Philosophy of Computing and Information

Edited by Giuseppe Primiero (Università degli Studi di Milano)
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  1. Artificial Intelligent Smart Home Automation with Secured Camera Management-Based GSM, Cloud Computing and Arduino.Musaddak Abdul Zahra & Laith A. Abdul-Rahaim Musaddak M. Abdul Zahra, Marwa Jaleel Mohsin - 2020 - Periodicals of Engineering and Natural Sciences 8 (4):2160-2168.
    Home management and controlling have seen a great introduction to network that enabled digital technology, especially in recent decades. For the purpose of home automation, this technique offers an exciting capability to enhance the connectivity of equipment within the home. Also, with the rapid expansion of the Internet, there are potentials that added to the remote control and monitoring of such network-enabled devices. In this paper, we had been designed and implemented a fully manageable and secure smart home automation system (...)
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    Computation and Physical Systems
     Analog and Digital Computation
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     Quantum Computation
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     Ontology of Information Artifacts
     Genetic Information
     Biological Information
     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
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     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Philosophy of Technology
     Phil of Technology, Misc
     Technology Ethics
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  2. Social Engineering in Cybersecurity: The Evolution of a Concept.Joseph Hatfield - 2018 - Computers and Security 73:102-113.
    This paper offers a history of the concept of social engineering in cybersecurity and argues that while the term began its life in the study of politics, and only later gained usage within the domain of cybersecurity, these are applications of the same fundamental ideas: epistemic asymmetry, technocratic dominance, and teleological replacement. The paper further argues that the term's usages in both areas remain conceptually and semantically interrelated. Moreover, ignorance of this interrelation continues to handicap our ability to identify and (...)
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    Theory of Computation
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  3. Virtuous Human Hacking: The Ethics of Social Engineering in Penetration-Testing.Joseph Hatfield - 2019 - Computers and Security 83:354-366.
    This paper offers a virtue ethics analysis of social engineering in penetration-testing. It begins by considering previous research on this topic and argues that such attempts misconstrue or more often overlook this Aristotelian tradition. It articulates the core tenets of virtue ethics and applies them to an analysis of white hat social engineering. A virtue ethics analysis requires that individuals and the firms that initiate the penetration-test be placed within a larger communal context which obligates individuals who are potential human (...)
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    Theory of Computation
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  4. Boom and Bust: Environmental Variability Favors the Emergence of Communication.Patrick Grim & Trina Kokalis - 2004 - In Jordan Pollack, Mark Bedau, Phil Husbands, Takashi Ikegami & Richard A. Watson (eds.), Artificial Life IX: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Artificial Life. MIT Press. pp. 164-170.
    Environmental variability has been proposed as an important mechanism in behavioral psychology, in ecology and evolution, and in cultural anthropology. Here we demonstrate its importance in simulational studies as well. In earlier work we have shown the emergence of communication in a spatialized environment of wandering food sources and predators, using a variety of mechanisms for strategy change: imitation (Grim, Kokalis, Tafti & Kilb 2000), localized genetic algorithm (Grim, Kokalis, Tafti & Kilb 2001), and partial training of neural nets on (...)
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    Computer Ethics
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    Computer Simulation and Virtual Reality
     Simulation and Reality
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    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
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     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
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     Phil of Technology, Misc
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  5. Modeling Information.Patrick Grim - 2016 - In Luciano Floridi (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information. Routledge. pp. 137-152.
    The topics of modeling and information come together in at least two ways. Computational modeling and simulation play an increasingly important role in science, across disciplines from mathematics through physics to economics and political science. The philosophical questions at issue are questions as to what modeling and simulation are adding, altering, or amplifying in terms of scientific information. What changes with regard to information acquisition, theoretical development, or empirical confirmation with contemporary tools of computational modeling? In this sense the title (...)
