Philosophy of Computing and Information

Edited by Giuseppe Primiero (Università degli Studi di Milano)
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  1. Numerical Infinities and Infinitesimals in Optimization.Yaroslav Sergeyev & Renato De Leone - 2022 - 93413 Cham, Germania: Springer.
    From the Publisher: -/- This book presents a new powerful supercomputing paradigm introduced by Yaroslav D. Sergeyev -/- It gives a friendly introduction to the paradigm and proposes a broad panorama of a successful usage of numerical infinities -/- The volume covers software implementations of the Infinity Computer -/- Abstract -/- This book provides a friendly introduction to the paradigm and proposes a broad panorama of killing applications of the Infinity Computer in optimization: radically new numerical algorithms, great theoretical insights, (...)
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    Computation and Physical Systems
     Analog and Digital Computation
     Computers
     Implementing Computations
     Noncomputable Processes
     Pancomputationalism
     Quantum Computation
     Hypercomputation
     Computation and Physical Systems, Misc
    Computer Ethics
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     Machine Ethics
     Internet Ethics
     Computer Ethics, Misc
    Computer Simulation
     Simulation and Reality
     Simulation Argument
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     Simulation in Science
     Computer Simulation, Misc
    Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Can Machines Think?
     Computation and Representation
     Connectionism and Neural Networks
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     Computationalism
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    Phil of Information
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     Misinformation
     Physics of Information
     Information-Based Accounts of Mental Content
     Ontology of Information Artifacts
     Genetic Information
     Biological Information
     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
     Logic and Information
     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Virtual Reality
     Ethics of Virtual Reality
     Metaphysics of Virtual Reality
     Augmented Reality
     The Metaverse
     Science of Virtual Reality
     Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
     Virtual Reality, Misc
    Philosophy of Technology
     Phil of Technology, Misc
     Technology Ethics
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  2. Big Data, Scientific Research and Philosophy.Giovanni Landi - 2020 - Www.Intelligenzaartificialecomefilosofia.Com.
    What is the epistemological status of Big Data? Is there really place for them in a scientific search for new empirical laws?
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    Computation and Physical Systems
     Analog and Digital Computation
     Computers
     Implementing Computations
     Noncomputable Processes
     Pancomputationalism
     Quantum Computation
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     Computation and Physical Systems, Misc
    Computer Ethics
     Ethics of Artificial Intelligence
     Machine Ethics
     Internet Ethics
     Computer Ethics, Misc
    Computer Simulation
     Simulation and Reality
     Simulation Argument
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    Phil of Artificial Intelligence
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     Genetic Information
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     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Virtual Reality
     Ethics of Virtual Reality
     Metaphysics of Virtual Reality
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     The Metaverse
     Science of Virtual Reality
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     Virtual Reality, Misc
    Philosophy of Technology
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  3. Artificial Intelligence as Philosophy.Giovanni Landi (ed.) - 2021 - Chișinău, Moldavia: Eliva Press.
    Artificial intelligence is not and has never been a technology. It began with Turing's famous "can machine think?", a philosophical question that too many were quick to transform into a more prosaic "can Thought be mechanized?" Only in this perspective can the history and the technological success of AI be duly explained and understood, one of the tasks this book engages in. -/- It is important for philosophers to take AI seriously, and for AI researchers to see their discipline through (...)
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    Computation and Physical Systems
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     Quantum Computation
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    Computer Ethics
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    Computer Simulation
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     Genetic Information
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     Quantum Information
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     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Virtual Reality
     Ethics of Virtual Reality
     Metaphysics of Virtual Reality
     Augmented Reality
     The Metaverse
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     Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
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  4. Towards a Bioinformational Understanding of AI.Rahul D. Gautam & Balaganapathi Devarakonda - 2022 - AI and Society 37:1-23.
    The article seeks to highlight the relation between ontology and communication while considering the role of AI in society and environment. Bioinformationalism is the technical term that foregrounds this relationality. The study reveals instructive consequences for philosophy of technology in general and AI in particular. The first section introduces the bioinformational approach to AI, focusing on three critical features of the current AI debate: ontology of information, property-based vs. relational AI, and ontology vs. constitution of AI. When applied to the (...)
