About this topic
Summary The objective of this category is to create a up to date and comprehensive repertoire of the current literature on the philosophy of food and drinking. This is an up and coming area of philosophy. It is distinctly characterized by its appeal to virtually any philosophical sub-discipline, by its cross-disciplinary vocation, and by its relevance for society at large. Alike areas such as philosophy of biology, philosophy of gender, and the philosophy of art, the philosophy of food concerns questions that pertain to several sub-fields, including ethics, political philosophy, philosophy of science, metaphysics, aesthetics, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of language. The ethical and political aspects of the philosophy of food are without doubt its most advanced and well-known aspects. More recently, however, the philosophy of food has taken a more theoretical inflexion. Contemporary philosophers have indeed begun in-depth investigations of questions concerning topics such as: taste, the aesthetics experience of drinking and eating, food identity, food biodiversity, food policy, food law, food and social class, food and gender.

Key works Early contemporary works in the field include, Singer 2009, Korsmeyer 1999, Telfer 1996, and Thompson 1998
Introductions A wide repertoire of topics can be found in Thompson & Kaplan 2012 Area introductions include: Tom & Frey 2011, Barnhill et al 2017,  Monroe & Allhoff 2007Sandler 2014Thompson 2015, and Kaplan 2012. For some area-specific readers: [BROKEN REFERENCE: 0w]#BAITEO-10.  
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  1. Beeing & Time: Kiss of Chemoreception & the Bug in Dasein's Mouth.Virgil W. Brower - 2014 - In Laurence Talairach-Vielmas & Marie Bouchet (eds.), Insects in Literature & the Arts. Brussels, Belgium: pp. 197-217.
    "Brower explores the way philosophers were inspired by entomological social systems and communication to reflect on human psyche, social behavior, community organization, communication, and inter-individual relationships. His essay rehearses the swarms of insects embedded in contemporary philosophy and literary theory, not only showing how many of the major concepts (or philosophemes) in continental philosophy – sexuality, politics, thinking, time, interdependence, and language – draw lessons from the world of insects, but also illustrating again how the insect world spurred human reflection.".
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Drinks and Drinking
See also: Alcoholism
Coffee and Tea
  1. Totul despre cafea - Cultivare, preparare, reţete, aspecte culturale.Nicolae Sfetcu - 2015 - Drobeta Turnu Severin: MultiMedia Publishing.
    Un ghid complet pentru cultivarea şi prepararea celor mai variate tipuri de cafea, cu accent pe aspectele culturale şi de sănătate, şi modalităţi de includere a cafelei în diverse deserturi şi cocktailuri. Cafeaua este o băutură universal recunoscută ca o necesitate umană. Departe de a fi văzută ca un lux sau privită cu indulgenţă, ea este considerată un corolar pentru energia şi eficienţa umană, producând în acelaşi timp o puternică senzaţie de plăcere. Cafeaua este o băutură democratică. Este în acelaşi (...)
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  2. The Unexamined Cup is Not Worth Drinking.Kristopher G. Phillips - 2011 - In Scott F. Parker & Michael W. Austin (eds.), Coffee - Philosophy for Everyone: Grounds for Debate. Wiley-Blackwell.
    There is something that it is like to be you, and I argue that there is something that it is like to experience the terminology that baristas employ in describing coffee. I argue that there is a world of experiential difference between those in the know and those who are not. Borrowing from David Hume's "Of the Standard of Taste" I argue that while everyone likes what they like, one can still be mistaken in liking something of lower quality.
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Drunkenness
  1. Wine and Philosophy.Tim Crane - 2003 - Harper's Magazine 1 (May).
    What could be more dull than the idea of a symposium? The word conjures up associations with dusty dons, tedious academic papers on deservedly obscure facts and theories. In universities these days, what used to be called ‘symposia’ are often called ‘workshops’ – perhaps in a feeble attempt to make the symposium sound more exciting. If this is your view of the symposium, you may be surprised to learn that the original ancient Greek symposium was a drinking party: the word (...)
