Philosophy of Economics

Edited by Anna Alexandrova (Cambridge University)
Assistant editor: Jack Wright (University of Gothenburg)
About this topic
Summary Philosophy of economics is a study of any philosophical issue that arises in connection with the discipline of economics. Currently it has three core areas: foundations, methodology and ethics. Foundations of economics encompass conceptual and metaphysical questions such as the nature of rationality and social ontology, seeking to clarify what we study when we study economics (preferences, individuals, institutions, societies etc?) and their properties and relations to each other. Methodology of economics, following on the traditional questions in philosophy of science, is concerned with the nature of knowledge that can be attained about the economy and its sources.  The ethical side of philosophy of economics is a study of normative issues such as justice, efficiency, equality, welfare, paternalism, coercion and such, that arise at the intersection of political philosophy and welfare economics.
Key works Daniel Hausman is responsible for kickstarting much of contemporary philosophy of economics. Hausman 2008 is a comprehensive encyclopedia article. Hausman 1984 is an anthology of classic essays from to J.S Mill and Marx to the present day. Hausman et al 2006 is a seminal study of normative assumptions in economics and their critical study. Hausman 1992 started and still informs many discussions in methodology of economics. Reiss 2009 presents an updated agenda. Mäki 2001 is a collection on the ontology of economics.
Introductions There is now a textbook in philosophy of economics: Reiss 2013. Other good introductions to philosophy of economics are just introductions to philosophy of social science: for example, Rosenberg 1988, Risjord 2014, and Elster 2007.
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See also
History/traditions: Philosophy of Economics

Contents
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  1. Economic models and their flexible interpretations: a philosophy of science perspective.Jaakko Kuorikoski & Caterina Marchionni - forthcoming - Journal of Economic Methodology:1-8.
    We mobilise contemporary philosophy of science to further clarify observations on economic modelling made by Gilboa et al. (2023). We adopt a normative stance towards these modelling practices to identify the extent to which they are epistemically justified. Our message is simple: many of the distinctions proposed by Gilboa et al. (2023) are useful, but without the proper qualifications, too much flexibility in choosing the right interpretation risks downplaying the crucial role that empirical evidence should play in any modelling endeavour.
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  2. Filozofija i ekonomija.Tomislav Krznar (ed.) - 2020 - Zagreb: Hrvatsko filozofsko društvo.
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  3. Prendersi cura della democrazia: il ritorno dell'economia civile.Stefano Zamagni - 2023 - Roma: Ecra.
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  4. Ansiedad económica y financiera: compensaciones del camino.Gustavo F. Arrabal - 2023 - Buenos Aires: Editorial Dunken.
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  5. Handbook of teaching ethics to economists: a plurality of perspectives.Ioana Negru, Craig Duckworth & Imko Meyenburg (eds.) - 2023 - Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
    Drawing on the knowledge of highly experienced academics, this authoritative Handbook explains how ethics can inform the teaching of economics. It includes state-of-the-art moral theory alongside traditional approaches to emphasise why ethics should be an important consideration for economic practitioners. The Handbook of Teaching Ethics to Economists keenly demonstrates how economic analysis can reflect implicit moral judgements. Chapters include guidance on course design and lesson content, providing insight into important topics such as ecological and grassroots economics. They offer pedagogical advice (...)
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  6. L'homme est un être philosophique.Paul Trouillas - 2023 - Paris: Hermann.
    Ce texte est né de la manifestation du 11 janvier 2015, au cours de laquelle les masses françaises proclamèrent leur adhésion à un contrat social philosophique fondé sur quelques principes essentiels la liberté d'expression, la démocratie, la tolérance, la laïcité, la volonté de vivre ensemble, la lutte contre la barbarie. Des exemplaires du Traité sur la tolérance de Voltaire furent même déposés au pied de la statue de la République, à Paris. La thèse ici défendue est que la plupart des (...)
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  7. Beyond liberalism: freedom in capitalist and socialist societies.Prabhat Patnaik - 2024 - New York: Columbia University Press.
