements and the Periodic Law, based on reflections by Thomas Kuhn and Norwood Hanson, aiming to highlight and contextualize specific scientific discoveries' conceptual and epistemological structure. With that in mind, issues related to the inseparability of the (...)
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  2. Novelty and Innovation, the Joy of Experimentation, and the “Investigation of Things” (gewu) in Pre-modern China: The Example of Gunpowder.David Bartosch, Aleksandar Kondinski & Bei Peng - 2024 - International Communication of Chinese Culture 11 (1):23–40.
    In this transdisciplinary investigation, we focus on the invention and development of gunpowder. We aim to answer the questions regarding (1) the inspiration behind the invention, including historical, mythological, and intellectual backgrounds, (2) how it came about in concreto, and (3) its impact on the history of science in China. We argue that the invention has to be viewed in a broader context and that various factors come into play with regard to the above questions. The discussion starts by examining (...)
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  3. Research status of the periodic table: a bibliometric analysis.Kamna Sharma, Deepak Kumar Das & Saibal Ray - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-14.
    In this paper, we present a bibliometric analysis of the Periodic Table. We have conducted a comprehensive analysis of Scopus based database using the keyword “Mendeleev Periodic Table". Our findings suggest that the Periodic Table is an influential topic in the field of Inorganic as well as Organic Chemistry. Areas for future research could include on expanding our analysis to include other bibliometric indicators to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of the Periodic Table in the chemistry-based scientific (...)
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  4. Deciphering the physical meaning of Gibbs’s maximum work equation.Robert T. Hanlon - 2024 - Foundations of Chemistry 26 (1):179-189.
    J. Willard Gibbs derived the following equation to quantify the maximum work possible for a chemical reaction$${\text{Maximum work }} = \, - \Delta {\text{G}}_{{{\text{rxn}}}} = \, - \left( {\Delta {\text{H}}_{{{\text{rxn}}}} {-}{\text{ T}}\Delta {\text{S}}_{{{\text{rxn}}}} } \right) {\text{ constant T}},{\text{P}}$$ Maximum work = - Δ G rxn = - Δ H rxn - T Δ S rxn constant T, P ∆Hrxn is the enthalpy change of reaction as measured in a reaction calorimeter and ∆Grxn the change in Gibbs energy as measured, if (...)
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  5. Hydrogen over helium: A philosophical position.René Vernon - 2024 - Foundations of Chemistry 26 (1):15-36.
    Hydrogen is troublesome in any periodic table classification. This being so it may as well be placed in a position that confers desirable attributes to the arrangement of the elements, while notionally recognising its lineage to the group 1 alkali metals and the group 17 halogens. Since the noble gases bridge the halogens and the alkali metals, and hydrogen encompasses the transition from the alkali metals to the halogens, there is more to the idea of hydrogen over helium. (Meyer 1870, (...)
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  6. Introducing UV–visible spectroscopy at high school level following the historical evolution of spectroscopic instruments: a proposal for chemistry teachers.Maria Antonietta Carpentieri & Valentina Domenici - 2024 - Foundations of Chemistry 26 (1):115-139.
    Spectroscopy is a scientific topic at the interface between Chemistry and Physics, which is taught at high school level in relation with its fundamental applications in Analytical Chemistry. In the first part of the paper, the topic of spectroscopy is analyzed having in mind the well-known Johnstone’s triangle of chemistry education, putting in evidence the way spectroscopy is usually taught at the three levels of chemical knowledge: macroscopic/phenomenological, sub-microscopic/molecular and symbolic ones. Among these three levels, following Johnstone’s recommendations the macroscopic (...)
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  7. What is a mathematician doing…in a chemistry class?Ernesto Estrada - 2024 - Foundations of Chemistry 26 (1):141-166.
    The way of thinking of mathematicians and chemists in their respective disciplines seems to have very different levels of abstractions. While the firsts are involved in the most abstract of all sciences, the seconds are engaged in a practical, mainly experimental discipline. Therefore, it is surprising that many luminaries of the mathematics universe have studied chemistry as their main subject. Others have started studying chemistry before swapping to mathematics or have declared some admiration and even love for this discipline. Here (...)
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  8. Relating screening to atomic properties and electronegativity in the Slater atom.Balakrishnan Viswanathan & M. Shajahan Gulam Razul - 2024 - Foundations of Chemistry 26 (1):89-113.