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  2. Excess.Tim Crane - unknown
    The history of wine-drinking is a history of excess. From Noah’s disastrous first experiments and the bacchanalia of the ancient Greeks to the spectacular overindulgence described in the diaries of Evelyn Waugh, the consumption of wine to excess has been a recurrent theme among those drink and those who write about it. Sometimes the quantities consumed by the drinkers of the past are staggering. According to Roy Porter’s English Society in the Eighteenth Century, ‘to gain a reputation as a blade (...)
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  3. In Vino Veritas.Barry C. Smith & Tim Crane - 2007 - The Philosophers' Magazine 39 (39):75-78.
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Wine
  1. The Spiritual & Sensuous: Aesthetics of Adorno & Scruton.Virgil W. Brower - 2018 - Wassard Elea Rivista 6 (3):127-139.
  2. Percevoir L’Expression Émotionnelle Dans les Objets Inanimés : L’Exemple du Vin: Dialogue.Cain Todd - 2012 - Dialogue 51 (1):129-139.
    ABSTRACT: Amongst inanimate objects, it is generally accepted that at least some art forms, such as music and painting, are capable of being genuinely expressive of emotion, even though it is difficult to understand exactly how. In contrast, although expressive properties can be attributed to non-artworks, such as natural objects or wine, it has often been claimed that such objects cannot be genuinely expressive. Focussing on wine, I argue that once we understand properly the nature of expressiveness, if we allow (...)
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  3. Questions of Taste: The Philosophy of Wine: Book Reviews. [REVIEW]Carolyn Korsmeyer - 2008 - British Journal of Aesthetics 48 (2):233-235.
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  4. "I Drink Therefore I Am: A Philosopher's Guide to Wine" by Roger Scruton. [REVIEW]Tim Crane - 2011 - Philosophy 86 (1):138-42.
    Of all the things we eat or drink, wine is without question the most complex. So it should not be surprising that philosophers have turned their attention to wine: complex phenomena can lend themselves to philosophical speculation. Wine is complex not just in the variety of tastes it presents – ‘wine tastes of everything apart from grapes’, I once heard an expert say – but in its meaning...
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  5. Wine and Philosophy.Tim Crane - 2003 - Harper's Magazine 1 (May).
    What could be more dull than the idea of a symposium? The word conjures up associations with dusty dons, tedious academic papers on deservedly obscure facts and theories. In universities these days, what used to be called ‘symposia’ are often called ‘workshops’ – perhaps in a feeble attempt to make the symposium sound more exciting. If this is your view of the symposium, you may be surprised to learn that the original ancient Greek symposium was a drinking party: the word (...)
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  6. Excess.Tim Crane - unknown
    The history of wine-drinking is a history of excess. From Noah’s disastrous first experiments and the bacchanalia of the ancient Greeks to the spectacular overindulgence described in the diaries of Evelyn Waugh, the consumption of wine to excess has been a recurrent theme among those drink and those who write about it. Sometimes the quantities consumed by the drinkers of the past are staggering. According to Roy Porter’s English Society in the Eighteenth Century, ‘to gain a reputation as a blade (...)
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  7. The Aesthetics of Wine.Douglas Burnham & Ole Martin Skilleas - 2012 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This book represents the first full-length study of the aesthetics of the appreciation of wine. It introduces and argues for the validity and significance of several new concepts: competency, project, and aesthetic practices. Using these concepts -- together with analyses borrowed from cognitive science, sensory science, Husserlian phenomenology and hermeneutics -- the case is made that wine can be a proper and indeed significant object of aesthetic attention. The implications of this are pursued in three ways: First, within the culture (...)
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  8. The Philosophy of Wine: A Case of Truth, Beauty and Intoxication.Cain Todd - 2010 - Routledge.
    Does this Bonnes-Mares really have notes of chocolate, truffle, violets, and merde de cheval? Can wines really be feminine, profound, pretentious, or cheeky? Can they express emotion or terroir? Do the judgements of 'experts' have any objective validity? Is a great wine a work of art? Questions like these will have been entertained by anyone who has ever puzzled over the tasting notes of a wine writer, or been baffled by the response of a sommelier to an innocent question. Only (...)