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    Computation and Physical Systems
     Analog and Digital Computation
     Computers
     Implementing Computations
     Noncomputable Processes
     Pancomputationalism
     Quantum Computation
     Hypercomputation
     Computation and Physical Systems, Misc
    Computer Ethics
     Ethics of Artificial Intelligence
     Machine Ethics
     Internet Ethics
     Computer Ethics, Misc
    Computer Simulation
     Simulation and Reality
     Simulation Argument
     Simulation Hypothesis
     Simulation in Science
     Computer Simulation, Misc
    Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Can Machines Think?
     Computation and Representation
     Connectionism and Neural Networks
     Areas of Artificial Intelligence
     Computationalism
     Ethics of Artificial Intelligence
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     Phil of Computation, Misc
    Phil of Information
     Conceptions of Information
     The Information Economy
     The Infosphere
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     Misinformation
     Physics of Information
     Information-Based Accounts of Mental Content
     Ontology of Information Artifacts
     Genetic Information
     Biological Information
     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
     Logic and Information
     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Virtual Reality
     Ethics of Virtual Reality
     Metaphysics of Virtual Reality
     Augmented Reality
     The Metaverse
     Science of Virtual Reality
     Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
     Virtual Reality, Misc
    Philosophy of Technology
     Phil of Technology, Misc
     Technology Ethics
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  5. On Computable Numbers, Non-Universality, and the Genuine Power of Parallelism.Nancy Salay & Selim Akl - 2015 - International Journal of Unconventional Computing 11 (3-4):283-297.
    We present a simple example that disproves the universality principle. Unlike previous counter-examples to computational universality, it does not rely on extraneous phenomena, such as the availability of input variables that are time varying, computational complexity that changes with time or order of execution, physical variables that interact with each other, uncertain deadlines, or mathematical conditions among the variables that must be obeyed throughout the computation. In the most basic case of the new example, all that is used is a (...)
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     Quantum Computation
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     Computation and Physical Systems, Misc
    Computer Ethics
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     Machine Ethics
     Internet Ethics
     Computer Ethics, Misc
    Computer Simulation
     Simulation and Reality
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    Phil of Artificial Intelligence
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     Computation and Representation
     Connectionism and Neural Networks
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     Computationalism
     Ethics of Artificial Intelligence
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     Phil of Artificial Intelligence, Miscellaneous
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     Computers in Phil
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     The Internet
     Hypertext
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     Software
     Software Verification
     Blockchain
     Phil of Computation, Misc
    Phil of Information
     Conceptions of Information
     The Information Economy
     The Infosphere
     Information Theory
     Information Ethics
     Misinformation
     Physics of Information
     Information-Based Accounts of Mental Content
     Ontology of Information Artifacts
     Genetic Information
     Biological Information
     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
     Logic and Information
     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Virtual Reality
     Ethics of Virtual Reality
     Metaphysics of Virtual Reality
     Augmented Reality
     The Metaverse
     Science of Virtual Reality
     Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
     Virtual Reality, Misc
    Philosophy of Technology
     Phil of Technology, Misc
     Technology Ethics
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  6. Artificial Intelligence: A Promising Future?Nancy Salay & Selim Akl - 2019 - Queen's Quarterly 126 (1):6-19.
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    Computation and Physical Systems
     Analog and Digital Computation
     Computers
     Implementing Computations
     Noncomputable Processes
     Pancomputationalism
     Quantum Computation
     Hypercomputation
     Computation and Physical Systems, Misc
    Computer Ethics
     Ethics of Artificial Intelligence
     Machine Ethics
     Internet Ethics
     Computer Ethics, Misc
    Computer Simulation
     Simulation and Reality
     Simulation Argument
     Simulation Hypothesis
     Simulation in Science
     Computer Simulation, Misc
    Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Can Machines Think?
