About this topic
Summary The objective of this category is to create a up to date and comprehensive repertoire of the current literature on the philosophy of food and drinking. This is an up and coming area of philosophy. It is distinctly characterized by its appeal to virtually any philosophical sub-discipline, by its cross-disciplinary vocation, and by its relevance for society at large. Alike areas such as philosophy of biology, philosophy of gender, and the philosophy of art, the philosophy of food concerns questions that pertain to several sub-fields, including ethics, political philosophy, philosophy of science, metaphysics, aesthetics, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of language. The ethical and political aspects of the philosophy of food are without doubt its most advanced and well-known aspects. More recently, however, the philosophy of food has taken a more theoretical inflexion. Contemporary philosophers have indeed begun in-depth investigations of questions concerning topics such as: taste, the aesthetics experience of drinking and eating, food identity, food biodiversity, food policy, food law, food and social class, food and gender.

Key works Early contemporary works in the field include, Singer 2009, Korsmeyer 1999, Telfer 1996, and Thompson 1998
Introductions A wide repertoire of topics can be found in Thompson & Kaplan 2012 Area introductions include: Tom & Frey 2011, Barnhill et al 2018,  Monroe & Allhoff 2007Sandler 2014Thompson 2015, and Kaplan 2012. For some area-specific readers: [BROKEN REFERENCE: 0w]#BAITEO-10.  
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Material to categorize
  1. Alimentary Agony: Allergy and the Gut.S. T. Bogardus & Sumner C. Kraft - 1996 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 39 (3):394-404.
  2. How Does the Mediterranean Diet Promote Cardiovascular Health? Current Progress Toward Molecular Mechanisms.Dolores Corella & José M. Ordovás - 2014 - Bioessays 36 (5):526-537.
  3. Conflict of Concepts in Early Vitamin Studies.Aaron J. Ihde & Stanley L. Becker - 1971 - Journal of the History of Biology 4 (1):1-33.
  4. Anti-Genetic Engineering Activism and Scientized Politics in the Case of “Contaminated” Mexican Maize.Abby J. Kinchy - 2010 - Agriculture and Human Values 27 (4):505-517.
    The struggle over genetically-engineered (GE) maize in Mexico reveals a deep conflict over the criteria used in the governance of agri-food systems. Policy debate on the topic of GE maize has become “scientized,” granting experts a high level of political authority, and narrowing the regulatory domain to matters that can be adjudicated on the basis of scientific information or “managed” by environmental experts. While scientization would seem to narrow opportunities for public participation, this study finds that Mexican activists acting “in (...)
  5. Does Calorie Restriction in Primates Increase Lifespan? Revisiting Studies on Macaques and Mouse Lemurs.Eric Le Bourg - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (10):1800111.
    The effects of calorie restriction have now been studied in two non‐human primates, the macaque Macaca mulatta and the mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. The study on lemurs and one of the two studies on macaques have reported a lifespan increase. In this review, I argue that these results are better explained by a lifespan decrease in the control group because of a bad diet and/or overfeeding, rather than by a real lifespan increase in calorie‐restricted animals. If these results can be (...)
  6. Do‐It‐Yourself Calorie Restriction: The Risks of Simplistically Translating Findings in Animal Models to Humans.Eric Le Bourg & Leanne M. Redman - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (9):1800087.
Drinks and Drinking
Drunkenness
  1. Wine and Philosophy.Tim Crane - 2003 - Harper's Magazine 1 (May).
    What could be more dull than the idea of a symposium? The word conjures up associations with dusty dons, tedious academic papers on deservedly obscure facts and theories. In universities these days, what used to be called ‘symposia’ are often called ‘workshops’ – perhaps in a feeble attempt to make the symposium sound more exciting. If this is your view of the symposium, you may be surprised to learn that the original ancient Greek symposium was a drinking party: the word (...)
  2. Excess.Tim Crane - unknown
    The history of wine-drinking is a history of excess. From Noah’s disastrous first experiments and the bacchanalia of the ancient Greeks to the spectacular overindulgence described in the diaries of Evelyn Waugh, the consumption of wine to excess has been a recurrent theme among those drink and those who write about it. Sometimes the quantities consumed by the drinkers of the past are staggering. According to Roy Porter’s English Society in the Eighteenth Century, ‘to gain a reputation as a blade (...)
