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Philosophy of Cognitive Science

Edited by Gualtiero Piccinini (University of Missouri, St. Louis)
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  1. added 2017-01-14
    Matteo Colombo (forthcoming). Andy Clark, Surfing Uncertainty: Prediction, Action, and the Embodied Mind. Minds and Machines:1-5.
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  2. added 2017-01-14
    William R. Woodward (1979). Young Piaget Revisited: From the Grasp of Consciousness to Décalage. Genetic Psychology Monographs 99:131-161.
  3. added 2017-01-14
    William R. Woodward (1972). Fechner's Panpsychism: A Scientific Solution to the Mind-Body Problem. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 8:367-386.
  4. added 2017-01-13
    Charles Lassiter & Nathan Ballantyne (forthcoming). Implicit Racial Bias and Epistemic Pessimism. Philosophical Psychology:1-23.
    Implicit bias results from living in a society structured by race. Tamar Gendler has drawn attention to several epistemic costs of implicit bias and concludes that paying some costs is unavoidable. In this paper, we reconstruct Gendler’s argument and argue that the epistemic costs she highlights can be avoided. Though epistemic agents encode discriminatory information from the environment, not all encoded information is activated. Agents can construct local epistemic environments that do not activate biasing representations, effectively avoiding the consequences of (...)
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  5. added 2017-01-13
    E. Fabry Regina (forthcoming). Transcending the Evidentiary Boundary: Prediction Error Minimization, Embodied Interaction, and Explanatory Pluralism. Philosophical Psychology:1-20.
    In a recent paper, Jakob Hohwy argues that the emerging predictive processing perspective on cognition requires us to explain cognitive functioning in purely internalistic and neurocentric terms. The purpose of the present paper is to challenge the view that PP entails a wholesale rejection of positions that are interested in the embodied, embedded, extended, or enactive dimensions of cognitive processes. I will argue that Hohwy’s argument from analogy, which forces an evidentiary boundary into the picture, lacks the argumentative resources to (...)
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  6. added 2017-01-13
    Remis Ramos Carreño (2010). Conceptos: Desde la Filosofía de la mente a la Psicología Cognitiva. PRAXIS Revista de Psicología (18):125-148.
    Concepto es una palabra que refiere a un constructo problemático en la psicología cognitiva y en la filosofía de la mente, el cual indistintamente refiere a cierto tipo de representaciones mentales, a entidades extramentales e incluso a habilidades psicológicas. Lo cierto es que las teorías de conceptos emblemáticas al interior de la filosofía y la psicología, como la Teoría Clásica de conceptos (entendidos como definiciones aristotélicas), o como la Teoría de Prototipos de Rosch (entendidos como estructuras estadísticas de datos), no (...)
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  7. added 2017-01-13
    Remis Ramos Carreño (2010). Conceptos: Desde la Filosofía de la mente a la Psicología Cognitiva. PRAXIS Revista de Psicología (18):125-148.
    Concepto es una palabra que refiere a un constructo problemático en la psicología cognitiva y en la filosofía de la mente, el cual indistintamente refiere a cierto tipo de representaciones mentales, a entidades extramentales e incluso a habilidades psicológicas. Lo cierto es que las teorías de conceptos emblemáticas al interior de la filosofía y la psicología, como la Teoría Clásica de conceptos (entendidos como definiciones aristotélicas), o como la Teoría de Prototipos de Rosch (entendidos como estructuras estadísticas de datos), no (...)
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  8. added 2017-01-12
    Demertzi Athina, Functional Neuroimaging in Patients with Disorders of Consciousness: What to Care About?
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  9. added 2017-01-11
    Hsiao-Lun Ku & Timothy Lane (forthcoming). Cerebral Blood Flow Autoregulation is Impaired in Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research.
    Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality from them than does the general population; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with cerebrovascular diseases and their mortality. Increased or decreased cerebral blood flow in different brain regions has been reported in patients with schizophrenia, which implies impaired cerebral autoregulation. This study investigated the cerebral autoregulation in 21 patients with schizophrenia and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. None of the participants (...)
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  10. added 2017-01-10
    Jing He & Susanne Ravn (forthcoming). Sharing the Dance – on the Reciprocity of Movement in the Case of Elite Sports Dancers. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-18.