    Political philosophy provides the basis for political praxis; it requires a functional understanding of society in which the economy is an extraordinarily significant component. This is no less true of Marxism than it is of liberalism: it is all at once a political philosophy and an analysis of political economy, both of which are oriented toward and motivated by an agenda of human engagement. Often obscured by the complexities of Marxian analysis is the nature of its critique of liberalism, which (...)
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  8. Research ethics in applied economics: a practical guide.Anna Josephson - 2023 - New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. Edited by Jeffrey D. Michler.
    Research Ethics in Applied Economics Emphasizing the new challenges posed by the data science revolution, digital media, and changing standards, Research Ethics in Applied Economics examines the ethical issues faced by the applied economics researcher at each stage of the research process. The first section of the book considers project development, including issues of project management, selection bias in asking research questions, and political incentives in the development and funding of research ideas. The second section addresses data collection and analysis, (...)
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  9. Contemporary critiques of political economy: mapping alternative planetary futures.Ananta Kumar Giri (ed.) - 2024 - New York: Routledge.
    This book analyses contemporary critiques of political economy and highlights the challenges to rethinking contemporary discourses and practices. It carries out a multi-pronged critical and transformative dialogue involving political economy, moral economy, moral sociology, moral anthropology, and spiritual ecology. The authors discuss diverse themes such as the relationship between consciousness and society, the dialogue between Karl Marx and Carl Gustav Jung, a critical sociology of morality and property relations, moral and political economy of the Indigenous peoples and a critique of (...)
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  10. The greatest of all plagues: how economic inequality shaped political thought from Plato to Marx.David Lay Williams - 2024 - Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    Economic inequality is one of the most daunting challenges of our time, with public debate often turning to questions of whether it is an inevitable outcome of economic systems and what, if anything, can be done about it. But why, exactly, should inequality worry us? The Greatest of All Plagues demonstrates that this underlying question has been a central preoccupation of some of the most eminent political thinkers of the Western intellectual tradition. David Lay Williams shares bold new perspectives on (...)
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  11. Descent of the dialectic: phronetic criticism in an age of nihilism.Michael J. Thompson - 2024 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    This book reconstructs the concept and practice of dialectics as a means of grounding a critical theory of society. At the center of this project is the thesis of phronetic criticism or a form of reason that is able to synthesize human value with objective rationality. This book argues that defects in modern forms of social reason are the result of the powers of social structure and the norms and purposes they embody. Increasingly, modern societies are driven not by substantive (...)
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  12. Isolationism, instrumentalism and fiscal policy.Bruno Verbeek - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-19.
    When reading contemporary theories of distributive justice, one could easily get the impression that questions of fiscal design are normatively speaking merely instrumental for realizing the distributive ideal. Once the overall conception of justice is settled upon, questions of how the state should arrange its institutions and policies are settled if they effectively and efficiently promote the preferred distribution. I argue that such pure instrumentalism is mistaken in the context of fiscal policy. As a result, there is nothing problematic or (...)
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  13. Introduction.Richard Bradley & Johanna Thoma - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-1.
    As readers of this journal can attest to, although philosophers and economists are somewhat used to talking to and learning from each other, it tends to be the subset of philosophers working in decision theory, philosophy of science, and particular areas of ethics and political philosophy that contribute to our interdisciplinary field of research. The book that is the subject of this review symposium, Anna Mahtani’s The Objects of Credence (Oxford University Press, 2024), is a wonderful exemplar of what can (...)
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  14. Replies to commentators.Anna Mahtani - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-5.
    I’m so grateful to the commentators for their insightful and constructive responses! Below I continue this exchange with a brief note of reply.
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  15. Precis of The Objects of Credence.Anna Mahtani - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-3.
    The Objects of Credence grew from a simple insight, which is that credence claims are opaque (or ‘hyperintensional’). This central idea can be illustrated using the following example: (1) Tom has a high credence that George Orwell is a writer. (2) Tom has a low credence that Eric Blair is a writer.
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  16. Unjust Equal Relations.Andreas Bengtson - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    According to relational egalitarianism, justice requires equal relations. In this paper, I ask the question: can equal relations be unjust according to relational egalitarianism? I argue that while on some conceptions of relational egalitarianism, equal relations cannot be unjust, there are conceptions in which equal relations can be unjust. Surprisingly, whether equal relations can be unjust cuts across the distinction between responsibility-sensitive and non-responsibility-sensitive conceptions of relational egalitarianism. I then show what follows if one accepts a conception in which equal (...)