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    Computer Ethics
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    Computer Simulation and Virtual Reality
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     The Information Economy
     The Infosphere
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     Physics of Information
     Information-Based Accounts of Mental Content
     Ontology of Information Artifacts
     Genetic Information
     Biological Information
     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
     Logic and Information
     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Philosophy of Technology
     Phil of Technology, Misc
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  6. Germs, Genes, and Memes: Functional and Fitness Dynamics on Information Networks.Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, Christopher Reade & Stephen Fisher - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82:219-243.
    It is widely accepted that the way information transfers across networks depends importantly on the structure of the network. Here, we show that the mechanism of information transfer is crucial: in many respects the effect of the specific transfer mechanism swamps network effects. Results are demonstrated in terms of three different types of transfer mechanism: germs, genes, and memes. With an emphasis on the specific case of transfer between sub-networks, we explore both the dynamics of each of these across networks (...)
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     Quantum Computation
     Hypercomputation
     Computation and Physical Systems, Misc
    Computer Ethics
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     Machine Ethics
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    Computer Simulation and Virtual Reality
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    Phil of Information
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     Ontology of Information Artifacts
     Genetic Information
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     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
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     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Philosophy of Technology
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  7. Polarization and Belief Dynamics in the Black and White Communities: An Agent-Based Network Model From the Data.Patrick Grim, Stephen B. Thomas, Stephen Fisher, Christopher Reade, Daniel J. Singer, Mary A. Garza, Craig S. Fryer & Jamie Chatman - 2012 - In Christoph Adami, David M. Bryson, Charles Offria & Robert T. Pennock (eds.), Artificial Life 13. MIT Press.
    Public health care interventions—regarding vaccination, obesity, and HIV, for example—standardly take the form of information dissemination across a community. But information networks can vary importantly between different ethnic communities, as can levels of trust in information from different sources. We use data from the Greater Pittsburgh Random Household Health Survey to construct models of information networks for White and Black communities--models which reflect the degree of information contact between individuals, with degrees of trust in information from various sources correlated with (...)
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     Computation and Physical Systems, Misc
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     Ontology of Information Artifacts
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     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
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     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
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  8. Information Dynamics Across Linked Sub-Networks: Germs, Genes, and Memes.Patrick Grim, Daniel J. Singer, Christopher Reade & Stephen Fisher - 2011 - In Proceedings, AAAI Fall Symposium on Complex Adaptive Systems: Energy, Information and Intelligence. AAAI Press.
    Beyond belief change and meme adoption, both genetics and infection have been spoken of in terms of information transfer. What we examine here, concentrating on the specific case of transfer between sub-networks, are the differences in network dynamics in these cases: the different network dynamics of germs, genes, and memes. Germs and memes, it turns out, exhibit a very different dynamics across networks. For infection, measured in terms of time to total infection, it is network type rather than degree of (...)
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     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
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     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Philosophy of Technology
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  9. What You Believe Travels Differently: Information and Infection Dynamics Across Sub-Networks.Patrick Grim, Christopher Reade, Daniel J. Singer, Stephen Fisher & Stephen Majewicz - 2010 - Connections 30:50-63.
    In order to understand the transmission of a disease across a population we will have to understand not only the dynamics of contact infection but the transfer of health-care beliefs and resulting health-care behaviors across that population. This paper is a first step in that direction, focusing on the contrasting role of linkage or isolation between sub-networks in (a) contact infection and (b) belief transfer. Using both analytical tools and agent-based simulations we show that it is the structure of a (...)
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     Ontology of Information Artifacts
     Genetic Information
     Biological Information
     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
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     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
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     Phil of Technology, Misc
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  10. The Josephson Junction.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    What the Josephson Junction proves. The Josephson-Yardley 'connection.'.
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    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
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  11. Engendering Algorithmic Oppressions.Susan V. H. Castro - 2020 - Blog of the APA.
