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  1. added 2022-09-30
    Understanding Sophia? On human interaction with artificial agents.Thomas Fuchs - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-22.
    Advances in artificial intelligence create an increasing similarity between the performance of AI systems or AI-based robots and human communication. They raise the questions: whether it is possible to communicate with, understand, and even empathically perceive artificial agents; whether we should ascribe actual subjectivity and thus quasi-personal status to them beyond a certain level of simulation; what will be the impact of an increasing dissolution of the distinction between simulated and real encounters. To answer these questions, the paper argues that (...)
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  2. added 2022-09-30
    Urban AI: understanding the emerging role of artificial intelligence in smart cities.Aale Luusua, Johanna Ylipulli, Marcus Foth & Alessandro Aurigi - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-6.
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  3. added 2022-09-30
    Artificial Intelligence and Responsibility Gaps: What is the Problem?Peter Königs - 2022 - Ethics and Information Technology 24 (3).
    Recent decades have witnessed tremendous progress in artificial intelligence and in the development of autonomous systems that rely on artificial intelligence. Critics, however, have pointed to the difficulty of allocating responsibility for the actions of an autonomous system, especially when the autonomous system causes harm or damage. The highly autonomous behavior of such systems, for which neither the programmer, the manufacturer, nor the operator seems to be responsible, has been suspected to generate responsibility gaps. This has been the cause of (...)
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  4. added 2022-09-30
    Técnica animal. Glosario de filosofía de la técnica.Joan Sebastián Mejía-Rendón - 2022 - In Diego Parente, Agustín Berti & Claudio Celis (eds.), Glosario de filosofía de la técnica. Córdoba, Argentina: pp. 457-461.
    El ambiente artificial en el que se despliega la vida en el planeta potencia un conjunto de interrogantes –algunos ya clásicos, otros novedosos– sobre los modos de existencia de los artefactos, sistemas y objetos técnicos que permean cada una de nuestras acciones. Parte importante de estos interrogantes se ocupa de las transformaciones que este ambiente artificial genera en la experiencia moral, política y cognitiva de los individuos, instituciones y sociedades. El Glosario de filosofía de la técnica elabora un mapa amplio, (...)
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  5. added 2022-09-30
    Why AI Will Never Rule the World (Interview).Luke Dormehl, Jobst Landgrebe & Barry Smith - 2022 - Digital Trends.
    Call it the Skynet hypothesis, Artificial General Intelligence, or the advent of the Singularity — for years, AI experts and non-experts alike have fretted (and, for a small group, celebrated) the idea that artificial intelligence may one day become smarter than humans. -/- According to the theory, advances in AI — specifically of the machine learning type that’s able to take on new information and rewrite its code accordingly — will eventually catch up with the wetware of the biological brain. (...)
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  6. added 2022-09-30
    Landing with the Firefly.Silvia Caprioglio Panizza - 2022 - Constructivist Foundations 17 (3).
  7. added 2022-09-30
    With and Beyond Jaspers: Intersections Between Contemporary Approaches in Phenomenologically Informed Psychopathology.Victor Portugal - 2019 - Psicopatologia Fenomenológica Contemporânea 2 (8):01-22.
    Karl Jaspers was influential in the phenomenological psychopathology movement. Contemporary phenomenological scholarship provides fruitful propositions in psychopathology as well as renewed recognition of Jaspers’ pioneering works. This paper is an attempt to give a more general account on how Jaspers’ oeuvre stands in face of contemporary phenomenological scholarship, outlining the intersections between them. Both poles critic the reductionism of consciousness, affirm the necessary relationship with the sciences and philosophy as well as the training and effort that the field demands. Disagreements (...)
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  8. added 2022-09-29
    Explainable AI Lacks Regulative Reasons: Why AI and Human Decision‑Making Are Not Equally Opaque.Uwe Peters - forthcoming - AI and Ethics.
    Many artificial intelligence (AI) systems currently used for decision-making are opaque, i.e., the internal factors that determine their decisions are not fully known to people due to the systems’ computational complexity. In response to this problem, several researchers have argued that human decision-making is equally opaque and since simplifying, reason-giving explanations (rather than exhaustive causal accounts) of a decision are typically viewed as sufficient in the human case, the same should hold for algorithmic decision-making. Here, I contend that this argument (...)