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  17. The Reflection Principle and the Ex-Ante Pareto Principle in Anna Mahtani’s Objects of Credence.Luc Bovens - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-7.
    First, Mahtani argues that both in the game The Mug and in the Sleeping Beauty we should not defer to a trusted person under a particular designation if they do not self-identify under this designation. This invites a more complex Reflection Principle. I respond that there are more parsimonious ways to avoid the challenges posed to the Reflection Principle. Second, Mahtani argues that preferences create a hyperintensional context, which poses a challenge to the Ex-Ante Pareto Principle that can be averted (...)
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  18. The Principal Principle and the contingent a priori.Richard Bradley - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-6.
    In Chapter 6 of Objects of Credence, Anna Mahtani argues that the opacity of credence raises difficulties for the Principal Principle and proposes a revised principle relating credence and chance that avoids it. In this comment on her book, I both defend Mahtani’s proposed principle against a charge of triviality and argue that the opacity of belief does not threaten the role of chance in guiding credence.
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  19. Diagonal decision theory.Melissa Fusco - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-12.
    Stalnaker’s ‘Assertion’ (1978 [1999]) offers a classic account of diagonalization as an approach to the meaning of a declarative sentence in context. Here I explore the relationship between diagonalization and some puzzles in Mahtani’s book The Objects of Credence. Diagonalization can influence how we think about both credence and desirability, so it influences both components of a standard expected utility equation. In that vein, I touch on two of Mahtani’s case-studies, chance and the finite version of the Two Envelope Paradox.
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  20. Probabilistically coherent credences despite opacity.Christian List - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-10.
    Real human agents, even when they are rational by everyday standards, sometimes assign different credences to objectively equivalent statements, such as “George Orwell is a writer” and “Eric Arthur Blair is a writer”, or credences less than 1 to necessarily true statements, such as not-yet-proven theorems of arithmetic. Anna Mahtani calls this the phenomenon of “opacity” (a form of hyperintensionality). Opaque credences seem probabilistically incoherent, which goes against a key modelling assumption of probability theory. I sketch a modelling strategy for (...)
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  21. Insider apology for microeconomic theorising?Maarten Janssen, Tarja Knuuttila & Mary S. Morgan - forthcoming - Journal of Economic Methodology:1-12.
    This comment on 'Economic theories and their Dueling interpretations' questions the descriptive adequacy of the ‘sociology of economics' proposed by Gilboa, Postlewaite, Samuelson, and Schmeidler (GPSS) (2022). We ask whether economists still perceive the role of microeconomic theory as central as do GPSS. In particular, is present-day economics unified by the principles of maximising, subject to constraints and equilibrium analysis? We argue that this is not the case. GPSS’ appeal to the interpretative flexibility of economic theories appears apologetic, especially the (...)
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  22. Explanation, prediction, and conceptual exploration.Daniel Hausman - forthcoming - Journal of Economic Methodology:1-9.
    This essay aims to provide a rigorous foundation for Gilboa's, Postlewaite's, Samuelson's and Schmeidler's (GPSS's) account of the constitution of models and the role of models in explanation and prediction. Although I shall offer some criticisms, my goal is to sketch analyses of explanations and models that complement GPSS's distinctions between the uses of models to explain, prescribe, predict, and explore the consequences of theories.
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  23. Indexical utility: another rationalization of exponential discounting.Wolfgang Spohn - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-14.
    This paper is about time preferences, the phenomenon that the very same things are usually considered the less valuable the farther in the future they are obtained. The utilities of those things are discounted at a certain rate. The paper presents a novel normative argument for exponential discount rates, whatever their empirical adequacy. It proposes to take indexical utility seriously, i.e. utilities referring to indexical propositions (that speak of ‘I’, ‘now’, etc.) as opposed to non-indexical propositions. Economic focus is only (...)
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  24. Marukusu-gaku kenkyū.Motoyuki Takahata - 1919 - Tōkyō: Daitōkaku.
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  25. The entrepreneurial theory of ownership.Sergei Sazonov - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-19.