    Slater’s method is an integral part of the undergraduate experience. In actuality, Slater’s method is part of an atomic model and not simply a set of rules. Slater’s rules are a simple means for computing the effective nuclear charge experienced by an orbital. These rules are based on the shell-like structure of the Slater atom in which outer shell electrons are incapable of shielding inner electrons. Slater’s model provides a qualitative description of the valence electrons in multi-electron atoms with tremendous (...)
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  9. Johann Rudolph Glauber: the royals’ alchemist and his secret recipes.Curt Wentrup - 2024 - Foundations of Chemistry 26 (1):3-13.
    Compelling evidence is presented that Glauber worked as a laborator (laboratory assistant) for Landgrave Georg of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1632/33 till he was appointed apothecary in Giessen in 1635. During this time, he was also used as laborator by the landgrave’s personal physician, Helwig Dieterich. Glauber became a famous chemist, whose alchemical secrets were keenly solicited by King Frederik III of Denmark, Queen Christina of Sweden, and, according to the 1662 diary of Ole Borch, King Charles II of England. A 1689 (...)
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  10. Celebrating the birth of De Donder’s chemical affinity (1922–2022): from the uncompensated heat to his Ave Maria.Alessio Rocci - 2024 - Foundations of Chemistry 26 (1):37-73.
    Théophile De Donder, a Belgian mathematician born in Brussels, elaborated two important ideas that created a bridge between thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. He invented the concept of the degree of advancement of a reaction, and, in 1922, he provided a precise mathematical form to the already known chemical affinity by translating Clausius’s uncompensated heat into formal language. These concepts merge in an important inequality that was the starting point for the formalization of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The present article aims to reconstruct (...)
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  11. Bond order and bond energies.Peter F. Lang - 2024 - Foundations of Chemistry 26 (1):167-177.
    This work describes the concept of bond order. It shows that covalent bond energy is correlated to bond order. Simple expressions which included bond order are introduced to calculate bond energies of homo-nuclear and hetero-nuclear bonds. Calculated values of bond energies are compared with literature values and show there is very good agreement between and calculated and experimental values in the vast majority of cases. Bond order reveals the strength of a bond and shows the number of bonds in both (...)
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  12. Clashing perspectives: Kantian epistemology and quantum chemistry theory.Ricardo Vivas-Reyes - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-10.
    In this contribution, the role of epistemology in understanding quantum chemistry is discussed. Quantum chemistry is the study of the behavior of atoms and molecules using the principles of quantum mechanics. Epistemology helps us evaluate claims to knowledge, distinguish between justified and unjustified beliefs, and assess the reliability of scientific methods. In quantum chemistry, the epistemology of knowledge is heavily influenced by the mathematical nature of quantum mechanics, and models can be tested, proven, and validated through experimentation. This paper also (...)
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  13. Connecting De Donder’s equation with the differential changes of thermodynamic potentials: understanding thermodynamic potentials.Mihalj Poša - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-16.
    The new mathematical connection of De Donder’s differential entropy production with the differential changes of thermodynamic potentials (Helmholtz free energy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy) was obtained through the linear sequence of equations (direct, straightforward path), in which we use rigorous thermodynamic definitions of the partial molar thermodynamic properties. This new connection uses a global approach to the problem of reversibility and irreversibility, which is vital to global learners’ view and standardizes the linking procedure for thermodynamic potentials (Helmholtz free energy, (...)
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  14. Interaction, interpretation and representation: the construction and dissemination of chemical knowledge from a Peircean semiotics perspective.Karina Aparecida de Freitas Dias de Souza & Paulo Alves Porto - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-19.
    This paper proposes a theoretical approach to discuss the relations among reality, chemists’ interactions with it, and the resulting interpretation and representation of the acquired scientific knowledge. Taking into account that such relations are of semiotic nature, this paper aims at discussing in the light of Peirce’s theory of signs different descriptions of chemical activity and chemical education proposed by Alex Johnstone and elaborated by other science educators. In order to discuss the contributions and limitations of the proposed theoretical framework, (...)
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  15. Ethics of the future of chemical sciences.José Antonio Chamizo & Gustavo Ortiz-Millán - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-11.