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  9. added 2022-09-29
    Eco-Anxiety: What It is and Why It Matters.Charlie Kurth & Panu Pihkala - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13:981814.
    Researchers are increasingly trying to understand both the emotions that we experience in response to ecological crises like climate change and the ways in which these emotions might be valuable for our (psychical, psychological, and moral) wellbeing. However, much of the existing work on these issues has been hampered by conceptual and methodological difficulties. As a first step toward addressing these challenges, this review focuses on eco-anxiety. Analyzing a broad range of studies through the use of methods from philosophy, emotion (...)
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  10. added 2022-09-29
    A Note on Psychological Continuity Theories of Identity and Neurointerventions.Sebastian Jon Holmen - 2022 - Journal of Medical Ethics 48 (10):742-745.
    An important concern sometimes voiced in the neuroethical literature is that swift and radical changes to the parts of a person’s mental life essential for sustaining his/her numerical identity can result in the person ceasing to exist—in other words, that these changes may disrupt psychological continuity. Taking neurointerventions used for rehabilitative purposes as a point of departure, this short paper argues that the same radical alterations of criminal offenders’ psychological features which under certain conditions would result in a disruption of (...)
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  11. added 2022-09-29
    Moral Judgment as Reasoning by Constraint Satisfaction.Keith J. Holyoak & Derek Powell - 2019 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42.
    May's careful examination of empirical evidence makes a compelling case against the primacy of emotion in driving moral judgments. At the same time, emotion certainly is involved in moral judgments. We argue that emotion interacts with beliefs, values, and moral principles through a process of coherence-based reasoning in generating moral judgments and decisions.
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  12. added 2022-09-29
    Rationalization, Controversy, and the Entanglement of Moral-Social Cognition: A “Critical Pessimist” Take.Robin Zheng - 2019 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42.
    I raise two worries about the Debunker's and Defeater Dilemmas, respectively, and I argue that moral cognition is inextricable from social cognition, which tends to rationalize deep social inequality. I thus opine that our moral-social capacities fare badly in profoundly unjust social contexts such as our own.
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  13. added 2022-09-28
    Use of Tobacco Purge in a Therapeutic Community for the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders.Tereza Rumlerová, Eric Kube, Nahuel Simonet, Fabio Friso & Matteo Politi - forthcoming - Anthropology of Consciousness.
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  14. added 2022-09-28
    Concepts and Cognitive Structures.Kevan Edwards - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-24.
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  15. added 2022-09-28
    Remembering ‘Ellen West’: What a Tragic Case Reveals About Contemporary Phenomenological Psychopathology.Elizabeth Pienkos - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-19.
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  16. added 2022-09-28
    Three Aspects of Representation in Neuroscience.Ben Baker, Benjamin Lansdell & Konrad P. Kording - forthcoming - Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
    Neuroscientists often describe neural activity as a representation of something, or claim to have found evidence for a neural representation, but there is considerable ambiguity about what such claims entail. Here we develop a thorough account of what ‘representation’ does and should do for neuroscientists in terms of three key aspects of representation. (i) Correlation: a neural representation correlates to its represented content; (ii) causal role: the representation has a characteristic effect on behavior; and (iii) teleology: a goal or purpose (...)
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  17. added 2022-09-28
    Sharing in an Unequal World: The Origins and Survival of Human Cooperation.Andra Meneganzin - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-6.
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  18. added 2022-09-28
    Experiences of Listening to Icaros During Ayahuasca Ceremonies at Centro Takiwasi : An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis.Owain J. Graham, Gary Rojas Saucedo & Matteo Politi - forthcoming - Anthropology of Consciousness.
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  19. added 2022-09-27
    The cyclical ethical effects of using artificial intelligence in education.Edward Dieterle, Chris Dede & Michael Walker - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    Our synthetic review of the relevant and related literatures on the ethics and effects of using AI in education reveals five qualitatively distinct and interrelated divides associated with access, representation, algorithms, interpretations, and citizenship. We open our analysis by probing the ethical effects of algorithms and how teams of humans can plan for and mitigate bias when using AI tools and techniques to model and inform instructional decisions and predict learning outcomes. We then analyze the upstream divides that feed into (...)