    In this APA blog, I appeal to two 2020 cases of algorithms gone wrong to motivate philosophical attention to algorithmic oppression. I offer a simple definition, then describe a few of the ways it is engendered. References and extends work by Safiya Noble, Cathy O'Neil, Ruha Benjamin, Virginia Eubanks, Sara Wachter-Boettcher, Michael Kearns & Aaron Roth.
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  12. Solution to the Mind-Body Relation Problem: Information.Florin Gaiseanu - 2021 - Philosophy Study 11 (1):42-55.
    In this paper it is analyzed from the informational perspective the relation between mind and body, an ancient philosophic issue defined as a problem, which still did not receive up to date an adequate solution. By introducing/using the concept of information, it is shown that this concept includes two facets, one of them referring to the common communications and another one referring to a hidden/structuring matter-related information, effectively acting in the human body and in the living systems, which determines the (...)
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  13. Machine Learning and the Future of Scientific Explanation.Florian J. Boge & Michael Poznic - 2021 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 52 (1):171-176.
    The workshop “Machine Learning: Prediction Without Explanation?” brought together philosophers of science and scholars from various fields who study and employ Machine Learning (ML) techniques, in order to discuss the changing face of science in the light of ML's constantly growing use. One major focus of the workshop was on the impact of ML on the concept and value of scientific explanation. One may speculate whether ML’s increased use in science exemplifies a paradigmatic turn towards mere pattern recognition and prediction (...)
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  14. Préface à "La diffusion de la Covid-19 - Que peuvent les modèles ?".Franck Varenne - 2020 - In Juliette Rouchier & Victorien Barbet (eds.), La diffusion de la Covid-19. Paris: pp. 3-10.
    Voilà un livre comme on pouvait l’espérer. Centré sur la Covid-19 et sur sa diffusion, il s’installe au cœur de questions brûlantes, encore urgentes pour tout un chacun, mais il garde aussi la tête froide, prend du recul, informe, enseigne et questionne, qui plus est de façon pédagogique. Davantage : au-delà du bilan critique, il propose des perspectives inédites, voire quelques suggestions solides. Il nous donne à réfléchir sur des chemins moins balisés. À le lire, on comprendra, par l’exemple, pourquoi (...)
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  15. UN SEMPLICE MODO PER TRATTARE LE GRANDEZZE INFINITE ED INFINITESIME.Yaroslav Sergeyev - 2015 - la Matematica Nella Società E Nella Cultura: Rivista Dell’Unione Matematica Italiana, Serie I 8:111-147.
    A new computational methodology allowing one to work in a new way with infinities and infinitesimals is presented in this paper. The new approach, among other things, gives the possibility to calculate the number of elements of certain infinite sets, avoids indeterminate forms and various kinds of divergences. This methodology has been used by the author as a starting point in developing a new kind of computer – the Infinity Computer – able to execute computations and to store in its (...)
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  16. Numerical Infinities Applied for Studying Riemann Series Theorem and Ramanujan Summation.Yaroslav Sergeyev - 2018 - In AIP Conference Proceedings 1978. AIP. pp. 020004.
    A computational methodology called Grossone Infinity Computing introduced with the intention to allow one to work with infinities and infinitesimals numerically has been applied recently to a number of problems in numerical mathematics (optimization, numerical differentiation, numerical algorithms for solving ODEs, etc.). The possibility to use a specially developed computational device called the Infinity Computer (patented in USA and EU) for working with infinite and infinitesimal numbers numerically gives an additional advantage to this approach in comparison with traditional methodologies studying (...)
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  17. 本体:广谱的知识集成工具.Barry Smith - 2020 - In 基于基本形式化本体的本体构建. Beijing: pp. 4-8.
    Ontology: Tool for Broad Spectrum Knowledge Integration (Foreword to Chinese translation of Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology).
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  18. Consequences of a Functional Account of Information.Stephen Francis Mann - 2018 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (3):1-19.