    This paper introduces a theory of ownership that is rooted in Israel Kirzner’s theory of entrepreneurship – The Entrepreneurial Theory of Ownership. Its central idea is that natural resources are not available to us automatically as other approaches to justice implicitly assume. Before we can use a resource, we need to do preparatory work in the form of making an entrepreneurial judgement on it. This fact, as I argue, makes it possible to put private ownership as a natural right on (...)
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  26. Non-Archimedean population axiologies.Calvin Baker - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    Non-Archimedean population axiologies – also known as lexical views – claim (i) that a sufficient number of lives at a very high positive welfare level would be better than any number of lives at a very low positive welfare level and/or (ii) that a sufficient number of lives at a very low negative welfare level would be worse than any number of lives at a very high negative welfare level. Such axiologies are popular because they can avoid the (Negative) Repugnant (...)
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  27. Manipulation in politics and public policy.Keith Dowding & Alexandra Oprea - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-26.
    Many philosophical accounts of manipulation are blind to the extent to which actual people fall short of the rational ideal, while prominent accounts in political science are under-inclusive. We offer necessary and sufficient conditions – Suitable Reason and Testimonial Honesty – distinguishing manipulative from non-manipulative influence; develop a ‘hypothetical disclosure test’ to measure the degree of manipulation; and provide further criteria to assess and compare the morality of manipulation across cases. We discuss multiple examples drawn from politics and from public (...)
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  28. On Uncertainty.Brian Weatherson - 1998 - Dissertation, Monash University
    This dissertation looks at a set of interconnected questions concerning the foundations of probability, and gives a series of interconnected answers. At its core is a piece of old-fashioned philosophical analysis, working out what probability is. Or equivalently, investigating the semantic question of what is the meaning of ‘probability’? Like Keynes and Carnap, I say that probability is degree of reasonable belief. This immediately raises an epistemological question, which degrees count as reasonable? To solve that in its full generality would (...)
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  29. Epistemic problems in Hayek’s defence of free markets.Jonathan Benson - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-23.
    Friedrich von Hayek’s classical liberalism argued that free markets allow individuals the greatest opportunity to achieve their ends. This paper develops an internal critique of this claim. It argues that once externalities are introduced, the forms of economic knowledge Hayek thought to undermine government action and orthodox utilitarianism also rule out relative welfarist assessments of more or less regulated markets. Given the pervasiveness of externalities in modern economies, Hayek will frequently be unable to make comparative welfarist claims, or he must (...)
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  30. Fragile Futures: The Uncertain Economics of Disasters, Pandemics, and Climate Change, Vito Tanzi. Cambridge University Press, 2021. [REVIEW]Joe Roussos - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):250-256.
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  31. Fitting Things Together: Coherence and the Requirements of Structural Rationality, Alex Worsnip, Oxford University Press, 2021, xvii + 335 pages. [REVIEW]Richard Bradley - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):228-233.
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  32. Exploitation as Domination: Why Capitalism is Unjust, Nicholas Vrousalis, Oxford University Press, 2023, 224 pages. [REVIEW]Lillian Cicerchia - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):239-243.
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  33. Abstract rationality: the ‘logical’ structure of attitudes.Franz Dietrich, Antonios Staras & Robert Sugden - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):12-41.
    We present an abstract model of rationality that focuses on structural properties of attitudes. Rationality requires coherence between your attitudes, such as your beliefs, values, and intentions. We define three 'logical' conditions on attitudes: consistency, completeness, and closedness. They parallel the familiar logical conditions on beliefs, but contrast with standard rationality conditions like preference transitivity. We establish a formal correspondence between our logical conditions and standard rationality conditions. Addressing John Broome's programme 'rationality through reasoning', we formally characterize how you can (...)
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  34. Subjective total comparative evaluations.Daniel M. Hausman - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):212-225.
    In Preference, Value, Choice, and Welfare, I argued, among other things, that preferences in economics are and ought to be total subjective comparative evaluations, that the theory of rational choice is a reformulation of everyday folk-psychological explanations and predictions of behaviour, and that revealed preference theory is completely untenable. All three of these theses have been challenged in essays by Erik Angner (2018), Francesco Guala (2019) and Johanna Thoma (2021a, 2021b). This essay responds to these criticisms and defends these three (...)