     Computation and Representation
     Connectionism and Neural Networks
     Areas of Artificial Intelligence
     Computationalism
     Ethics of Artificial Intelligence
     Impact of Artificial Intelligence
     Phil of Artificial Intelligence, Miscellaneous
    Phil of Computation, Miscellaneous
     Computational Philosophy
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     The Internet
     Hypertext
     Programs
     Software
     Software Verification
     Blockchain
     Phil of Computation, Misc
    Phil of Information
     Conceptions of Information
     The Information Economy
     The Infosphere
     Information Theory
     Information Ethics
     Misinformation
     Physics of Information
     Information-Based Accounts of Mental Content
     Ontology of Information Artifacts
     Genetic Information
     Biological Information
     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
     Logic and Information
     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Virtual Reality
     Ethics of Virtual Reality
     Metaphysics of Virtual Reality
     Augmented Reality
     The Metaverse
     Science of Virtual Reality
     Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
     Virtual Reality, Misc
    Philosophy of Technology
     Phil of Technology, Misc
     Technology Ethics
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  7. An Unconventional Look at AI: Why Today’s Machine Learning Systems Are Not Intelligent.Nancy Salay - 2020 - In LINKs: The Art of Linking, an Annual Transdisciplinary Review, Special Edition 1, Unconventional Computing. pp. 62-67.
    Machine learning systems (MLS) that model low-level processes are the cornerstones of current AI systems. These ‘indirect’ learners are good at classifying kinds that are distinguished solely by their manifest physical properties. But the more a kind is a function of spatio-temporally extended properties — words, situation-types, social norms — the less likely an MLS will be able to track it. Systems that can interact with objects at the individual level, on the other hand, and that can sustain this interaction, (...)
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     Quantum Computation
     Hypercomputation
     Computation and Physical Systems, Misc
    Computer Ethics
     Ethics of Artificial Intelligence
     Machine Ethics
     Internet Ethics
     Computer Ethics, Misc
    Computer Simulation
     Simulation and Reality
     Simulation Argument
     Simulation Hypothesis
     Simulation in Science
     Computer Simulation, Misc
    Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Can Machines Think?
     Computation and Representation
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     Areas of Artificial Intelligence
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    Phil of Information
     Conceptions of Information
     The Information Economy
     The Infosphere
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     Information Ethics
     Misinformation
     Physics of Information
     Information-Based Accounts of Mental Content
     Ontology of Information Artifacts
     Genetic Information
     Biological Information
     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
     Logic and Information
     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Virtual Reality
     Ethics of Virtual Reality
     Metaphysics of Virtual Reality
     Augmented Reality
     The Metaverse
     Science of Virtual Reality
     Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
     Virtual Reality, Misc
    Philosophy of Technology
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  8. Integration in Educational Systems Extended with Artificial Intelligence – Based Technologies.Rossitza Kaltenborn - 2022 - Automatica and Informatics 1 (1):36-41.
    The main problems related to the integration of diverse functional elements of advanced intelligent learning systems are considered. It is shown that the integration of the elements in the learning process is a complex multilayered process due to the great variety and complexity of the ongoing basic processes – cognitive, pedagogical, technological, social and interpersonal. It is emphasized that the need for the integration process to be solved as a multifactor optimization data-driven problem and the use of modern techniques in (...)
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    Computation and Physical Systems
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     Implementing Computations
     Noncomputable Processes
     Pancomputationalism
     Quantum Computation
     Hypercomputation
     Computation and Physical Systems, Misc
    Computer Ethics
     Ethics of Artificial Intelligence
     Machine Ethics
     Internet Ethics
     Computer Ethics, Misc
    Computer Simulation
     Simulation and Reality
     Simulation Argument
     Simulation Hypothesis
     Simulation in Science
     Computer Simulation, Misc
    Phil of Artificial Intelligence
     Can Machines Think?
     Computation and Representation
     Connectionism and Neural Networks
     Areas of Artificial Intelligence
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     Software Verification
     Blockchain
     Phil of Computation, Misc
    Phil of Information
     Conceptions of Information
     The Information Economy
     The Infosphere
     Information Theory
     Information Ethics
     Misinformation
     Physics of Information
     Information-Based Accounts of Mental Content
     Ontology of Information Artifacts
     Genetic Information
     Biological Information
     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
     Logic and Information
     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Virtual Reality
     Ethics of Virtual Reality
     Metaphysics of Virtual Reality
     Augmented Reality
     The Metaverse
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     Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
     Virtual Reality, Misc
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     Phil of Technology, Misc
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  9. Ethical Digital Technology in Practice.Simon Rogerson - 2022 - New York, NY, USA: Auerbach Publications.