  3. In Vino Veritas.Barry C. Smith & Tim Crane - 2007 - The Philosophers' Magazine 39 (39):75-78.
Wine
  1. The Aesthetics of Wine.Douglas Burnham & Ole Martin Skilleas - 2012 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This book represents the first full-length study of the aesthetics of the appreciation of wine. It introduces and argues for the validity and significance of several new concepts: competency, project, and aesthetic practices. Using these concepts -- together with analyses borrowed from cognitive science, sensory science, Husserlian phenomenology and hermeneutics -- the case is made that wine can be a proper and indeed significant object of aesthetic attention. The implications of this are pursued in three ways: First, within the culture (...)
  2. You'll Never Drink Alone: Wine Tasting and Aesthetic Practice.Douglas Burnham & Ole Martin Skilleås - 2008 - In Fritz Allhoff (ed.), Wine and Philosophy. Blackwell.
  3. "I Drink Therefore I Am: A Philosopher's Guide to Wine" by Roger Scruton. [REVIEW]Tim Crane - 2011 - Philosophy 86 (1):138-42.
    Of all the things we eat or drink, wine is without question the most complex. So it should not be surprising that philosophers have turned their attention to wine: complex phenomena can lend themselves to philosophical speculation. Wine is complex not just in the variety of tastes it presents – ‘wine tastes of everything apart from grapes’, I once heard an expert say – but in its meaning...
  4. Wine as an Aesthetic Object.Tim Crane - 2007 - In Barry C. Smith (ed.), Questions of Taste: The Philosophy of Wine. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 141--156.
    Art is one thing, the aesthetic another. Things can be appreciated aesthetically – for instance, in terms of the traditional category of the beautiful – without being works of art. A landscape can be appreciated as beautiful; so can a man or a woman. Appreciation of such natural objects in terms of their beauty certainly counts as aesthetic appreciation, if anything does. This is not simply because landscapes and people are not artefacts; for there are also artefacts which are assessable (...)
  5. Wine and Philosophy.Tim Crane - 2003 - Harper's Magazine 1 (May).
    What could be more dull than the idea of a symposium? The word conjures up associations with dusty dons, tedious academic papers on deservedly obscure facts and theories. In universities these days, what used to be called ‘symposia’ are often called ‘workshops’ – perhaps in a feeble attempt to make the symposium sound more exciting. If this is your view of the symposium, you may be surprised to learn that the original ancient Greek symposium was a drinking party: the word (...)
  6. Excess.Tim Crane - unknown
    The history of wine-drinking is a history of excess. From Noah’s disastrous first experiments and the bacchanalia of the ancient Greeks to the spectacular overindulgence described in the diaries of Evelyn Waugh, the consumption of wine to excess has been a recurrent theme among those drink and those who write about it. Sometimes the quantities consumed by the drinkers of the past are staggering. According to Roy Porter’s English Society in the Eighteenth Century, ‘to gain a reputation as a blade (...)
  7. Fermented Thoughts.Ophelia Deroy - 2010 - The Philosophers' Magazine 48 (48):104-105.
  8. Questions of Taste: The Philosophy of Wine.C. Korsmeyer - 2008 - British Journal of Aesthetics 48 (2):233-235.
  9. Wineworld. New Essays on Wine, Taste, Philosophy and Aesthetics.Nicola Perullo - 2012 - Rivista di Estetica 51:3-48.
  10. Wineworld: Tasting, Making, Drinking, Being.Nicola Perullo - 2012 - Rivista di Estetica 51:3-48.
  11. I Drink Therefore I Am: A Philosopher's Guide to Wine.Roger Scruton - 2009 - Continuum.
    This good-humoured book offers an antidote to the pretentious clap-trap that is written about wine today and a profound apology for the drink on which..
  12. Categories and Appreciation – A Reply to Sackris.Ole Martin Skilleås & Douglas Burnham - 2014 - Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (3):551-557.
    In his article “Category Independent Aesthetic Experience: The Case of Wine” in this journal, David Sackris presents arguments against Kendall Walton’s view in the famous article “Categories of Art.”David Sackris, “Category Independent Aesthetic Experience: The Case of Wine,” The Journal of Value Inquiry, 47 (2013), pp. 111–120; Kendall Walton, “Categories of Art,” in Steven M. Cahn and Aaron Meskin (Eds) Aesthetics: A Comprehensive Anthology. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007), pp. 521–537. [First published in The Philosophical Review, 79 (1970), pp. 334–367.] He claims, (...)