    The 2016 Royal Society of Chemistry’s report Future of the Chemical Sciences presents four different scenarios for the future of chemistry: chemistry saves the world; push-button chemistry; a world without chemists; and free market chemistry. In this paper we ethically assess them. If chemistry is to solve many of the greatest challenges facing the contemporary world, prioritization of research topics will need to be done explicitly on the basis of moral values, ​​such as solidarity and equity, but also environmental justice, (...)
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  16. A Commentary on Robin Hendry’s Views on Molecular Structure, Emergence and Chemical Bonding.Eric Scerri - 2023 - In João L. Cordovil, Gil Santos & Davide Vecchi (eds.), New Mechanism Explanation, Emergence and Reduction. Springer. pp. 161 - 177.
    In this article I examine several related views expressed by Robin Hendry concerning molecular structure, emergence and chemical bonding. There is a long-standing problem in the philosophy of chemistry arising from the fact that molecular structure cannot be strictly derived from quantum mechanics. Two or more compounds which share a molecular formula, but which differ with respect to their structures, have identical Hamiltonian operators within the quantum mechanical formalism. As a consequence, the properties of all such isomers yield precisely the (...)
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  17. Measuring ecologically sound practice in the chemical industry.Michèle Friend - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-11.
    I present a comparative and holistic method for qualitatively measuring sound ecological practice in chemistry. I consider chemicals developed and used by man from cradle to grave, that is, from the moment they are extracted from the earth, biomass, water or air, to their transportation, purification, mixing and elaboration in a factory, to their distribution by means of the market, to waste products both from the factory, packaging, transportations and by the consumer. I divide the locations of the ‘life’ of (...)
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  18. A defense of placeholder essentialism.Safia Bano - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (3):393-404.
    Kripke-Putnam argument for natural kind essentialism can be said to depend on placeholder essentialist intuitions. But some argue that such philosophical intuitions are merely preschooler cognitive biases which are not supported by scientific knowledge of natural kinds. Chemical substances, for instance, whether elements or compounds do not have such privileged set of underlying properties (‘same substance’ relation) which are present in all members of the kind and which provide necessary and sufficient condition for kind membership. In this paper, I argue (...)
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  19. From complexity to systems.Hrvoj Vančik - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (3):345-358.
    The interrelation between two theories, theory of complexity and theory of systems, is analyzed by using the chemical graph-theoretical concept. The idea of complexity is systemized through three components: diachronic, synchronic, and combinatorial complexity. The relationships between entropy and complexity, as well as the problem of function are also discussed.
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  20. An unlikely bifurcation: history of sustainable (but not Green) chemistry.Marcin Krasnodębski - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (3):463-484.
    The concept of green chemistry dominated the imagination of environmentally-minded chemists over the last thirty years. The conceptual frameworks laid by the American Environmental Protection Agency scholars in the 1990s constitute today the core of a line of thinking aimed at transforming chemistry into a sustainable science. And yet, in the shadow of green chemistry, a broader, even if less popular, concept of sustainable chemistry started taking shape. Initially, it was either loosely associated with green chemistry or left undefined as (...)
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  21. Misconception in chemistry textbooks: a case study on the concept of quantum number, electronic configuration and review for teaching material.Rr Lis Permana Sari, Heru Pratomo, Isti Yunita, Sukisman Purtadi, Mahesh Narayan & Kristian Handoyo Sugiyarto - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (3):419-437.
    This article describes a descriptive-qualitative method for analyzing and reviewing several textbooks for high school as samples commonly used by teachers and students in their teaching–learning to reveal possible misconceptions. This study focused on the subjects of quantum numbers and electronic configuration. From the advanced literature review to analyze the samples the occurrence of various misconceptions was noted. All textbooks described correctly the four symbols of quantum numbers, but none correlates correctly the magnetic-angular quantum number to the Cartesian labeled orbitals. (...)
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  22. Common empirical foundations, different theoretical choices: The Berthollet-Proust controversy and Dalton’s resolution.Yachun Xu, Yichen Tong & Jiangyang Yuan - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (3):439-455.