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  20. added 2022-09-27
    Bowling alone in the autonomous vehicle: the ethics of well-being in the driverless car.Avigail Ferdman - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-13.
    There is a growing body of scholarship on the ethics of autonomous vehicles. Yet the ethical discourse has mostly been focusing on the behavior of the vehicle in accident scenarios. This paper offers a different ethical prism: the implications of the autonomous vehicle for human well-being. As such, it contributes to the growing discourse on the wider societal and moral implications of the autonomous vehicle. The paper is premised on the neo-Aristotelian approach which holds that as human beings, our well-being (...)
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  21. added 2022-09-27
    The Evolution and Development of Consciousness: The Subject-Object Emergence Hypothesis.John E. Stewart - 2022 - Biosystems 217.
    A strategy for investigating consciousness that has proven very productive has focused on comparing brain processes that are accompanied by consciousness with processes that are not. But comparatively little attention has been given to a related strategy that promises to be even more fertile. This strategy exploits the fact that as individuals develop, new classes of brain processes can transition from operating ‘in the dark’ to becoming conscious. It has been suggested that these transitions occur when a new class of (...)
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  22. added 2022-09-27
    Delusional Rationality.Stephanie Rhodes, Niall Galbraith & Ken Manktelow - 2022 - In Shira Elqayam, Igor Douven, Jonathan St B. T. Evans & Nicole Cruz (eds.), Logic and Uncertainty in the Human Mind: A Tribute to David E. Over. Routledge.
    In this chapter we review recent research in an area in which David Over has made an important contribution: reasoning in people with delusions. Delusional beliefs can be distinguished from the strong beliefs that everyone holds by the extra intensity with which they are held and their abnormally weak evidential basis, together with their tendency to disrupt an individual’s everyday functioning. However, non-clinical delusional ideation can also be found, where people tend to ‘jump to conclusions’ on the basis of apparently (...)
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  23. added 2022-09-27
    Transhumanism as Modern-Day Necromancy.Philip Højme - 2022 - GCAS Review Journal 1 (2).
    This essay seeks to engage critically with the transhumanist goal of achieving the technological possibility of transferring consciousness into a computer. The general aim of the critical impulse of this essay is to interpret the various techno-optimistic attempts at transcending the bodily condition of life as being a kind of modern-day necromancy. By alluding to the magical or ritual notion of necromancy, this essay will show how the rationale behind Transhumanism and mind-transfer are premised on a desire to overcome life (...)
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  24. added 2022-09-26
    The paradox of the artificial intelligence system development process: the use case of corporate wellness programs using smart wearables.Alessandra Angelucci, Ziyue Li, Niya Stoimenova & Stefano Canali - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-11.
    Artificial intelligence systems have been widely applied to various contexts, including high-stake decision processes in healthcare, banking, and judicial systems. Some developed AI models fail to offer a fair output for specific minority groups, sparking comprehensive discussions about AI fairness. We argue that the development of AI systems is marked by a central paradox: the less participation one stakeholder has within the AI system’s life cycle, the more influence they have over the way the system will function. This means that (...)
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  25. added 2022-09-26
    Against the Explanatory Argument for Enactivism.Leonard Dung - 2022 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 29 (7-8):57-68.
    Sensorimotor enactivism is the view that the content and the sensory modality of perceptual experience are determined by implicit knowledge of lawful regularities between bodily movements and patterns of sensory stimulation. A proponent of the explanatory argument for sensorimotor enactivism holds that this view is able to provide an intelligible explanation for why certain material realizers give rise to certain perceptual experiences, while rival accounts cannot close this “explanatory gap”. However, I argue that the notion of the “material realizer” of (...)
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  26. added 2022-09-26
    Assessing Tests of Animal Consciousness.Leonard Dung - 2022 - Consciousness and Cognition 105:103410.