  13. Questions of Taste: The Philosophy of Wine.Barry C. Smith (ed.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Is the taste of a wine in our minds or in the glass? Can knowledge make a difference to the pleasure a wine gives us? Do the elaborate descriptions of wines in terms of fruits or spices, their "suppleness" or "brawniness," really mean anything? Questions of Taste is the first book to examine the philosophical issues surrounding our experience and enjoyment of wine. Featuring lucid essays from philosophers, a linguist, a biochemist, a wine producer and a wine critic, these leading (...)
  14. In Vino Veritas.Barry C. Smith & Tim Crane - 2007 - The Philosophers' Magazine 39 (39):75-78.
  15. Expression and Objectivity in the Case of Wine: Defending the Aesthetic Terroir of Tastes and Smells.Cain Todd - 2012 - Rivista di Estetica 51:95-115.
  16. Percevoir L’Expression Émotionnelle Dans les Objets Inanimés : L’Exemple du Vin: Dialogue.Cain Todd - 2012 - Dialogue 51 (1):129-139.
    ABSTRACT: Amongst inanimate objects, it is generally accepted that at least some art forms, such as music and painting, are capable of being genuinely expressive of emotion, even though it is difficult to understand exactly how. In contrast, although expressive properties can be attributed to non-artworks, such as natural objects or wine, it has often been claimed that such objects cannot be genuinely expressive. Focussing on wine, I argue that once we understand properly the nature of expressiveness, if we allow (...)
  17. The Philosophy of Wine: A Case of Truth, Beauty, and Intoxication.Cain Todd - 2010 - Routledge.
    Does this Bonnes-Mares really have notes of chocolate, truffle, violets, and merde de cheval? Can wines really be feminine, profound, pretentious, or cheeky? Can they express emotion or terroir? Do the judgements of 'experts' have any objective validity? Is a great wine a work of art? Questions like these will have been entertained by anyone who has ever puzzled over the tasting notes of a wine writer, or been baffled by the response of a sommelier to an innocent question. Only (...)
Drinks and Drinking, Misc
  1. Wine and Philosophy.Tim Crane - 2003 - Harper's Magazine 1 (May).
    What could be more dull than the idea of a symposium? The word conjures up associations with dusty dons, tedious academic papers on deservedly obscure facts and theories. In universities these days, what used to be called ‘symposia’ are often called ‘workshops’ – perhaps in a feeble attempt to make the symposium sound more exciting. If this is your view of the symposium, you may be surprised to learn that the original ancient Greek symposium was a drinking party: the word (...)
  2. Fermented Thoughts.Ophelia Deroy - 2010 - The Philosophers' Magazine 48 (48):104-105.
  3. Disputing Taste.Carolyn Korsmeyer - 2009 - The Philosophers' Magazine 45:70-76.
    The sense of taste falls low on the hierarchy of the senses because it seems a poor conduit for knowledge of the external world; it directs attention inward rather than outward; its pleasures are sensuous and bodily, prone to overindulgence that distracts from higher human endeavours; and its objects are at best merely pleasant, not of the highest aesthetic value. Such is the traditional assessment; now let us analyse its justice.
  4. Food for Thought: Philosophy and Food.Elizabeth Telfer - 1996 - Routledge.
    The importance of food in our individual lives raises moral questions from the debate over eating animals to the prominence of gourmet cookery in the popular media. Through philosophy, Elizabeth Telfer discusses issues including our obligations to those who are starving; the value of the pleasure of food; food as art; our duties to animals; and the moral virtues of hospitableness and temperance. Elizabeth Telfer shows how much traditional philosophy, from Plato to John Stuart Mill, has to say to illuminate (...)
Food Ethics
See also: Vegetarianism
Food Law
  1. Evaluating Equity Critiques in Food Policy: The Case of Sugar‐Sweetened Beverages.Anne Barnhill & Katherine F. King - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):301-309.
    Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy — modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet — and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program assistance. We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that were (...)
  2. I Marchi Di Origine E I Miraggi Del Nominalismo Legislativo.Andrea Borghini - unknown
    È una credenza diffusa che i marchi di origine (DOCG, DOC, DOP, IGT, IGP e PAT, rispettivamente: di origine controllata e garantita; di origine controllata; di origine protetta; indicazione geografica tipica; indicazione geografica protetta; prodotti agroalimentari tradizionali) siano di grande utilità sia per i consumatori che per i produttori: certificando l’origine e il metodo di produzione di un prodotto, essi ne garantiscono una certa qualità di fronte al consumatore. Ma è proprio così? Che cosa giustifica l’introduzione di un marchio di (...)