    This paper aims to establish several interconnected points. First, a particular interpretation of the mathematical definition of information, known as the causal interpretation, is supported largely by misunderstandings of the engineering context from which it was taken. A better interpretation, which makes the definition and quantification of information relative to the function of its user, is outlined. The first half of the paper is given over to introducing communication theory and its competing interpretations. The second half explores three consequences of (...)
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  19. Two Kinds of Information Processing in Cognition.Mark Sprevak - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (3):591-611.
    What is the relationship between information and representation? Dating back at least to Dretske, an influential answer has been that information is a rung on a ladder that gets one to representation. Representation is information, or representation is information plus some other ingredient. In this paper, I argue that this approach oversimplifies the relationship between information and representation. If one takes current probabilistic models of cognition seriously, information is connected to representation in a new way. It enters as a property (...)
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  20. The Fate of Explanatory Reasoning in the Age of Big Data.Frank Cabrera - forthcoming - Philosophy and Technology:1-21.
    In this paper, I critically evaluate several related, provocative claims made by proponents of data-intensive science and “Big Data” which bear on scientific methodology, especially the claim that scientists will soon no longer have any use for familiar concepts like causation and explanation. After introducing the issue, in section 2, I elaborate on the alleged changes to scientific method that feature prominently in discussions of Big Data. In section 3, I argue that these methodological claims are in tension with a (...)
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  21. Logic in Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Central Topics Via Readings.Luis M. Augusto - manuscript
    Logic has been a—disputed—ingredient in the emergence and development of the now very large field known as knowledge representation and reasoning. In this book (in progress), I select some central topics in this highly fruitful, albeit controversial, association (e.g., non-monotonic reasoning, implicit belief, logical omniscience, closed world assumption), identifying their sources and analyzing/explaining their elaboration in highly influential published work.
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  22. Cloud Data Security Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography.Arockia Panimalars, N. Dharani, R. Aiswarya & Pavithra Shailesh - 2017 - International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 9 (4).
    Data security is, protecting data from ill- conceived get to, utilize, introduction, intrusion, change, examination, recording or destruction. Cloud computing is a sort of Internet-based computing that grants conjoint PC handling resources and information to PCs what's more, different gadgets according to necessity. It is a model that empowers universal, on-request access to a mutual pool of configurable computing resources. At present, security has been viewed as one of the best issues in the improvement of Cloud Computing. The key issue (...)
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  23. Offline Privacy Preserving Proxy Re-Encryption in Mobile Cloud Computing.Yaping Lin & Voundi Koe Arthur Sandor - 2019 - Pervasive and Mobile Computing 59.
    This paper addresses the always online behavior of the data owner in proxy re- encryption schemes for re-encryption keys issuing. We extend and adapt multi-authority ciphertext policy attribute based encryption techniques to type-based proxy re-encryption to build our solution. As a result, user authentication and user authorization are moved to the cloud server which does not require further interaction with the data owner, data owner and data users identities are hidden from the cloud server, and re-encryption keys are only issued (...)
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  24. Effective Validity: A Generalized Logic for Stable Approximate Inference.Robert H. C. Moir - 2019 - In James Robert Brown, Shaoshi Chen, Robert M. Corless, Ernest Davis, Nicolas Fillion, Max Gunzburger, Benjamin C. Jantzen, Daniel Lichtblau, Yuri Matiyasevich, Robert H. C. Moir, Mark Wilson & James Woodward (eds.), Algorithms and Complexity in Mathematics, Epistemology, and Science: Proceedings of 2015 and 2016 Acmes Conferences. Springer New York. pp. 225-268.
    The traditional approach in philosophy of using logic to reconstruct scientific theories and methods operates by presenting or representing a scientific theory or method in a specialized formal language. The logic of such languages is deductive, which makes this approach effective for those aspects of science that use deductive methods or for which deductive inference provides a good idealization. Many theories and methods in science, however, use non-deductive forms of approximation. Approximate inferences, which produce approximately correct conclusions and do so (...)