    Digital technology is about people, about those who plan, develop, implement applications which other people use. It is about the impact on these people as well as on the world at large. This book takes a practical perspective to explore these impacts over time and discover ways in which to promote ethical digital technology through good practice.
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     Quantum Computation
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    Computer Simulation
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     Conceptions of Information
     The Information Economy
     The Infosphere
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     Information Ethics
     Misinformation
     Physics of Information
     Information-Based Accounts of Mental Content
     Ontology of Information Artifacts
     Genetic Information
     Biological Information
     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
     Logic and Information
     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Virtual Reality
     Ethics of Virtual Reality
     Metaphysics of Virtual Reality
     Augmented Reality
     The Metaverse
     Science of Virtual Reality
     Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
     Virtual Reality, Misc
    Philosophy of Technology
     Phil of Technology, Misc
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  10. A Formalism to Specify Unambiguous Instructions Inspired by Mīmāṁsā in Computational Settings.Bama Srinivasan & Ranjani Parthasarathi - 2022 - Logica Universalis 16 (1):27-55.
    Mīmāṁsā, an Indian hermeneutics provides an exhaustive methodology to interpret Vedic statements. A formalism namely, Mīmāṁsā Inspired Representation of Actions has already been proposed in a preliminary manner. This paper expands the formalism logically and includes Syntax and Semantics covering Soundness and Completeness. Here, several interpretation techniques from Mīmāṁsā have been considered for formalising the statements. Based on these, instructions that denote actions are categorized into positive and prohibitive unconditional imperatives and conditional imperatives that enjoin reason, temporal action and goal. (...)
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     Quantum Computation
     Hypercomputation
     Computation and Physical Systems, Misc
    Computer Ethics
     Ethics of Artificial Intelligence
     Machine Ethics
     Internet Ethics
     Computer Ethics, Misc
    Computer Simulation
     Simulation and Reality
     Simulation Argument
     Simulation Hypothesis
     Simulation in Science
     Computer Simulation, Misc
    Phil of Artificial Intelligence
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     Computation and Representation
     Connectionism and Neural Networks
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     Ethics of Artificial Intelligence
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     Blockchain
     Phil of Computation, Misc
    Phil of Information
     Conceptions of Information
     The Information Economy
     The Infosphere
     Information Theory
     Information Ethics
     Misinformation
     Physics of Information
     Information-Based Accounts of Mental Content
     Ontology of Information Artifacts
     Genetic Information
     Biological Information
     Biomedical Information
     Quantum Information
     Logic and Information
     Phil of Information, Misc
    Theory of Computation
     The Church-Turing Thesis
     Algorithmic Complexity
     Computability
     Computational Complexity
     Hypercomputation
     Theory of Computation, Misc
    Virtual Reality
     Ethics of Virtual Reality
     Metaphysics of Virtual Reality
     Augmented Reality
     The Metaverse
     Science of Virtual Reality
     Aesthetics of Virtual Reality
     Virtual Reality, Misc
    Philosophy of Technology
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  11. The Impacts of Logic, Paradoxes in One Side and Theory of Computation in the Other Side.Didehvar Farzad - manuscript
    This is a presentation about the impacts of Logic and Theory of Computation. It starts by some explanations about Theory of Computation and its relations with the other subjects in science. Then we have some explanations about paradoxes and some historical points. In continuation, we present some of the most important paradoxes. Forthcoming, Five subjects around the relations between Logic and Theory of computation is introduced. Finally, we present a new approach to solve P vs NP problem via Paradoxes (Presentation (...)
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    Computation and Physical Systems
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     Computation and Physical Systems, Misc
    Computer Ethics
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    Computer Simulation
     Simulation and Reality
     Simulation Argument
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  12. An Ontology of Security From a Risk Treatment Perspective.Ítalo Oliveira, Tiago Prince Sales, Riccardo Baratella, Mattia Fumagalli & Giancarlo Guizzardi - forthcoming - In 41th International Conference, ER 2022, Proceedings. Cham: Springer.
    In Risk Management, security issues arise from complex relations among objects and agents, their capabilities and vulnerabilities, the events they are involved in, and the value and risk they ensue to the stakeholders at hand. Further, there are patterns involving these relations that crosscut many domains, ranging from information security to public safety. Understanding and forming a shared conceptualization and vocabulary about these notions and their relations is fundamental for modeling the corresponding scenarios, so that proper security countermeasures can be (...)