  3. Against the Autonomy Argument for Mandatory GMO Labeling.Jonathan Herington - 2018 - Public Affairs Quarterly 32 (2):85-117.
    Many argue that consumers possess a “right to know” when products contain ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms, on the grounds that it would protect consumer autonomy. In this paper, I critically evaluate that claim. I begin by providing a version of the “consumer autonomy” argument, showing that its success relies on ambiguities in the notion of autonomy. I then distinguish four approaches to autonomy and articulate the circumstances under which they would support active disclosure of a product property. I (...)
  4. Nanotechnologies and Novel Foods in European Law.Daniela Marrani - 2013 - NanoEthics 7 (3):177-188.
    Food is a big business in the EU and nanofood products are beginning to be placed on the market. It is still unclear whether the absence of minimum regulation at a global level promotes or prevents the growth of a market in nanofood. However, the development of an adequate risk management policy in relation to food safety is a key concern for consumers. Importantly, the European Parliament in its 2009 Resolution on “Legal aspects on nanomaterials” called for more in-depth scientific (...)
  5. Edible Insects – Defining Knowledge Gaps in Biological and Ethical Considerations of Entomophagy.Isabella Pali-Schöll, Regina Binder, Yves Moens, Friedrich Polesny & Susana Monsó - forthcoming - Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.
    While seeking novel food sources to feed the increasing population of the globe, several alternatives have been discussed, including algae, fungi or in vitro meat. The increasingly propagated usage of farmed insects for human nutrition raises issues regarding food safety, consumer information and animal protection. In line with law, insects like any other animals must not be reared or manipulated in a way that inflicts unnecessary pain, distress or harm on them. Currently, there is a great need for research in (...)
  6. Genetically Engineered Animals and the Ethics of Food Labeling.Robert Streiffer & Alan Rubel - 2007 - In Paul Weirich (ed.), Labeling Genetically Modified Food: The Philosophical and Legal Debate. Oup Usa. pp. 63--87.
    The current debate about labeling genetically engineered (GE) food focuses on food derived from GE crops, neglecting food derived from GE animals. This is not surprising, as GE animal products have not yet reached the market. Participants in the debate may also be assuming that conclusions about GE crops automatically extend to GE animals. But there are two GE animals - the Enviropig and the AquAdvantage Bred salmon - that are approaching the market, animals raise more ethical issues than plants, (...)
Food Science and Technology
  1. Evaluating Equity Critiques in Food Policy: The Case of Sugar‐Sweetened Beverages.Anne Barnhill & Katherine F. King - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):301-309.
    Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy — modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet — and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program assistance. We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that were (...)
  2. The World Agricultural System and Ethical Considerations Relating to the Rural Environment: Some Perspectives on Cause and Effect in Underdeveloped Countries.Brian Furze - 1989 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 2 (1):59-67.
    Food is a basic human need and therefore a basic human right. While food output has increased to a level where there is enough food produced to feed the world, still millions starve. Using the concept of capitalist world economy as a framework, this paper provides a structural analysis of the food production and distribution system within monopoly capitalism and its implications for countries of the underdeveloped world. Focusing on the impact of a dominant world food supply system on indigenous (...)
  3. Paul Pojman (Ed): Food Ethics, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, Boston, Massachusetts, 2012, 199 Pp, ISBN 9781111772307 David Kaplan (Ed): The Philosophy of Food, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 2012, 320 Pp, ISBN 9780520269330. [REVIEW]Daniel Hicks - 2013 - Agriculture and Human Values 30 (4):657-658.
    Both of the books reviewed here are anthologies edited by philosophers, intended for use in undergraduate “ethics of eating” classes taught under the auspices of philosophy departments; I review them as a teacher of such a class. The Pojman anthology is rather outdated, and not recommended. The Kaplan anthology, by contrast, would be a valuable starting point or addition to such a class, though it could not carry the class on its own.
  4. GMOs: Non-Health Issues.Daniel Hicks & Roberta L. Millstein - 2016 - In Paul B. Thompson & David Kaplan (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics (Second Edition). Springer. pp. 1-11.