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  9. Categories and Appreciation – A Reply to Sackris.Ole Martin Skilleås & Douglas Burnham - 2014 - Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (3):551-557.
    In his article “Category Independent Aesthetic Experience: The Case of Wine” in this journal, David Sackris presents arguments against Kendall Walton’s view in the famous article “Categories of Art.”David Sackris, “Category Independent Aesthetic Experience: The Case of Wine,” The Journal of Value Inquiry, 47 (2013), pp. 111–120; Kendall Walton, “Categories of Art,” in Steven M. Cahn and Aaron Meskin (Eds) Aesthetics: A Comprehensive Anthology. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007), pp. 521–537. [First published in The Philosophical Review, 79 (1970), pp. 334–367.] He claims, (...)
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  10. You'll Never Drink Alone: Wine Tasting and Aesthetic Practice.Douglas Burnham & Ole Martin Skilleås - 2008 - In Fritz Allhoff (ed.), Wine and Philosophy. Blackwell.
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  11. Wine as an Aesthetic Object.Tim Crane - 2007 - In Barry C. Smith (ed.), Questions of Taste: The Philosophy of Wine. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 141--156.
    Art is one thing, the aesthetic another. Things can be appreciated aesthetically – for instance, in terms of the traditional category of the beautiful – without being works of art. A landscape can be appreciated as beautiful; so can a man or a woman. Appreciation of such natural objects in terms of their beauty certainly counts as aesthetic appreciation, if anything does. This is not simply because landscapes and people are not artefacts; for there are also artefacts which are assessable (...)
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  12. Wineworld: Tasting, Making, Drinking, Being.Nicola Perullo - 2012 - Rivista di Estetica 51:3-48.
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  13. Wineworld. New Essays on Wine, Taste, Philosophy and Aesthetics.Nicola Perullo - 2012 - Rivista di Estetica 51:3-48.
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  14. Expression and Objectivity in the Case of Wine: Defending the Aesthetic Terroir of Tastes and Smells.Cain Todd - 2012 - Rivista di Estetica 51:95-115.
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  15. Fermented Thoughts.Ophelia Deroy - 2010 - The Philosophers' Magazine 48 (48):104-105.
  16. In Vino Veritas.Barry C. Smith & Tim Crane - 2007 - The Philosophers' Magazine 39 (39):75-78.
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  17. Questions of Taste: The Philosophy of Wine.Barry C. Smith (ed.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Is the taste of a wine in our minds or in the glass? Can knowledge make a difference to the pleasure a wine gives us? Do the elaborate descriptions of wines in terms of fruits or spices, their "suppleness" or "brawniness," really mean anything? Questions of Taste is the first book to examine the philosophical issues surrounding our experience and enjoyment of wine. Featuring lucid essays from philosophers, a linguist, a biochemist, a wine producer and a wine critic, these leading (...)
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  18. I Drink Therefore I Am: A Philosopher's Guide to Wine.Roger Scruton - 2009 - Continuum.
    This good-humoured book offers an antidote to the pretentious clap-trap that is written about wine today and a profound apology for the drink on which..
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Drinks and Drinking, Misc
  1. Wine and Philosophy.Tim Crane - 2003 - Harper's Magazine 1 (May).
    What could be more dull than the idea of a symposium? The word conjures up associations with dusty dons, tedious academic papers on deservedly obscure facts and theories. In universities these days, what used to be called ‘symposia’ are often called ‘workshops’ – perhaps in a feeble attempt to make the symposium sound more exciting. If this is your view of the symposium, you may be surprised to learn that the original ancient Greek symposium was a drinking party: the word (...)
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  2. Disputing Taste.Carolyn Korsmeyer - 2009 - The Philosophers' Magazine 45:70-76.