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  35. Reply to Hausman.Johanna Thoma - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):226-227.
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  36. Rational updating at the crossroads.Silvia Milano & Andrés Perea - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):190-211.
    In this paper we explore the absentminded driver problem using two different scenarios. In the first scenario we assume that the driver is capable of reasoning about his degree of absentmindedness before he hits the highway. This leads to a Savage-style model where the states are mutually exclusive and the act-state independence is in place. In the second we employ centred possibilities, by modelling the states (i.e. the events about which the driver is uncertain) as the possible final destinations indexed (...)
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  37. Description invariance: a rational principle for human agents.Sarah A. Fisher - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):42-54.
    This article refines a foundational tenet of rational choice theory known as the principle of description invariance. Attempts to apply this principle to human agents with imperfect knowledge have paid insufficient attention to two aspects: first, agents’ epistemic situations, i.e. whether and when they recognize alternative descriptions of an object to be equivalent; and second, the individuation of objects of description, i.e. whether and when objects count as the same or different. An important consequence is that many apparent ‘framing effects’ (...)
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  38. A social-status rationale for repugnant market transactions.Patrick Harless & Romans Pancs - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):102-137.
    Individuals often deem market transactions in sex, human organs and surrogacy, among others, repugnant. Repugnance norms can be explained by appealing to social-status concerns. We study an exchange economy in which agents abhor consumption dominance: one’s social status is compromised if one consumes less of every good than someone else does. Dominance may be forestalled by partitioning goods into submarkets and then invoking the repugnance norms that proscribe trade across these submarkets. Dominance may also be forestalled if individuals strategically ‘overconsume’ (...)
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  39. Impartiality and democracy: an objection to political exchange.Matthew T. Jeffers - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):166-189.
    The philosophical debate concerning political exchange has largely been confined to debating the desirability of vote trading; where individuals can sell their votes or buy votes from others. However, I show that the vote credit systems prevalent in public choice theory entirely avoid the common objections to political exchange that afflict vote trading proposals. Namely, vote credit systems avoid equality concerns and inalienability concerns. I offer an alternative critique to formal mechanisms that encourage political exchange by drawing on the role (...)
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  40. Team reasoning cannot be viewed as a payoff transformation.Andrew M. Colman - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):1-11.
    In a recent article in this journal, Duijf claims to have proved that team reasoning can be viewed as a payoff transformation. His formalization mimics team reasoning but ignores its essential agency switch. The possibility of such a payoff transformation was never in doubt, does not imply that team reasoning can be viewed as a payoff transformation, and makes no sense in a game in which payoffs represent players’ utilities. A theorem is proved here that a simpler and more intuitive (...)
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  41. The Welfare Diffusion Objection to Prioritarianism.Tomi Francis - 2024 - Economics and Philosophy 40 (1):55-76.
    According to the Welfare Diffusion Objection, we should reject Prioritarianism because it implies the ‘desirability of welfare diffusion’: the claim that it can be better for there to be less total wellbeing spread thinly between a larger total number of people, rather than for there to be more total wellbeing, spread more generously between a smaller total number of people. I argue that while Prioritarianism does not directly imply the desirability of welfare diffusion, Prioritarians are nevertheless implicitly committed to certain (...)
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  42. Can heterodox economics make a difference? Conversations with key thinkers.Danielle Guizzo - 2023 - Journal of Economic Methodology 31 (1):58-62.
    Is there anything left to be said about ‘heterodox economics’? Can it make a difference in today’s economic debate? And if so, how would it displace existing theories and policy recommendations? Ho...
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  43. Permissible preference purification: on context-dependent choices and decisive welfare judgements in behavioural welfare economics.Måns Abrahamson - 2023 - Journal of Economic Methodology 31 (1):17-35.
    Behavioural welfare economics has lately been challenged on account of its use of the satisfaction of true preferences as a normative criterion. The critique contests what is taken to be an implicit assumption in the literature, namely that true preferences are context-independent. This assumption is considered not only unjustified in the behavioural welfare economics literature but unjustifiable – true preferences are argued to be, at least sometimes, context-dependent. This article explores the implications of this ‘critique of the inner rational agent’. (...)