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  25. Introduction to the Neoclassical Interpretation: Quantum Steampunk.Shiva Meucci - forthcoming - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy.
    In a previous paper we outlined a series of historical touchpoints between classical aether theories and modern theoretical physics which showed a shared conceptual lineage for the modern tools and methods of the most common interpretations and fluid based “Hydrodynamic” treatments of an electromagnetic medium. It was proposed that, though the weight of modern experimentation leaves an extremely narrow and convoluted window for even a reconceptualization of a medium, all of modern physics recognizes a plethora of behaviors and attributes for (...)
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  26. Mind, Cognition, Semiosis: Ways to Cognitive Semiotics.Piotr Konderak - 2018 - Lublin, Polska: Maria Curie-Sklodowska University Press.
    What is meaning-making? How do new domains of meanings emerge in the course of child’s development? What is the role of consciousness in this process? What is the difference between making sense of pointing, pantomime and language utterances? Are great apes capable of meaning-making? What about dogs? Parrots? Can we, in any way, relate their functioning and behavior to a child’s? Are artificial systems capable of meaning-making? -/- The above questions motivated the emergence of cognitive semiotics as a discipline devoted (...)
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  27. Calibrating Generative Models: The Probabilistic Chomsky-Schützenberger Hierarchy.Thomas Icard - 2020 - Journal of Mathematical Psychology 95.
    A probabilistic Chomsky–Schützenberger hierarchy of grammars is introduced and studied, with the aim of understanding the expressive power of generative models. We offer characterizations of the distributions definable at each level of the hierarchy, including probabilistic regular, context-free, (linear) indexed, context-sensitive, and unrestricted grammars, each corresponding to familiar probabilistic machine classes. Special attention is given to distributions on (unary notations for) positive integers. Unlike in the classical case where the "semi-linear" languages all collapse into the regular languages, using analytic tools (...)
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  28. Logikdiagramme Und Logikmaschinen Aus der Zittauer Schule Um Christian Weise.Jens Lemanski - 2019 - Neues Lausitzische Magazin 141 (1):39-57.
    A particularly promising trail on the search for forgotten logic diagrams leads to Upper Lusatia in the 17th century, more precisely to Christian Weise and his students. Samuel Grosser, who later became rector in Görlitz, and Johann Christian Lange, who later became professor of logic at the University of Gießen, are the most prominent to have published remarkable logic diagrams. Even more remarkable, however, is the fact that Lange's interest in these diagrams ultimately gave rise to the idea of building (...)
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  29. Data Science and Molecular Biology: Prediction and Mechanistic Explanation.Ezequiel López-Rubio & Emanuele Ratti - 2019 - Synthese (4):1-26.
    In the last few years, biologists and computer scientists have claimed that the introduction of data science techniques in molecular biology has changed the characteristics and the aims of typical outputs (i.e. models) of such a discipline. In this paper we will critically examine this claim. First, we identify the received view on models and their aims in molecular biology. Models in molecular biology are mechanistic and explanatory. Next, we identify the scope and aims of data science (machine learning in (...)
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  30. Digital Images: Content and Compositionality.Alistair M. C. Isaac - 2017 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 3 (1):106-126.
    Typical accounts of imagistic content have focused on the apparent analog character or continuous variability of images. In contrast, I consider the distinctive features of digital images, those composed of finite sets of discrete pixels. A rich source of evidence on digital imagistic content is found in the content-preserving algorithms that resize and reproduce digital images on computer screens and printers. I argue that these algorithms reveal a distinctive structural feature: digital images are always compositional (their parts contribute systematically to (...)
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  31. Cognition and the Structure of Bias.Gabbrielle Johnson - 2019 - Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles
    I argue that there exists a natural kind social bias that subsumes seemingly heterogenous cases of implicit bias and other forms of social cognition. I explore the implications of this explicated notion of bias for the organization of the mind, theories of consciousness, and the system-dependence of biases.