    Based upon the demarcation between Elementalism and Atomism Chemistry from the perspective of the long-term history of chemistry, the authors re-examine the Berthollet-Proust controversy on the three types of chemical compounds, pointing out that Berthollet proposed the law of indefinite proportions by deduction, while Proust proposed the law of definite proportions by induction. The controversy is beyond the framework of affinity chemistry and entail a synthesis of meta-chemical thinking and experiments. Proust’s discovery of the law of definite proportions not only (...)
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  23. Response to the critique by Dr. K. Brad Wray, published in foundations of chemistry October 6, 2022.Gareth R. Eaton - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (3):457-461.
    Dr. K. Wray (2022) questioned my suggestion that T. W. Richards should be included as one of the scientists who contributed to the discovery of isotopes. This article provides additional support for inclusion of Richards as a contributor to the discovery.
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  24. Scientific representation and science identity: the case of chemistry.Pedro J. Sánchez Gómez - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (3):381-391.
    I put forward an inferentialist account of Lewis structures (LSs). In this view, the role of LSs is not to realistically depict molecules, but instead to allow surrogate reasoning and inference in chemistry. I also show that the usage of LSs is a central part of a person’s identity as a chemist, as it is defined within educational identity theory. Taking these conclusions together, I argue that the inferentialist approach to LSs and chemistry identity theory can be studied in parallel, (...)
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  25. Editor's Note by Michele Friend.Michèle Indira Friend - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (3):343-344.
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  26. Centenary Workshop on the Bifurcation of Acidity -Protonism vs. Electronism.Klaus Ruthenberg - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-4.
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  27. Are Acids Natural Kinds?Pieter Thyssen - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-29.
    Are acids natural kinds? Or are they merely relevant kinds? Although acidity has been one of the oldest and most important concepts in chemistry, surprisingly little ink has been spilled on the natural kind question. I approach the question from the perspective of microstructural essentialism. After explaining why both Brønsted acids and Lewis acids are considered functional kinds, I address the challenges of multiple realization and multiple determination. Contra Manafu and Hendry, I argue that the stereotypical properties of acids are (...)
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  28. Bifurcations.Klaus Ruthenberg - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-12.
    In this short essay I address the central topic of the Centenary Workshop on Acidity, that is the relations of the classical protonist acid–base theory by Brønsted and the electronist approach by Lewis. Emphasis is laid on the empirical background of both approaches and the over-theoretization of chemical phenomena (essentialism) is criticized.
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  29. “Sharp of taste”: the concept of acidity in the Greek system of natural explanation.Apostolos K. Gerontas - forthcoming - Foundations of Chemistry:1-9.
    Acidic substances were known for thousands of years, and their macroscopic-sensory characteristics were reflected by words in most ancient languages. In the Western canon, the history of the concept of acidity goes back to Ancient Greece. In Greek, the word associated with acidity from its early literary references was ὀξύς (“sharp”), and still in contemporary Greek the words “sour” and “acidic” have the same root. This paper makes a short presentation of the appearance of the abstract concept in the works (...)
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  30. Reactivity in chemistry: the propensity view.Mauricio Suárez & Pedro J. Sánchez Gómez - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (3):369-380.
    We argue for an account of chemical reactivities as chancy propensities, in accordance with the ‘complex nexus of chance’ defended by one of us in the past. Reactivities are typically quantified as proportions, and an expression such as “A + B → C” does not entail that under the right conditions some given amounts of A and B react to give the mass of C that theoretically corresponds to the stoichiometry of the reaction. Instead, what is produced is a fraction (...)
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  31. On how some fundamental chemical concepts are correlated by arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means.Francesco Di Giacomo - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (2):265-268.
    Examples are given of applications by Pauling, Mulliken, Marcus and G.E.Kimball of the three Pythagorian means to formulate the scales of electronegativity of the elements, to the calculations of rate constants of electron transfer cross-reactions, to the calculation of the observed rate constant as function of activation and diffusion rate constants in the case of mixed reaction-diffusion rates and to the calculation of the effective diffusion coefficient in solution of a salt AB as a whole from the diffusion coefficients of (...)
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  32. Revolutions in science, revolutions in chemistry.Jeffrey I. Seeman - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (2):321-335.
    Despite decades of research and thought on the meaning and identification of revolutions in science, there is no generally accepted definition for this concept. This paper presents 13 different characteristics that have been used by philosophers and historians of science to characterize revolutions in science, in general, and in chemistry, in particular. These 13 characteristics were clustered into six independent factors. Suggestions are provided as to the use of these characteristics and factors to evaluate historical events as to their possible (...)