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  44. Ontological wars in economics: the return of supervenience.Alexandre Müller Fonseca - 2023 - Journal of Economic Methodology 31 (1):1-16.
    In this article, I contest Brian Epstein’s argument (2014) against the applicability of global supervenience to relate micro and macroeconomic properties. Epstein rejects supervenience via a causal-chain relation inside the macroeconomic set in his criticism. Accordingly, the rise of the macro set is fixed by a weather event without any mediation from the realm of microeconomics. As it stands, this idea would demonstrate the autonomy of macroeconomics from microeconomics. However, as I intend to argue, in Epstein’s weather-cases scenarios, the corresponding (...)
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  45. Equilibrium modeling in economics: a design-based defense.Armin W. Schulz - 2024 - Journal of Economic Methodology 31 (1):36-53.
    Several authors have recently argued that the excessive focus on equilibrium models in mainstream economic analysis prevents economists from providing accurate representations of the complex and dynamic nature of real economic systems. In response, this paper argues the following. Many economic systems are the products of deliberate and centralized human design. People can and do build and support structures, such as social institutions, aiming to enhance the predictability of economic systems, and thus to move them toward being equilibrium systems. This (...)
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  46. Bankers as Immoral? Some Parallels and Differences between Aquinas's Views on Usury and Marxian Views of Banking and Credit.Thomas E. Lambert - 2024 - Economic Thought 11 (2):31.
    Since ancient times the practices and ethics of bankers and banking in general have undergone a great deal of criticism. While lending is motivated by profit, and while households are not explicitly coerced into borrowing money, the justice of a system which exploits workers and at the same time encourages them to borrow money in order to maintain a certain standard of living can be viewed as sometimes unfair and perhaps immoral. The value of goods, according to St. Thomas Aquinas (...)
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  47. On CBDC and the Need for Public Debate: Policy and the Concept of Process.Jamie Morgan - 2024 - Economic Thought 11 (2):3.
    According to the Principle of Techno-Geek Proportionality, for every million times a nerd gets excited about “the latest thing” the world might change once. Central bank digital currency (CBDC) may be that once. There is nothing new about digital money, but there may be many profoundly new things about CBDC. This is especially so for “retail” CBDC – that is, CBDC freely available to the public rather than “wholesale” CBDC, which is restricted to some registered users and central bank systems. (...)
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  48. Re-Thinking Fast and Slow.John R. Stinespring - 2024 - Economic Thought 11 (2):45.
    Daniel Kahneman's book Thinking, Fast and Slow (2011) has had a worldwide impact. The book's insights are profound and have changed the thinking of both decision scientists and general audiences about how choices are made. Kahneman, however, claims that standard utility theory cannot explain these insights because it 1) lacks “reference points” from which gains and losses can be measured, 2) does not predict loss aversion, and 3) assumes preferences are stable (amid supposed counter evidence). These alleged failures of utility (...)
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  49. On Technofeudalism: What Killed Capitalism? An interview with Yanis Varoufakis by Michel Zouboulakis.Michel Zouboulakis - 2024 - Economic Thought 11 (2):25.
    Yanis Varoufakis is an economist and politician. After serving as Greek Finance Minister in 2015, he went on to co-found the Democracy in Europe Movement 2025, of which he is now Secretary- General. The author of many books and academic papers, his latest work, Technofeudalism: What Killed Capitalism?, was published by Bodley Head in 2023. Professor of Economics, and editor of this journal, Michel Zouboulakis interviewed Varoufakis in December 2023. What follows is a transcript of that meeti...
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  50. How to be absolutely fair Part I: The Fairness formula.Stefan Wintein & Conrad Heilmann - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy.
    We present the first comprehensive theory of fairness that conceives of fairness as having two dimensions: a comparative and an absolute one. The comparative dimension of fairness has traditionally been the main interest of Broomean fairness theories. It has been analysed as satisfying competing individual claims in proportion to their respective strengths. And yet, many key contributors to Broomean fairness agree that ‘absolute’ fairness is important as well. We make this concern precise by introducing the Fairness formula and the absolute (...)
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