    In his recent works on daily face-to-face encounters, Zahavi claims that the phenomenon of sharing involves reciprocity. Following Zahavi’s line of thought, we wonder what exactly reciprocity amounts to and how the shared experience emerges from the dynamic process of interaction. By turning to the highly specialized field of elite sports dance, we aim at exploring the way in which reciprocity unfolds in intensive deliberate practices of movement. In our analysis, we specifically argue that the ongoing dynamics of two separate (...)
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  11. added 2017-01-10
    Markus E. Schlosser (forthcoming). Embodied Cognition and Temporally Extended Agency. Synthese.
    According to radical versions of embodied cognition, human cognition and agency should be explained without the ascription of representational mental states. According to a standard reply, accounts of embodied cognition can explain only instances of cognition and agency that are not "representation-hungry". Two main types of such representation-hungry phenomena have been discussed: cognition about "the absent" and about "the abstract". Proponents of representationalism have maintained that a satisfactory account of such phenomena requires the ascription of mental representations. Opponents have denied (...)
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  12. added 2017-01-10
    Ugo Pagallo (forthcoming). When Morals Ain’T Enough: Robots, Ethics, and the Rules of the Law. Minds and Machines:1-14.
    No single moral theory can instruct us as to whether and to what extent we are confronted with legal loopholes, e.g. whether or not new legal rules should be added to the system in the criminal law field. This question on the primary rules of the law appears crucial for today’s debate on roboethics and still, goes beyond the expertise of robo-ethicists. On the other hand, attention should be drawn to the secondary rules of the law: The unpredictability of robotic (...)
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  13. added 2017-01-09
    Gabriel Vacariu, (Second Updated January 2017) The UNBELIEVABLE Similarities Between the Ideas of Some People (2011-2016) and My Ideas (2002-2008) in Philosophy (Philosophy of Mind), Cognitive Neuroscience, and Physics (Quantum Mechanics, Cosmology).
    Content Introduction: The EDWs perspective in my article from 2005 and my book from 2008 Chapter 1 Did David Ludwig (2015, Philosophy, University of Amsterdam) plagiarize many of my ideas? (philosophy of mind) Chapter 2 Did Markus Gabriel plagiarize (2013, Department of Philosophy, Bonn University, Germany) my ideas (2002-2008)? (philosophy) Chapter 3 Did Georg Northoff (2011-214, Psychoanalysis, Institute of Mental Health Research, Canada) plagiarize my ideas? (cognitive neuroscience) Chapter 4 The unbelievable similarities between Radu Ionicioiu (Physics, University of Bucharest, Romania) (...)
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  14. added 2017-01-09
    Deborah G. Johnson & Mario Verdicchio (forthcoming). Reframing AI Discourse. Minds and Machines:1-16.
    A critically important ethical issue facing the AI research community is how AI research and AI products can be responsibly conceptualised and presented to the public. A good deal of fear and concern about uncontrollable AI is now being displayed in public discourse. Public understanding of AI is being shaped in a way that may ultimately impede AI research. The public discourse as well as discourse among AI researchers leads to at least two problems: a confusion about the notion of (...)
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  15. added 2017-01-09
    Madeleine Ransom, Sina Fazelpour & Christopher Mole (2017). Attention in the Predictive Mind. Consciousness and Cognition 47:99-112.
    It has recently become popular to suggest that cognition can be explained as a process of Bayesian prediction error minimization. Some advocates of this view propose that attention should be understood as the optimization of expected precisions in the prediction-error signal (Clark, 2013, 2016; Feldman & Friston, 2010; Hohwy, 2012, 2013). This proposal successfully accounts for several attention-related phenomena. We claim that it cannot account for all of them, since there are certain forms of voluntary attention that it cannot accommodate. (...)
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  16. added 2017-01-09
    Ion Iuga (2016). Transhumanism Between Human Enhancement and Technological Innovation. Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 3 (1):79-88.
    Transhumanism introduces from its very beginning a paradigm shift about concepts like human nature, progress and human future. An overview of its ideology reveals a strong belief in the idea of human enhancement through technologically means. The theory of technological singularity, which is more or less a radicalisation of the transhumanist discourse, foresees a radical evolutionary change through artificial intelligence. The boundaries between intelligent machines and human beings will be blurred. The consequence is the upcoming of a post-biological and posthuman (...)