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  32. "Quantum Field Theory and Coalgebraic Logic in Theoretical Computer Science.Giuseppe Vitiello Gianfanco Basti, Antonio Capolupo - 2017 - Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 130:39-52.
    In this paper we suggest that in the framework of the Category Theory it is possible to demonstrate the mathematical and logical dual equivalence between the category of the q-deformed Hopf Coalgebras and the category of the q-deformed Hopf Algebras in QFT, interpreted as a thermal field theory. Each pair algebra-coalgebra characterizes, indeed, a QFT system and its mirroring thermal bath, respectively, so to model dissipative quantum systems persistently in far-from-equilibrium conditions, with an evident significance also for biological sciences. The (...)
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  33. Independence of the Grossone-Based Infinity Methodology From Non-Standard Analysis and Comments Upon Logical Fallacies in Some Texts Asserting the Opposite.Yaroslav D. Sergeyev - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):153-170.
    This paper considers non-standard analysis and a recently introduced computational methodology based on the notion of ①. The latter approach was developed with the intention to allow one to work with infinities and infinitesimals numerically in a unique computational framework and in all the situations requiring these notions. Non-standard analysis is a classical purely symbolic technique that works with ultrafilters, external and internal sets, standard and non-standard numbers, etc. In its turn, the ①-based methodology does not use any of these (...)
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  34. Non Classical Concept Representation and Reasoning in Formal Ontologies.Antonio Lieto - 2012 - Dissertation, Università Degli Studi di Salerno
    Formal ontologies are nowadays widely considered a standard tool for knowledge representation and reasoning in the Semantic Web. In this context, they are expected to play an important role in helping automated processes to access information. Namely: they are expected to provide a formal structure able to explicate the relationships between different concepts/terms, thus allowing intelligent agents to interpret, correctly, the semantics of the web resources improving the performances of the search technologies. Here we take into account a problem regarding (...)
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  35. Scientific Knowledge in the Age of Computation.Sophia Efstathiou, Rune Nydal, Astrid LÆgreid & Martin Kuiper - 2019 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 34 (2):213-236.
    With increasing publication and data production, scientific knowledge presents not simply an achievement but also a challenge. Scientific publications and data are increasingly treated as resources that need to be digitally ‘managed.’ This gives rise to scientific Knowledge Management : second-order scientific work aiming to systematically collect, take care of and mobilise first-hand disciplinary knowledge and data in order to provide new first-order scientific knowledge. We follow the work of Leonelli, Efstathiou and Hislop in our analysis of the use of (...)
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  36. The Olympic Medals Ranks, Lexicographic Ordering and Numerical Infinities.Yaroslav Sergeyev - 2015 - The Mathematical Intelligencer 37 (2):4-8.
    Several ways used to rank countries with respect to medals won during Olympic Games are discussed. In particular, it is shown that the unofficial rank used by the Olympic Committee is the only rank that does not allow one to use a numerical counter for ranking – this rank uses the lexicographic ordering to rank countries: one gold medal is more precious than any number of silver medals and one silver medal is more precious than any number of bronze medals. (...)
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  37. The Exact (Up to Infinitesimals) Infinite Perimeter of the Koch Snowflake and its Finite Area.Yaroslav Sergeyev - 2016 - Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 31 (1-3):21–29.
    The Koch snowflake is one of the first fractals that were mathematically described. It is interesting because it has an infinite perimeter in the limit but its limit area is finite. In this paper, a recently proposed computational methodology allowing one to execute numerical computations with infinities and infinitesimals is applied to study the Koch snowflake at infinity. Numerical computations with actual infinite and infinitesimal numbers can be executed on the Infinity Computer being a new supercomputer patented in USA and (...)
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  38. The Difficulty of Prime Factorization is a Consequence of the Positional Numeral System.Yaroslav Sergeyev - 2016 - International Journal of Unconventional Computing 12 (5-6):453–463.