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  13. Epistemology of Measurement in Non-Human Animal Consciousness.Pater Ciprian - 2022 - Dissertation, Univeristy of Agder
    As I assume to begin with, animals with a high level of consciousness, are those beings which are more dependent on their materialistic ecological circumstances than those with less cognition. The most obvious support for this factual claim is the yet still unofficial unit of geological time named the Anthropocene Epoch demarcating human devastation of earthly resources, whereby there is no doubt which species on earth is the most materially dependent. Notwithstanding, we need to keep things quantitively in perspective. Of (...)
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  14. Consciousness and Rationality: The Lesson from Artificial Intelligence.Philip Woodward - 2022 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 29 (5-6):150-175.
    I review three problems that have historically motivated pessimism about artificial intelligence: (1) the Problem of Consciousness, according to which artificial systems function without the right sort of conscious oversight; (2) The Problem of Global Relevance, according to which artificial systems cannot solve fully general theoretical and practical problems; (3) The Problem of Semantic Irrelevance, according to which artificial systems cannot be guided by semantic comprehension. I connect the dots between all three problems by drawing attention to non-syntactic inferences—inferences that (...)
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  15. Legitimacy, Authority, and the Political Value of Explanations.Seth Lazar - manuscript
    Here is my thesis (and the outline of this paper). Increasingly secret, complex and inscrutable computational systems are being used to intensify existing power relations, and to create new ones (Section II). To be all-things-considered morally permissible, new, or newly intense, power relations must in general meet standards of procedural legitimacy and proper authority (Section III). Legitimacy and authority constitutively depend, in turn, on a publicity requirement: reasonably competent members of the political community in which power is being exercised must (...)
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  16. Agent-Based Modeling in Social Science, History, and Philosophy: An Introduction.Dominik Klein, Johannes Marx & Kai Fischbach - 2018 - Historical Social Research 43 (1):7-27.
    Agent-based modeling has become a common and well-established tool in the social sciences and certain of the humanities. Here, we aim to provide an overview of the different modeling approaches in current use. Our discussion unfolds in two parts: we first classify different aspects of the model-building process and identify a number of characteristics shared by most agent-based models in the humanities and social sciences; then we map relevant differences between the various modeling approaches. We classify these into different dimensions (...)
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  17. Zeno Paradox, Unexpected Hanging Paradox (Modeling of Reality & Physical Reality, A Historical-Philosophical View).Farzad Didehvar - manuscript
    . In our research about Fuzzy Time and modeling time, "Unexpected Hanging Paradox" plays a major role. Here, we compare this paradox to the Zeno Paradox and the relations of them with our standard models of continuum and Fuzzy numbers. To do this, we review the project "Fuzzy Time and Possible Impacts of It on Science" and introduce a new way in order to approach the solutions for these paradoxes. Additionally, we have a more general discussion about paradoxes, as Philosophical (...)
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  18. Understanding and Modeling Prevention.Riccardo Baratella, Mattia Fumagalli, Ítalo Oliveira & Giancarlo Guizzardi - 2022 - In Renata Guizzardi, Jolita Ralyté & Xavier Franch (eds.), Research Challenges in Information Science - 16th International Conference, RCIS 2022. Cham, Svizzera: Springer. pp. 389-405.
    Prevention is a pervasive phenomenon. It is about blocking an effect before it happens or stopping it as it unfolds: vaccines prevent (the unfolding of) diseases; seat belts prevent events causing serious injuries; circuit breaks prevent the manifestation of overcurrents. Many disciplines in the information sciences deal with modeling and reasoning about prevention. Examples include risk and security management as well as medical and legal informatics. Having a proper conceptualization of this phenomenon is crucial for devising proper modeling mechanisms and (...)
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  19. Some Paradoxes of Infinity Revisited.Yaroslav Sergeyev - 2022 - Mediterranian Journal of Mathematics 19:143.
    In this article, some classical paradoxes of infinity such as Galileo’s paradox, Hilbert’s paradox of the Grand Hotel, Thomson’s lamp paradox, and the rectangle paradox of Torricelli are considered. In addition, three paradoxes regarding divergent series and a new paradox dealing with multiplication of elements of an infinite set are also described. It is shown that the surprising counting system of an Amazonian tribe, Pirah ̃a, working with only three numerals (one, two, many) can help us to change our perception (...)