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  17. added 2017-01-08
    Arielle Baskin-Sommersa, Allison M. Stuppy-Sullivana Allison & Joshua W. Buckholtz (2016). Psychopathic Individuals Exhibit but Do Not Avoid Regret During Counterfactual Decision Making. Proceedins of the National Academy of Sciences 113 (50):14438-14443.
    Psychopathy is associated with persistent antisocial behavior and a striking lack of regret for the consequences of that behavior. Although explanatory models for psychopathy have largely focused on deficits in affective responsiveness, recent work indicates that aberrant value-based decision making may also play a role. On that basis, some have suggested that psychopathic individuals may be unable to effectively use prospective simulations to update action value estimates during cost–benefit decision making. However, the specific mechanisms linking valuation, affective deficits, and maladaptive (...)
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  18. added 2017-01-08
    Samantha J. Fede, Jana Schaich Borg, Prashanth K. Nyalakanti, Carla L. Hare, Lora M. Cope, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Mike Koenigs, Vince D. Calhoun & Kent A. Kiehl (2016). Distinct Neuronal Patterns of Positive and Negative Moral Processing in Psychopathy. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 16 (6):1074–1085.
    Psychopathy is a disorder characterized by severe and frequent moral violations in multiple domains of life. Numerous studies have shown psychopathy-related limbic brain abnormalities during moral processing; however, these studies only examined negatively valenced moral stimuli. Here, we aimed to replicate prior psychopathy research on negative moral judgments and to extend this work by examining psychopathy-related abnormalities in the processing of controversial moral stimuli and positive moral processing. Incarcerated adult males (N = 245) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol (...)
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  19. added 2017-01-08
    Marina T. Le, Michael Woodworth, Lisa Gillman, Erin Hutton & Robert D. Hare (2016). The Linguistic Output of Psychopathic Offenders During a PCL-R Interview. Criminal Justice and Behavior:1-15.
    We used text analysis software to examine the linguistic features of the speech of 21 psychopathic and 45 other offenders during the interview part of a Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL-R) assessment. Regression analysis was run on the linguistic categories to determine which were the best predictors of psychopathy scores. Relative to the other offenders, psychopaths used more disfluencies (“you know”) and personal pronouns, made fewer references to other people (e.g., personal names, family), and were also less emotionally expressive. In particular, a (...)
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  20. added 2017-01-08
    Dargis Monika, C. Wolf Richard & Koenigs Michael (2016). Reversal Learning Deficits in Criminal Offenders: Effects of Psychopathy, Substance Use, and Childhood Maltreatment History. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment.
    Deficits in reinforcement learning are presumed to underlie the impulsive and incorrigible behavior exhibited by psychopathic criminals. However, previous studies documenting reversal learning impairments in psychopathic individuals have not investigated this relationship across a continuous range of psychopathy severity, nor have they examined how reversal learning impairments relate to different psychopathic traits, such as the interpersonal-affective and lifestyle-antisocial dimensions. Furthermore, previous studies have not considered the role that childhood maltreatment and substance use may have in this specific cognitive deficit. Using (...)
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  21. added 2017-01-08
    Cole Korponay, Maia Pujara, Philip Deming, Clarissa Philippi, Jean Decety, David S. Kosson, Kent A. Kiehl & Michael Koenigs (2016). Impulsive-Antisocial Dimension of Psychopathy Linked to Enlargement and Abnormal Functional Connectivity of the Striatum. Biological Psychiatry.
    Background -/- Psychopathy is a mental health disorder characterized by callous and impulsive antisocial behavior, and it is associated with a high incidence of violent crime, substance abuse, and recidivism. Recent studies suggest that the striatum may be a key component of the neurobiological basis for the disorder, although structural findings have been mixed, and functional connectivity of the striatum in psychopathy has yet to be fully examined. Methods -/- We performed a multimodal neuroimaging study of striatum volume and functional (...)
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  22. added 2017-01-08
    Joseph P. Newman & Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers (2016). Smith and Lilienfeld’s Meta-Analysis of the Response Modulation Hypothesis: Important Theoretical and Quantitative Clarifications. Psychological Bulletin 142 (12):1384-1393.