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  33. On a unified theory of acids and bases: Hasok Chang, Eric R. Scerri, modern theoretical chemistry, and the philosophy of chemistry.Dean J. Tantillo & Jeffrey I. Seeman - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (2):299-320.
    Recent publications by several leading philosophers of chemistry have focused on the definition, scope, utility, and nomenclature of issues dealing with acidity and basicity. In this paper, molecular orbital theory is used to explain all acid–base reactions, concluding that the interaction of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of one substrate, “the base,” with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a second substrate, “the acid,” determines the reactivity of such systems. This paradigm provides an understanding of all acid–base reactions (...)
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  34. Correction: Book review of Paul Sen’s, “Einstein’s Fridge. How the difference between hot and cold explains the universe” ISBN: 978-1-5011-8130-6. [REVIEW]Robert T. Hanlon - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (2):339-339.
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  35. Predicting unknown binary compounds from the view of complex network.Guoyong Mao, Runzhan Liu & Ning Zhang - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (2):207-214.
    Consider chemical elements as a system, we create an undirected chemical network with 99 elements and 1916 edges from Chemspider, a website that provide search engines to collect compounds. Using this network and the network that we used in our previous work with 97 elements and 2198 edges, we found that RootedPageRank, a link prediction tool in complex network, can be used to predict potential binary compounds, because the changing trend of PageRank probability of each element in these networks all (...)
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  36. Name game: the naming history of the chemical elements: part 2—turbulent nineteenth century.Paweł Miśkowiec - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (2):215-234.
    The second article of the “Naming game…” series provides detailed information on the discovery and naming of elements in the nineteenth century. Outlines of discoveries of 46 elements were presented, with particular emphasis on publications in which the name appeared for the first time. In the article the short historical information about every element naming is presented. The process of naming each chemical element was analyzed, with particular emphasis on the first publication with a given name.
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  37. A commentary on Weisberg’s critique of the ‘structural conception’ of chemical bonding.Eric R. Scerri - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (2):253-264.
    Robin Hendry has presented an account of two equally valid ways of understanding the nature of chemical bonding, consisting of what the terms the structural and the energetic views respectively. In response, Weisberg has issued a “challenge to the structural view”, thus implying that the energetic view is the more correct of the two conceptions. In doing so Weisberg identifies the delocalization of electrons as the one robust feature that underlies the increasingly accurate quantum mechanical calculations starting with the Heitler-London (...)
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  38. Name game: the naming history of the chemical elements—part 3—rivalry of scientists in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.Paweł Miśkowiec - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (2):235-251.
    The third article of the “Naming game…” series presents the issues of naming elements discovered and synthesized in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Based on the source data, the publication time of the names of the last 35 chemical elements was identified. In the case of discoveries from the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century, the principle was adopted of the priority of information about the synthesis of a new chemical element in scientific journals (...)
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  39. Book review of Paul Sen’s, “Einstein’s Fridge. How the difference between hot and cold explains the universe” ISBN: 978-1-5011-8130-6. [REVIEW]Robert T. Hanlon - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (2):337-338.
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  40. Entropy and sign conventions.G. M. Anderson - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (1):119-125.
    It is a fundamental cornerstone of thermodynamics that entropy (SU,V\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$S_{U,V}$$\end{document}) increases in spontaneous processes in isolated systems (often called closed or thermally closed systems when the transfer of energy as work is considered to be negligible) and achieves a maximum when the system reaches equilibrium. But with a different sign convention entropy could just as well be said to decrease to a minimum in spontaneous constant U, V processes. It would then (...)
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  41. Name game: the naming history of the chemical elements—part 1—from antiquity till the end of 18th century.Paweł Miśkowiec - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (1):29-51.
    The aim of the series of the three articles entitled “Name game…” is to present the historical information about nomenclature history of every known chemical element. The process of naming each chemical element is analyzed, with particular emphasis on the first publication with a given name. It turned out that in many cases this information is not obvious and unambiguous, and the published data are even contradictory. In a few cases, the names of the elements were changed even several times. (...)
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  42. Correction to: A process ontology approach in biochemistry: the case of GPCRs and biosignaling.Fiorela Alassia - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (1):189-206.