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  20. Inductive Risk, Understanding, and Opaque Machine Learning Models.Emily Sullivan - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science:1-13.
    Under what conditions does machine learning (ML) model opacity inhibit the possibility of explaining and understanding phenomena? In this paper, I argue that non-epistemic values give shape to the ML opacity problem even if we keep researcher interests fixed. Treating ML models as an instance of doing model-based science to explain and understand phenomena reveals that there is (i) an external opacity problem, where the presence of inductive risk imposes higher standards on externally validating models, and (ii) an internal opacity (...)
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  21. The Form in Formal Thought Disorder: A Model of Dyssyntax in Semantic Networking.Farshad Badie & Luis M. Augusto - 2022 - MDPI AI 3:353–370.
    Formal thought disorder (FTD) is a clinical mental condition that is typically diagnosable by the speech productions of patients. However, this has been a vexing condition for the clinical community, as it is not at all easy to determine what “formal” means in the plethora of symptoms exhibited. We present a logic-based model for the syntax–semantics interface in semantic networking that can not only explain, but also diagnose, FTD. Our model is based on description logic (DL), which is well known (...)
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  22. For the Record: The Evolution of Acceptable Digital Technology.Simon Rogerson - 2021 - Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 19 (4):425-432.
    This is an analysis of JICES, a journal that, for 19 years, has captured, for the record, the broader issues surrounding digital technology and how these might be addressed; thus, resulting in acceptable digital technology. Established and up and coming scholars in the field need to be provided with supportive avenues to share their views and ideas of how to realise ethical digital technology. JICES continues to have a key role to play in this.
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  23. DOLCE: A Descriptive Ontology for Linguistic and Cognitive Engineering.Stefano Borgo, Roberta Ferrario, Aldo Gangemi, Nicola Guarino, Claudio Masolo, Daniele Porello, Sanfilippo Emilio & Laure Vieu - 2022 - Applied ontology 1 (17):45-69.
    DOLCE, the first top-level (foundational) ontology to be axiomatized, has remained stable for twenty years and today is broadly used in a variety of domains. dolce is inspired by cognitive and linguistic considerations and aims to model a commonsense view of reality, like the one human beings exploit in everyday life in areas as diverse as socio-technical systems, manufacturing, financial transactions and cultural heritage. dolce clearly lists the ontological choices it is based upon, relies on philosophical principles, is richly formalized, (...)
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  24. The Determinacy of Computation.André Curtis-Trudel - 2022 - Synthese 200 (1):1-28.
    A skeptical worry known as ‘the indeterminacy of computation’ animates much recent philosophical reflection on the computational identity of physical systems. On the one hand, computational explanation seems to require that physical computing systems fall under a single, unique computational description at a time. On the other, if a physical system falls under any computational description, it seems to fall under many simultaneously. Absent some principled reason to take just one of these descriptions in particular as relevant for computational explanation, (...)
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  25. Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence.David Cycleback - 2019 - London (UK): Bookboon.
    This peer-reviewed book is a concise introduction to key philosophical questions in artificial intelligence that have long been debated by many of the great minds in computer science, cognitive science and philosophy, from Gottfried Leibniz to Alan Turing to Hubert Dreyfus. Topics include the limits of and problems in trying to create artificial general intelligence, if a computer can really think and have human-like sentience, how to identify intelligence in a computer, ethical and danger issues, and if human-like consciousness and (...)
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  26. Whispers and Shouts. The Measurement of the Human Act.Fernando Flores Morador & Luis de Marcos Ortega (eds.) - 2021 - Alcalá de Henares, Madrid: Departement of Computational Sciences. University of Alcalá; Madrid.
    The 20th Century is the starting point for the most ambitious attempts to extrapolate human life into artificial systems. Norbert Wiener’s Cybernetics, Claude Shannon’s Information Theory, John von Neumann’s Cellular Automata, Universal Constructor to the Turing Test, Artificial Intelligence to Maturana and Varela’s Autopoietic Organization, all shared the goal of understanding in what sense humans resemble a machine. This scientific and technological movement has embraced all disciplines without exceptions, not only mathematics and physics but also biology, sociology, psychology, economics etc. (...)