    Which animals have conscious experiences? Many different, diverse and unrelated behaviors and cognitive capacities have been proposed as tests of the presence of consciousness in an animal. It is unclear which of these tests, if any, are valid. To remedy this problem, I develop a list consisting of eight desiderata which can be used to assess putative tests of animal consciousness. These desiderata are based either on detailed analogies between consciousness-linked human behavior and non-human behavior, on theories of consciousness or (...)
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  27. added 2022-09-26
    The quantification of intelligence in nineteenth-century craniology: an epistemology of measurement perspective.Michele Luchetti - 2022 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 12 (4):1-29.
    Craniology – the practice of inferring intelligence differences from the measurement of human skulls – survived the dismissal of phrenology and remained a widely popular research program until the end of the nineteenth century. From the 1970s, historians and sociologists of science extensively focused on the explicit and implicit socio-cultural biases invalidating the evidence and claims that craniology produced. Building on this literature, I reassess the history of craniological practice from a different but complementary perspective that relies on recent developments (...)
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  28. added 2022-09-26
    Editorial: On Modes of Participation.Ioannis Bardakos, Dalila Honorato, Claudia Jacques, Claudia Westermann & Primavera de Filippi - 2021 - Technoetic Arts 19 (3):221-225.
    In nature validation for physiological and emotional bonding becomes a mode for supporting social connectivity. Similarly, in the blockchain ecosystem, cryptographic validation becomes the substrate for all interactions. In the dialogue between human and artificial intelligence (AI) agents, between the real and the virtual, one can distinguish threads of physical or mental entanglements allowing different modes of participation. One could even suggest that in all types of realities there exist frameworks that are to some extent equivalent and act as validation (...)
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  29. added 2022-09-26
    Can AI Help Us to Understand Belief? Sources, Advances, Limits, and Future Directions.Andrea Vestrucci, Sara Lumbreras & Lluis Oviedo - 2021 - International Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence 7 (1):24-33.
    The study of belief is expanding and involves a growing set of disciplines and research areas. These research programs attempt to shed light on the process of believing, understood as a central human cognitive function. Computational systems and, in particular, what we commonly understand as Artificial Intelligence (AI), can provide some insights on how beliefs work as either a linear process or as a complex system. However, the computational approach has undergone some scrutiny, in particular about the differences between what (...)
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  30. added 2022-09-25
    The Suitability of Topology for the Investigation of Geometric-Perceptual Phenomena.Farshad Nemati - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-16.
    Topology has been characterized as an unsuitable mathematical framework for the investigation of geometric-perceptual phenomena. This has been attributed to the highly abstract nature of topology leading to failures in tasks such as making distinctions between geometrical figures in which the human perceptual system succeeds easily. An alternative thesis is proposed on both philosophical and empirical grounds. The present analysis applies the Müller-Lyer illusion as a method of investigation to examine the suitability of topology in raising questions about geometric-perceptual phenomena (...)
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  31. added 2022-09-25
    Understanding Human Conduct: The Innate and Acquired Meaning of Life.Asha Lancaster-Thomas - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-4.
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  32. added 2022-09-25
    La Filosofía ante los Retos de la Pandemia y la Nueva Normalidad.Alicia García Álvarez, Alicia García Álvarez & Noelia Bueno Gómez - 2022 - Catarata.
    La pandemia mundial del coronavirus ha supuesto una de las mayores conmociones de nuestra historia reciente y, como tal, parece obligarnos a repensar nuestros modos de organización y formas de vida e, incluso, como se propone aquí, a plantearnos cómo podríamos habitar el colapso. En este escenario incierto y desconocido, la filosofía, con sus múltiples enfoques y subdisciplinas, se presenta como un lugar privilegiado para analizar las vertiginosas transformaciones que han dado lugar a esta “nueva normalidad”. El presente monográfico aglutina (...)
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  33. added 2022-09-25
    'Theorizing "Linguistic" Hermeneutical Injustice as a Distinctive Kind of "Intercultural" Epistemic Injustice'.Alicia García Álvarez - 2022 - In Noelia Bueno Gómez & Salvador Beato Bergua (eds.), Intercultural Approaches to Space and Identity. Nova Science.