    In the first meta-analytic review of the response modulation hypothesis (RMH), an attention-based model for understanding the etiology of psychopathy, Smith and Lilienfeld (2015) report that the average effect size for response modulation deficits in psychopathic individuals fell in the small to medium range (r = .20; p. < .001, d = .41). Moreover, support for the RMH extended to both psychopathy dimensions, across diverse assessments and settings, and spanned child, adult, female, and male samples. The analysis also revealed good (...)
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  23. added 2017-01-07
    Tillmann Vierkant (forthcoming). Choice in a Two Systems World: Picking & Weighing or Managing & Metacognition. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-13.
    Intuitively, choices seem to be intentional actions but it is difficult to see how they could be. If our choices are all about weighing up reasons then there seems no room for an additional intentional act of choice. Richard Holton has suggested a solution to this puzzle, which involves thinking of choices in a two systems of cognition framework. Holton’s suggestion does solve the puzzle, but has some unsatisfactory consequences. This paper wants to take over the important insights from Holton (...)
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  24. added 2017-01-07
    Lajos Horváth, Csaba Szummer & Attila Szabo (forthcoming). Weak Phantasy and Visionary Phantasy: The Phenomenological Significance of Altered States of Consciousness. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences:1-13.
    In this paper we discuss the definitional problems of altered states of consciousness and their potential relevance in phenomenological investigation. We suggest that visionary states or visionary phantasy working induced by psychedelics, as extraordinary types of altered states, are appropriate subjects for phenomenological analysis. Naturally, visionary states are not quite ordinary workings of the human mind, however certain cognitive psychological and evolutionary epistemological investigations show that they can give new insights into the nature of consciousness. Furthermore, we suggest that contemporary (...)
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  25. added 2017-01-07
    LeBarr A. Nicole & M. Shedden Judith (2017). Psychological Ownership: The Implicit Association Between Self and Already-Owned Versus Newly-Owned Objects. Consciousness and Cognition 48:190-197.
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  26. added 2017-01-07
    Marcus R. Watson, Jan Chromý, Lyle Crawford, David M. Eagleman, James T. Enns & Kathleen A. Akins (2017). The Prevalence of Synaesthesia Depends on Early Language Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 48:212-231.
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  27. added 2017-01-07
    Michael Starks (2017). Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization -- Articles and Reviews 2006-2017 by Michael Starks 2nd Ed. 667p (2017). Henderson: Michael Starks.
    This collection of articles was written over the last 10 years and the most important and longest within the last year. Also I have edited them to bring them up to date (2017). The copyright page has the date of this first edition and new editions will be noted there as I edit old articles or add new ones. All the articles are about human behavior (as are all articles by anyone about anything), and so about the limitations of having (...)
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  28. added 2017-01-07
    Robert Deutschländer, Michael Pauen & John-Dylan Haynes (2017). Probing Folk-Psychology: Do Libet-Style Experiments Reflect Folk Intuitions About Free Action? Consciousness and Cognition 48:232-245.
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  29. added 2017-01-07
    Edoardo Zamuner, Matt Oxner & William G. Hayward (2017). Visual Perception and Visual Mental Imagery of Emotional Faces Generate Similar Expression Aftereffects. Consciousness and Cognition 48:171-179.
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  30. added 2017-01-07
    M. Gallotti, M. T. Fairhurst & C. D. Frith (2017). Alignment in Social Interactions. Consciousness and Cognition 48:253-261.
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  31. added 2017-01-07
    Ruben E. Laukkonen & Jason M. Tangen (2017). Can Observing a Necker Cube Make You More Insightful? Consciousness and Cognition 48:198-211.
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  32. added 2017-01-07
    Jana Speth, Astrid M. Schloerscheidt & Clemens Speth (2017). Mental Time Travel to the Future Might Be Reduced in Sleep. Consciousness and Cognition 48:180-189.
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  33. added 2017-01-07
    Kazuya Inoue, Yuji Takeda & Motohiro Kimura (2017). Sense of Agency in Continuous Action: Assistance-Induced Performance Improvement is Self-Attributed Even with Knowledge of Assistance. Consciousness and Cognition 48:246-252.