    The controversy over genetically modified [GM] organisms is often framed in terms of possible hazards for human health. Articles in a previous volume of this *Encyclopedia* give a general overview of GM crops [@Mulvaney2014] and specifically examine human health [@Nordgard2014] and labeling [@Bruton2014] issues surrounding GM organisms. This article explores several other aspects of the controversy: environmental concerns, political and legal disputes, and the aim of "feeding the world" and promoting food security. Rather than discussing abstract, hypothetical GM organisms, this (...)
  5. French Women Don’T Get Fat: The Secret of Eating for Pleasure. [REVIEW]Michelle Kelly - 2005 - Colloquy 9:169-170.
  6. Nanotechnologies and Novel Foods in European Law.Daniela Marrani - 2013 - NanoEthics 7 (3):177-188.
    Food is a big business in the EU and nanofood products are beginning to be placed on the market. It is still unclear whether the absence of minimum regulation at a global level promotes or prevents the growth of a market in nanofood. However, the development of an adequate risk management policy in relation to food safety is a key concern for consumers. Importantly, the European Parliament in its 2009 Resolution on “Legal aspects on nanomaterials” called for more in-depth scientific (...)
  7. Genetically Engineered Animals and the Ethics of Food Labeling.Robert Streiffer & Alan Rubel - 2007 - In Paul Weirich (ed.), Labeling Genetically Modified Food: The Philosophical and Legal Debate. Oup Usa. pp. 63--87.
    The current debate about labeling genetically engineered (GE) food focuses on food derived from GE crops, neglecting food derived from GE animals. This is not surprising, as GE animal products have not yet reached the market. Participants in the debate may also be assuming that conclusions about GE crops automatically extend to GE animals. But there are two GE animals - the Enviropig and the AquAdvantage Bred salmon - that are approaching the market, animals raise more ethical issues than plants, (...)
  8. The Agrarian Vision: Sustainability and Environmental Ethics.Paul B. Thompson - 2010 - University Press of Kentucky.
    Agrarian political philosophies since ancient Greece stress the role of agriculture in forming political solidarity and civic virtue. More recent transformations suggest a way to conjoin these elements of what makes a polity politically sustainable with environmental sensitivity and literacy.
  9. The Spirit of the Soil: Agriculture and Environmental Ethics.Paul B. Thompson - 1994 - Routledge.
    The Spirit of the Soil challenges environmentalists to think more deeply and creatively about agriculture. Paul B. Thompson identifies four `worldviews' which tackle agricultural ethics according to different philosophical priorities; productionism, stewardship, economics and holism. He examines current issues such as the use of pesticides and biotechnology from these ethical perspectives. This book achieves an open-ended account of sustainability designed to minimise hubris and help us to recapture the spirit of the soil.
  10. A Latin American Perspective to Agricultural Ethics.Cristian Timmermann - forthcoming - In Eduardo Rivera-López & Martín Hevia (eds.), Controversies in Latin American Bioethics. Dordrecht: Springer.
    The mixture of political, social, cultural and economic environments in Latin America, together with the enormous diversity in climates, natural habitats and biological resources the continent offers, make the ethical assessment of agricultural policies extremely difficult. Yet the experience gained while addressing the contemporary challenges the region faces, such as rapid urbanization, loss of culinary and crop diversity, extreme inequality, disappearing farming styles, water and land grabs, malnutrition and the restoration of the rule of law and social peace, can be (...)
  11. Agroecology as a Vehicle for Contributive Justice.Cristian Timmermann & Georges F. Félix - 2015 - Agriculture and Human Values 32 (3):523-538.
    Agroecology has been criticized for being more labor-intensive than other more industrialized forms of agriculture. We challenge the assertion that labor input in agriculture has to be generally minimized and argue that besides quantity of work one should also consider the quality of work involved in farming. Early assessments on work quality condemned the deskilling of the rural workforce, whereas later criticisms have concentrated around issues related to fair trade and food sovereignty. We bring into the discussion the concept of (...)
Food Politics
  1. The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory.Carol J. Adams - 2000 - Continuum.
  2. The Five Horsemen of the Modern World: Climate, Food, Water, Disease, and Obesity. [REVIEW]George J. Aulisio - 2017 - The European Legacy 22 (7-8):865-867.
  3. Evaluating Equity Critiques in Food Policy: The Case of Sugar‐Sweetened Beverages.Anne Barnhill & Katherine F. King - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):301-309.
    Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy — modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet — and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program assistance. We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that were (...)
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