    Literature on epistemic injustice has grown tremendously as an increasingly rich and diverse body of work in recent years. From the point of view of intercultural and anticolonial discussions, contemporary contributions have also helped to illuminate how epistemic injustice and other forms of cultural domination might be related to essential processes within the structures of colonial and racial supremacy. -/- This proposal aims to contribute to such relevant and illuminating discussions by focusing on the role that language and culture might (...)
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  34. added 2022-09-24
    Thought Insertion and the Ontology of Thinking.Johannes Roessler - forthcoming - In P. López-Silva & T. McClelland (eds.), Intruders in The Mind: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Thought Insertion. Oxford University Press.
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  35. added 2022-09-24
    Florian Butollo and Sabine Nuss (Eds.) Marx and the Robots: Networked Production, AI, and Human Labour, London, UK: Pluto Press, 2022, 324 pp., $26.95 (Paperback), $99.00. [REVIEW]Yanling Zhu - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-3.
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  36. added 2022-09-24
    Захист автентичного неопірронізму. Smith, P. (2022). Sextus Empiricus’ Neo- Pyrrhonism: Skepticism as a Rationally Ordered Experience. Cham: Springer. [REVIEW]Олександр Луковина - 2022 - Sententiae 41 (2):124-143.
    Review of Smith, P.. Sextus Empiricus’ Neo-Pyrrhonism: Skepticism as a Rationally Ordered Experience. Cham: Springer.
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  37. added 2022-09-24
    Kant’s Opus Postumum and Schelling’s Naturphilosophie: The Very Idea.Terrence Thomson - 2022 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 27 (1):97-117.
    This paper is about Kant’s late unfinished manuscript, Opus postumum and some of the resonances it has with Schelling’s early Naturphiloso­phie. Most of the secondary literature on Opus postumum investigates its relation to the rest of Kant’s corpus, often framing the drafts as an attempt to fill a so-called “gap” in the Critical philosophy whilst ignoring the relationship it has to the wider landscape of late eighteenth century German philosophy. Whether Opus postumum may provide grounds for reviewing the relationship between (...)
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  38. added 2022-09-24
    The Boundaries of Meaning: A Case Study in Neural Machine Translation.Yuri Balashov - 2022 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 66.
    The success of deep learning in natural language processing raises intriguing questions about the nature of linguistic meaning and ways in which it can be processed by natural and artificial systems. One such question has to do with subword segmentation algorithms widely employed in language modeling, machine translation, and other tasks since 2016. These algorithms often cut words into semantically opaque pieces, such as ‘period’, ‘on’, ‘t’, and ‘ist’ in ‘period|on|t|ist’. The system then represents the resulting segments in a dense (...)
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  39. added 2022-09-24
    Internationale vergelijkingen kunnen op verschillende manieren ook problematisch zijn.Michael Merry & Anders Schinkel - 2022 - Knack.
    Internationale vergelijkingen vormen een waardvolle bron van inzicht bij het analyseren van maatschappelijke problemen en het beoordelen van beleidsmatige antwoorden op die problemen. Vergelijkend onderzoek levert vaak interessante of nuttige informatie op doordat er verschillen én overeenkomsten worden geconstrueerd, bijvoorbeeld: hoe ‘leefbaar’ is Toronto vergeleken met Berlijn? Zelfs wanneer de definities verschillen en de gebruikte meeteenheden enigszins onnauwkeurig kunnen zijn – bijvoorbeeld “leefbaar voor wie en ten opzichte van wat?” – zijn vergelijkingen leerrijk en aanleiding voor verdere reflectie. Maar internationale (...)
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  40. added 2022-09-24
    War Cicero Caesars Gläubiger? Zur Interpretation von Cic. Att. 12,3,2.Klaus Bringmann - 2014 - Hermes 142 (4):487-491.
  41. added 2022-09-24
    Cicero, Carm. Frg. 22 4BL.Rainer Jakobi - 2013 - Hermes 141 (3):378-378.
  42. added 2022-09-24
    Mindmelding, Chapter 9: Sharing Conscious States.William Hirstein - 2012 - In Mindmelding: Consciousness, Neuroscience, and the Mind's Privacy. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter explains how mindmelding — the direct experience by one person of another's conscious representations — is in fact possible. The temporal lobes causally interact with the prefrontal lobes by way of fiber bundles that run underneath the cortical surface. This provides the perfect first experiment in mindmelding: to ‘branch’ those fiber bundles and run the other end into the brain of another person. Evidence is provided that these bundles have close connections to consciousness, in that whatever affects them (...)