    According to process ontology in the philosophy of biology, the living world is better understood as processes rather than as substantial individuals. Within this perspective, an organism does not consist of a hierarchy of structures like a machine, but rather a dynamic hierarchy of processes, dynamically maintained and stabilized at different time scales. With this respect, two processual approaches on enzymes by Stein (Hyle Int J Philos Chem 10(4):5–22, 2004, Process Stud 34:62–80, 2005, Found Chem 8:3–29, 2006) and by Guttinger (...)
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  43. Interview with Olimpia Lombardi.Eric R. Scerri - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (1):101-117.
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  44. Philosophical grounds for designing invisible molecules.Hirofumi Ochiai - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (1):141-149.
    Abstract‘Structure’ is the term whose proper use is exemplified by an expression like ‘the structure of a diesel-engine,’ in which what is referred to is accessible to immediate observation. It is also used figuratively like ‘social structure.’ While unobservable, what is referred to is empirically accessible. By contrast, molecules are neither observable nor empirically accessible. What philosophical grounds enable us to design invisible structure of molecules? Our cognition of objects becomes realized as phenomena when objects are given to our phenomenal (...)
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  45. Electronegativity provides the relationship between formal charge, oxidation state, and actual charge.Balakrishnan Viswanathan & M. Shajahan Gulam Razul - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (1):5-28.
    Formal charge and oxidation state are two means of estimating the charge of an atom in a molecule. Though these concepts have very different origins—formal charge is derived from the ball-and-hook model of bonding and oxidation state is based on the ionic approximation of molecules—they are used to predict reactivity and other molecular properties through their properties as charges. In this submission, it is shown that formal charge and oxidation state are two extreme descriptions of bonding: formal charge represents zero (...)
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  46. Correction to: Name game: the naming history of the chemical elements—part 1—from antiquity till the end of 18th century. [REVIEW]Paweł Miśkowiec - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (1):53-55.
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  47. Natural kinds, chemical practice, and interpretive communities. [REVIEW]Clevis Headley - 2023 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (1):167-187.
    Many philosophers attribute extraordinary importance to the idea of natural kinds seemingly intimating that the very possibility of certain kinds of activity are ontologically beholden to the existence of kinds. Specifically, regarding chemistry, Brian Ellis intimated that the success of any plausible metaphysical essentialism depends upon its “reliance on examples from chemistry.” Ellis’s view is representative of a tradition in analytic philosophy that has utilized chemical examples as paradigmatic natural kinds. In this regard, Kripke and Putnam emerge as the architects (...)
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  48. On the nature of quantum-chemical entities: the case of electron density.Jesus Alberto Jaimes Arriaga - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (1):127-139.
    An Aristotelian philosophy of nature offers an alternative to reduction for the conception of the inter-theoretical relationships between molecular chemistry and quantum mechanics. A basic ingredient for such an approach is an ontology of fundamental causal powers, and this work aims to develop such an ontology by drawing on quantum-chemical entities, particularly, the electron density. This notion is central to the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules, a theory of molecular structure developed by Richard F. W. Bader, which describes molecules (...)
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  49. Models, languages and representations: philosophical reflections driven from a research on teaching and learning about cellular respiration.Martín Pérgola & Lydia Galagovsky - 2022 - Foundations of Chemistry 25 (1):151-166.
    Mental model construction is supposed to be a useful cognitive devise for learning. Beyond human capacity of constructing mental models, scientists construct complex explanations about phenomena, named scientific or theoretical models. In this work we revisit three vissions: the first one concern about the polisemic term “model”. Our proposal is to discriminate between “mental models” and “explicit models”, being the former those “imaginistic” ideas constructed in scientists’—o teachers—minds, and the latter those teaching devices expressed in different languages that tend to (...)
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  50. Are Acids Natural Kinds?Pieter Thyssen - manuscript
    Are acids natural kinds? Or are they merely relevant kinds? Although acidity has been one of the oldest and most important concepts in chemistry, surprisingly little ink has been spilled on the natural kind question. I approach the question from the perspective of microstructural essentialism. After explaining why both Brønsted acids and Lewis acids are considered functional kinds, I address the challenges of multiple realization and multiple determination. Contra Manafu and Hendry, I argue that the stereotypical properties of acids are (...)
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