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  34. added 2017-01-07
    M. Jenkinson Paul & Preston Catherine (2017). The ‘Not-so-Strange’ Body in the Mirror: A Principal Components Analysis of Direct and Mirror Self-Observation. Consciousness and Cognition 48:262-272.
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  35. added 2017-01-06
    Hasen Khudairi (forthcoming). Modal Ω-Logic: Automata, Neo-Logicism, and Set-Theoretic Realism. In 'Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Meeting of the International Association for Computing and Philosophy'.
    This essay examines the philosophical significance of Ω-logic in Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with choice (ZFC). The dual isomorphism between algebra and coalgebra permits Boolean-valued algebraic models of ZFC to be interpreted as coalgebras. The modal profile of Ω-logical validity can then be countenanced within a coalgebraic logic, and Ω-logical validity can be defined via deterministic automata. I argue that the philosophical significance of the foregoing is two-fold. First, because the epistemic and modal profiles of Ω-logical validity correspond to those of (...)
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  36. added 2017-01-05
    Jing Wang & Haixian Wang (2016). A Supervoxel-Based Method for Groupwise Whole Brain Parcellation with Resting-State fMRI Data. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
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  37. added 2017-01-04
    Paul Smart (forthcoming). Situating Machine Intelligence Within the Cognitive Ecology of the Internet. Minds and Machines:1-24.
    The Internet is an important focus of attention for the philosophy of mind and cognitive science communities. This is partly because the Internet serves as an important part of the material environment in which a broad array of human cognitive and epistemic activities are situated. The Internet can thus be seen as an important part of the ‘cognitive ecology’ that helps to shape, support and realize aspects of human cognizing. Much of the previous philosophical work in this area has sought (...)
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  38. added 2017-01-04
    Candace Upton (forthcoming). Meditation and the Cultivation of Virtue. Philosophical Psychology:1-22.
    In recent decades, social psychology has produced an expansive array of studies wherein introducing a seemingly morally innocuous feature into the situation a subject inhabits often yields morally questionable, dubious, or even appalling behavior. Several fascinating lines of philosophical enquiry issue from this research, but the most pragmatically salient question concerns how we ought most effectively to develop and maintain the virtues so that such putatively morally problematic behavior is less likely to occur. In this paper, I examine four empirically (...)
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  39. added 2017-01-04
    Shyam Ranganathan (2017). Patañjali’s Yoga: Universal Ethics as the Formal Cause of Autonomy. In The Bloomsbury Research Handbook of Indian Ethics. London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 177-202.
    Yoga is a nonspeciesist liberalism, founded in a moral non-naturalism, which identifies the essence of personhood as the Lord, defined by unconservative self-governance—an abstraction from each of us that is non-proprietary. According to Yoga, the right is defined as the approximation of the regulative ideal (the Lord) and the good is the perfection of this practice, which delivers us from a life of coercion into a personal world of freedom. It is an alternative to Deontology, Consequentialism, and Virtue Ethics, which (...)
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  40. added 2017-01-04
    Jerath Ravinder, Vernon A. Barnes, David Dillard-Wright, Shivani Jerath & Brittany Hamilton (2012). Dynamic Change of Awareness During Meditation Techniques: Neural and Physiological Correlates. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6 (131):1-5.
    Recent fndings illustrate how changes in consciousness accommodated by neural correlates and plasticity of the brain advance a model of perceptual change as a function of meditative practice. During the mindbody response neural correlates of changing awareness illustrate how the autonomic nervous system shifts from a sympathetic dominant to a parasympathetic dominant state. Expansion of awareness during the practice of meditation techniques can be linked to the Default Mode Network (DMN), a network of brain regions that is active when the (...)
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  41. added 2017-01-03
    David Trafimow (forthcoming). Implications of an Initial Empirical Victory for the Truth of the Theory and Additional Empirical Victories. Philosophical Psychology:1-23.
    Psychologists take two propositions for granted. Specifically, empirical verification of predictions derived from a theory support that the theory is more likely to be true and support that additional predictions derived from the theory have an increased probability of being sustained if subjected to empirical testing. In contrast, I argue that both propositions depend strongly on whether auxiliary assumptions are taken into account. When auxiliary assumptions are not taken into account, the first proposition is valid but the second is not. (...)