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  43. added 2022-09-24
    Mindmelding, Chapter 11: Disentangling Self and Consciousness.William Hirstein - 2012 - In Mindmelding: Consciousness, Neuroscience, and the Mind's Privacy. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter shows that mindmelding is metaphysically possible, i.e., that it does not violate any laws governing the metaphysical nature of reality. Metaphysical issues are fundamental and lie at the core of the most difficult parts of the problems of privacy and the mind-body problem itself. There is nothing stopping us from placing the idea of mindmelding on clear, unproblematic, and plausible metaphysical foundations. It is argued that the position of privacy is the one on shaky metaphysical grounds. Two metaphysical (...)
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  44. added 2022-09-23
    Rules for Privately Owned Robots in Public Spaces.Seng W. Loke - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-2.
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  45. added 2022-09-23
    Beyond Intuitive Know-How.Cheng-Hung Tsai - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-14.
    According to Dreyfusian anti-intellectualism, know-how or expertise cannot be explained in terms of know-that and its cognates but only in terms of intuition. Hubert Dreyfus and Stuart Dreyfus do not exclude know-that and its cognates in explaining skilled action. However, they think that know-that and its cognates (such as calculative deliberation and perspectival deliberation) only operate either below or above the level of expertise. In agreement with some critics of Dreyfus and Dreyfus, in this paper, I argue that know-that and (...)
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  46. added 2022-09-23
    Bas de Boer, How Scientific Instruments Speak. Postphenomenology and Technological Mediations in Neuroscientific Practice. Lexington Books: The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc., 2020. 211 Pages. ISBN 978-1-7936-2784-1 and 978-1-7936-2785-8. [REVIEW]Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen Friis - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-3.
  47. added 2022-09-23
    Pretense and imagination from the perspective of 4E cognitive science: introduction to the special issue.Zuzanna Rucińska & Martin Weichold - forthcoming - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-13.
    In this text, we will introduce the reader to the special issue on Pretense and Imagination from the Perspective of 4E Cognitive Science. To do so, we will introduce the concept of 4E cognition and showcase what the available 4E approaches to pretense and imagination look like, in particular if they are contrasted with current cognitivist accounts. Against this background, we provide an overview of the articles included in this special issue.
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  48. added 2022-09-23
    Epistemic Injustice in Late-Stage Dementia: A Case for Non-Verbal Testimonial Injustice.Lucienne Spencer - 2022 - Social Epistemology 1:1-18.
    The literature on epistemic injustice has thus far confined the concept of testimonial injustice to speech expressions such as inquiring, discussing, deliberating, and, above all, telling. I propose that it is time to broaden the horizons of testimonial injustice to include a wider range of expressions. Controversially, the form of communication I have in mind is non-verbal expression. Non-verbal expression is a vital, though often overlooked, form of communication, particularly for people who have certain neurocognitive disorders. Dependency upon non-verbal expression (...)
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  49. added 2022-09-23
    The Policy of Testing Hypotheses in Chilean Science. The Role of a Hypothesis-Driven Research Funding Programme in the Installation of a Hypothesis-Driven Experimental System in Visual Neuroscience.Juan Manuel Garrido Wainer, Natalia Hirmas-Montecinos & Nicolás Trujillo Osorio - 2022 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 96:68-76.
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  50. added 2022-09-23
    “Become Yourself the Prey”. Field Perspective and Emerging Self in Psychopathology and Psychotherapy.Gianni Francesetti, Michela Gecele & Jan Roubal - 2022 - Studi di Estetica 23.
    Therapist’s and client’s experience in the session are emerging from the field forc-es in play; these forces are the intrinsic tensions of the emerging field. We propose an understanding of the therapeutic process as a field phenomenon: the process of change is made by the forces already active in the field and the therapist has just to let them move on without interfering, or sometimes to support them. Psy-chopathology is then the emerging absence, and therapy becomes the art of presence.
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