    The importance of the prime factorization problem is very well known (e.g., many security protocols are based on the impossibility of a fast factorization of integers on traditional computers). It is necessary from a number k to establish two primes a and b giving k = a · b. Usually, k is written in a positional numeral system. However, there exists a variety of numeral systems that can be used to represent numbers. Is it true that the prime factorization is (...)
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  39. Grounding Knowledge and Normative Valuation in Agent-Based Action and Scientific Commitment.Catherine Elizabeth Kendig - 2018 - In Hauke Riesch, Nathan Emmerich & Steven Wainwright (eds.), Philosophies and Sociologies of Bioethics: Crossing the Divides. Cham, Switzerland: pp. 41-64.
    Philosophical investigation in synthetic biology has focused on the knowledge-seeking questions pursued, the kind of engineering techniques used, and on the ethical impact of the products produced. However, little work has been done to investigate the processes by which these epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical forms of inquiry arise in the course of synthetic biology research. An attempt at this work relying on a particular area of synthetic biology will be the aim of this chapter. I focus on the reengineering of (...)
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  40. Causation in Population Health Informatics and Data Science.Olaf Dammann & Benjamin Smart - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Springer Verlag.
    This book covers the overlap between informatics, computer science, philosophy of causation, and causal inference in epidemiology and population health research. Key concepts covered include how data are generated and interpreted, and how and why concepts in health informatics and the philosophy of science should be integrated in a systems-thinking approach. Furthermore, a formal epistemology for the health sciences and public health is suggested. -/- Causation in Population Health Informatics and Data Science provides a detailed guide of the latest thinking (...)
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  41. Artificiell Intelligens: Tankar utan innehåll?Sten Lindström & Ingar Brinck - 1993 - In Åke E. Andersson & Nils-Eric Sahlin (eds.), Huvudinnehåll: Tolv Filosofiska Uppsatser. 641 91 Nora, Sverige: pp. 121-146.
    Artificiell intelligens (AI) är ett ungt forskningsområde där många av de grundläggande problemen förefaller att vara av filosofisk art.1 Ämnet har sina filosofiska rötter dels i traditionen från Leibniz, Frege, Russell och Hilbert, som strävar efter att formalisera principerna för exakt tänkande, dels i den klassiska mekanismen: idén att människan är en maskin och att det mänskliga tänkandet är en mekanisk process. Som en första approximation kan vi säga att AI är det vetenskapliga studiet av hur man konstruerar och bygger (...)
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  42. Representations Are Rate-Distortion Sweet Spots.Manolo Martínez - 2019 - Philosophy of Science 86 (5):1214-1226.
    Information is widely perceived as essential to the study of communication and representation; still, theorists working on these topics often take themselves not to be centrally concerned with "Shannon information", as it is often put, but with some other, sometimes called "semantic" or "nonnatural",kind of information. This perception is wrong. Shannon's theory of information is the only one we need. -/- I intend to make good on this last assertion by canvassing a fully (Shannon) informational answer to the metasemantic question (...)
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  43. Mechanistic Models and the Explanatory Limits of Machine Learning.Emanuele Ratti & Ezequiel López-Rubio - unknown
    We argue that mechanistic models elaborated by machine learning cannot be explanatory by discussing the relation between mechanistic models, explanation and the notion of intelligibility of models. We show that the ability of biologists to understand the model that they work with severely constrains their capacity of turning the model into an explanatory model. The more a mechanistic model is complex, the less explanatory it will be. Since machine learning increases its performances when more components are added, then it generates (...)
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  44. Categories of Art and Computers: A Question of Artistic Style.William Seeley - 2017 - American Society for Aesthetics Newsletter 37 (3):9-11.
    Recent interdisciplinary research in visual stylometry employs digital image analysis algorithms to study the image features and statistics that underwrite our experience of artworks. This research brings psychologists, computer scientists, and art historians together to explore the formal image qualities that define artistic style. We introduce the field of visual stylometry, discuss it's implications for our understanding of