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  42. added 2017-01-03
    Shyam Ranganathan (2016). Yoga and Sāṅkhya: Freedom Versus Determinism (Ethics-1, M38). In A. Raghuramaraju (ed.), Philosophy, E-PG Pathshala. Delhi: India, Department of Higher Education (NMEICT).
    The Yoga Sūtra (YS) is perhaps the most popular book of Indian philosophy today the world over. It is widely regarded by practitioners of Yoga as a conceptual manual for yoga and there are several competing translations of the work on the market. Yet, the Yoga Sūtra is also widely regarded as a difficult text to read. It is written in a dense, aphoristic, sūtra format. In the introductory section, I tackle the question of methodology in reading the Yoga Sūtra. (...)
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  43. added 2017-01-03
    Shyam Ranganathan (2016). Early Buddhism II: Applied Ethics (Ethics-1, M31). In A. Raghuramaraju (ed.), Philosophy, E-PG Pathshala. Delhi: India, Department of Higher Education (NMEICT).
    In the previous module, I covered the basics of Early Buddhist metaethics. The core ideas here are: (1) linguistic representation is not the same as reality – linguistic representation depicts reality as static, but reality is relational and dynamic; (2) reality can drift away from linguistic representation causing disappointment – duḥkha; (3) choosing wisely now can result in a better future; (4) ethical choice involves appreciating the justifying relations of states of affairs. In this module, I explore the Four Noble (...)
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  44. added 2017-01-02
    Abel Wajnerman Paz (forthcoming). A Mechanistic Perspective on Canonical Neural Computation. Philosophical Psychology:1-22.
    Although it has been argued that mechanistic explanation is compatible with abstraction, there are still doubts about whether mechanism can account for the explanatory power of significant abstract models in computational neuroscience. Chirimuuta has recently claimed that models describing canonical neural computations must be evaluated using a non-mechanistic framework. I defend two claims regarding these models. First, I argue that their prevailing neurocognitive interpretation is mechanistic. Additionally, a criterion recently proposed by Levy and Bechtel to legitimize mechanistic abstract models, and (...)
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  45. added 2017-01-02
    Panos Theodorou (2016). Evil, Unconscious, and Meaning in History. Outline of a Phenomenological Critique of Utopian-Historiodicial Politics. L'inconscio. Rivista Italiana di Filosofia E Psicoanalisi 2:171-198.
    Politics presupposes an understanding of meaning in history, according to which it manages the actions that accord with or serve this meaning (as an ultimate good). The aim of this paper is to examine the process by which meaning in history is formed, as well as its character. To do this, I employ suitably modified phenomenological analyses of intentional consciousness to bring them as close as possible to the thematic of the psychoanalytic unconscious. I first try to sketch the basis (...)
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  46. added 2016-12-31
    Ruth Feldman (forthcoming). The Neurobiology of Human Attachments. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  47. added 2016-12-30
    Steven G. Young & John Paul Wilson (forthcoming). A Minimal Ingroup Advantage in Emotion Identification Confidence. Cognition and Emotion:1-8.
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  48. added 2016-12-30
    Jamil Zaki (forthcoming). Moving Beyond Stereotypes of Empathy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences.
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  49. added 2016-12-30
    María G. Navarro (2016). Perspectiva social de la cognición. Revista Tehura 9:31-33.
    Uno de los conceptos fundamentales del área de las Ciencias humanas y sociales es el de «cognición social». Este término se suele utilizar para referir teorías, categorías y principios que explican e interpretan fenómenos relacionados con el conocimiento que los seres humanos poseen sobre el mundo social.
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  50. added 2016-12-29
    Christophe Menant (forthcoming). Constraint Satisfaction, Agency and Meaning Generation as an Evolutionary Framework for a Constructive Biosemiotics. Biosemiotics.
    A constructivist perspective on biosemiotics brings to the forefront meaning generation by biological agents for constraint satisfaction in an evolutionary background. Biosemiotics deal with the study of signs and meaning in biological entities. One of its main challenges is to attempt to naturalize biological meaning (Sharov & all 2015). Constructivism is an epistemological perspective that considers knowledge as constructed by agents which are sense makers. So a constructive approach on biosemiotics addresses meanings as constructed by biological agents as sense makers. (...)
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