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  27. Combining Fast and Slow Thinking for Human-Like and Efficient Navigation in Constrained Environments.Marianna Bergamaschi Ganapini, Murray Campbell, Francesco Fabiano, Lior Horesh, Jon Lenchner, Andrea Loreggia, Nicholas Mattei, Taher Rahgooy, Francesca Rossi, Biplav Srivastava & Brent Venable - manuscript
    [Multiple authors] In this paper, we propose a general architecture that is based on fast/slow solvers and a metacognitive component. We then present experimental results on the behavior of an instance of this architecture, for AI systems that make decisions about navigating in a constrained environment. We show how combining the fast and slow decision modalities allows the system to evolve over time and gradually pass from slow to fast thinking with enough experience, and that this greatly helps in decision (...)
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  28. Paraconsistent Logics for Knowledge Representation and Reasoning: Advances and Perspectives.Walter A. Carnielli & Rafael Testa - 2020 - 18th International Workshop on Nonmonotonic Reasoning.
    This paper briefly outlines some advancements in paraconsistent logics for modelling knowledge representation and reasoning. Emphasis is given on the so-called Logics of Formal Inconsistency (LFIs), a class of paraconsistent logics that formally internalize the very concept(s) of consistency and inconsistency. A couple of specialized systems based on the LFIs will be reviewed, including belief revision and probabilistic reasoning. Potential applications of those systems in the AI area of KRR are tackled by illustrating some examples that emphasizes the importance of (...)
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  29. A Metaphysics of Creation for the Information Age: A Dialogue with Duns Scotus.Liran Shia Gordon - 2022 - Lexington Books.
    The metaphysical and theological writings of John Duns Scotus (1265/6-1308)—one of the most intriguing, albeit if now nigh-forgotten philosophers of the late Middle Ages—were seminal in the emergence of modernity. A Metaphysics of Creation for the Information Age: A Dialogue with Duns Scotus uses the prism of the concept of Creation as the leitmotif to assemble and interpret Scotus’s system of thought in a unified manner. In doing so, Liran Shia Gordon reframes Scotus’s metaphysics such that it confronts the challenges (...)
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  30. The Fate of Explanatory Reasoning in the Age of Big Data.Frank Cabrera - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):645-665.
    In this paper, I critically evaluate several related, provocative claims made by proponents of data-intensive science and “Big Data” which bear on scientific methodology, especially the claim that scientists will soon no longer have any use for familiar concepts like causation and explanation. After introducing the issue, in Section 2, I elaborate on the alleged changes to scientific method that feature prominently in discussions of Big Data. In Section 3, I argue that these methodological claims are in tension with a (...)
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  31. Numerical Methods for Solving Initial Value Problems on the Infinity Computer.Yaroslav Sergeyev, Marat Mukhametzhanov, Francesca Mazzia, Felice Iavernaro & Pierluigi Amodio - 2016 - International Journal of Unconventional Computing 12 (1):3-23.
    New algorithms for the numerical solution of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) with initial condition are proposed. They are designed for work on a new kind of a supercomputer – the Infinity Computer, – that is able to deal numerically with finite, infinite and infinitesimal numbers. Due to this fact, the Infinity Computer allows one to calculate the exact derivatives of functions using infinitesimal values of the stepsize. As a consequence, the new methods described in this paper are able to work (...)
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  32. Computation of Higher Order Lie Derivatives on the Infinity Computer.Felice Iavernaro, Francesca Mazzia, Marat Mukhametzhanov & Yaroslav Sergeyev - 2021 - Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics 383:113135.
    In this paper, we deal with the computation of Lie derivatives, which are required, for example, in some numerical methods for the solution of differential equations. One common way for computing them is to use symbolic computation. Computer algebra software, however, might fail if the function is complicated, and cannot be even performed if an explicit formulation of the function is not available, but we have only an algorithm for its computation. An alternative way to address the problem is to (...)
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  33. The Evolving Landscape of Ethical Digital Technology.Simon Rogerson - 2021 - Boca Raton: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.
    In a world that is awash in ubiquitous technology, even the least tech-savvy know that we must take care how that technology affects individuals and society. That governments and organizations around the world now focus on these issues, that universities and research institutes in many different languages dedicate significant resources to study the issues, and that international professional organizations have adopted standards and directed resources toward ethical issues in technology is in no small part the result of the work of (...)
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  34. Consciousness and Matter. Information-Measuring Approach. Generalized Principle of Complementarity.Sergiy Melnyk & Igor Tuluzov - manuscript
    A wide range of problems of the relationship between consciousness and matter are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the structure and properties of consciousness in the framework of information evolution. The role of specific (non-computational) properties of consciousness in the procedure of classical and quantum measurements is analyzed. In particular, the issue of "cloning" of consciousness (the possibility of copying its properties onto a new material carrier) is discussed in detail. We hope that the generalized principle (...)
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  35. Computing Machinery and Sexual Difference: The Sexed Presuppositions Underlying the Turing Test.Amy Kind - forthcoming - In Jennifer McWeeny & Keya Maitra (eds.), Feminist Philosophy of Mind.
    In his 1950 paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence,” Alan Turing proposed that we can determine whether a machine thinks by considering whether it can win at a simple imitation game. A neutral questioner communicates with two different systems – one a machine and a human being – without knowing which is which. If after some reasonable amount of time the machine is able to fool the questioner into identifying it as the human, the machine wins the game, and we should (...)
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  36. Assyrian Merchants Meet Nuclear Physicists: History of the Early Contributions From Social Sciences to Computer Science. The Case of Automatic Pattern Detection in Graphs (1950s-1970s).Sébastien Plutniak - 2021 - Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 46 (4):547-568.
    Community detection is a major issue in network analysis. This paper combines a socio-historical approach with an experimental reconstruction of programs to investigate the early automation of clique detection algorithms, which remains one of the unsolved NP-complete problems today. The research led by the archaeologist Jean-Claude Gardin from the 1950s on non-numerical information and graph analysis is retraced to demonstrate the early contributions of social sciences and humanities. The limited recognition and reception of Gardin's innovative computer application to the humanities (...)
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  37. Not All Structure and Dynamics Are Equal.Garrett Mindt - 2021 - Entropy 23 (9).
    The hard problem of consciousness has been a perennially vexing issue for the study of consciousness, particularly in giving a scientific and naturalized account of phenomenal experience. At the heart of the hard problem is an often-overlooked argument, which is at the core of the hard problem, and that is the structure and dynamics (S&D) argument. In this essay, I will argue that we have good reason to suspect that the S&D argument given by David Chalmers rests on a limited (...)
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  38. Cognitive Science: Recent Advances and Recurring Problems.Fred Adams, Joao Kogler & Osvaldo Pessoa Junior (eds.) - 2017 - Wilmington, DE, USA: Vernon Press.
    This book consists of an edited collection of original essays of the highest academic quality by seasoned experts in their fields of cognitive science. The essays are interdisciplinary, drawing from many of the fields known collectively as “the cognitive sciences.” Topics discussed represent a significant cross-section of the most current and interesting issues in cognitive science. Specific topics include matters regarding machine learning and cognitive architecture, the nature of cognitive content, the relationship of information to cognition, the role of language (...)
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  39. Introduction to CAT4. Part 1. Axioms.Andrew Thomas Holster - manuscript
    CAT4 is proposed as a general method for representing information, enabling a powerful programming method for large-scale information systems. It enables generalised machine learning, software automation and novel AI capabilities. It is based on a special type of relation called CAT4, which is interpreted to provide a semantic representation. This is Part 1 of a five-part introduction. The focus here is on defining the key mathematical structures first, and presenting the semantic-database application in subsequent Parts. We focus in Part 1 (...)
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  40. Wide Computation: A Mechanistic Account.Luke Kersten - 2020 - Dissertation, University of Edinburgh
    This Ph.D. thesis explores a novel way of thinking about computation in cognitive science. It argues for what I call ‘the mechanistic account of wide computationalism’, or simply wide mechanistic computation. The key claim is that some cognitive and perceptual abilities are produced by or are the result of computational mechanisms that are, in part, located outside the individual; that computational systems, the ones that form the proper units of analysis in cognitive science, are particular types of functional mechanisms that, (...)
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