    The sense of taste falls low on the hierarchy of the senses because it seems a poor conduit for knowledge of the external world; it directs attention inward rather than outward; its pleasures are sensuous and bodily, prone to overindulgence that distracts from higher human endeavours; and its objects are at best merely pleasant, not of the highest aesthetic value. Such is the traditional assessment; now let us analyse its justice.
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  3. Fermented Thoughts.Ophelia Deroy - 2010 - The Philosophers' Magazine 48 (48):104-105.
  4. Food for Thought: Philosophy and Food.Elizabeth Telfer - 1996 - Routledge.
    The importance of food in our individual lives raises moral questions from the debate over eating animals to the prominence of gourmet cookery in the popular media. Through philosophy, Elizabeth Telfer discusses issues including our obligations to those who are starving; the value of the pleasure of food; food as art; our duties to animals; and the moral virtues of hospitableness and temperance. Elizabeth Telfer shows how much traditional philosophy, from Plato to John Stuart Mill, has to say to illuminate (...)
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Food Ethics
See also: Vegetarianism
  1. The Epistemology of Meat Eating.C. E. Abbate - 2020 - Social Epistemology 2020:1-19.
    A widely accepted view in epistemology is that we do not have direct control over our beliefs. And we surely do not have as much control over our beliefs as we have over simple actions. For instance, you can, if offered $500, immediately throw your steak in the trash, but a meat-eater cannot, at will, start believing that eating animals is wrong to secure a $500 reward. Yet, even though we have more control over our behavior than we have over (...)
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  2. Meat Eating and Moral Responsibility: Exploring the Moral Distinctions Between Meat Eaters and Puppy Torturers.C. E. Abbate - 2020 - Utilitas:1-18.
    In his influential article on the ethics of eating animals, Alastair Norcross argues that consumers of factory raised meat and puppy torturers are equally condemnable because both knowingly cause serious harm to sentient creatures just for trivial pleasures. Against this claim, I argue that those who buy and consume factory raised meat, even those who do so knowing that they cause harm, have a partial excuse for their wrongdoings. Meat eaters act under social duress, which causes volitional impairment, and they (...)
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  3. Valuing Animals as They Are—Whether They Feel It or Not.C. E. Abbate - 2020 - European Journal of Philosophy:1-19.
    Dressing up animals in ridiculous costumes, shaming dogs on the internet, playing Big Buck Hunter at the local tavern, feeding vegan food to cats, and producing and consuming “knockout” animals, what, if anything, do these acts have in common? In this article, I develop two respect-based arguments that explain how these acts are morally problematic, even though they might not always, if ever, affect the experiential welfare of animals. While these acts are not ordinary wrongs, they are animal dignitary wrongs.
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  4. Veganism, (Almost) Harm-Free Animal Flesh, and Nonmaleficence: Navigating Dietary Ethics in an Unjust World.C. E. Abbate - 2019 - In Bob Fischer (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Animal Ethics.
    This is a chapter written for an audience that is not intimately familiar with the philosophy of animal consumption. It provides an overview of the harms that animals, the environment, and humans endure as a result of industrial animal agriculture, and it concludes with a defense of ostroveganism and a tentative defense of cultured meat.
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  5. Investigating the Elasticity of Meat Consumption for Climate Mitigation: 4Rs for Responsible Meat Use.Sophia Efstathiou - 2019 - In Eija Vinnari & Markus Vinnari (eds.), Sustainable Governance and Management of Food Systems: Ethical Perspectives. Wageningen, Netherlands: pp. 19-25.
    Our main research question is how pliable Norwegian meat consumption practices are. However it is not any type of elasticity we are interested in. We are specifically interested in the scope for what we dub the “4Rs” of responsible meat consumption within existing food systems: 1. Reducing the amount of animal-based proteins used 2. Replacing animal-based protein with plant-based, or insect-based alternatives 3. Refining processes of utilization of animal-based protein to minimize emissions, loss and waste 4. Recognising animal-based protein as (...)
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  6. Food, Animals, and the Environment: An Ethical Approach; By Christopher Schlottmann and Jeff Sebo. [REVIEW]Kyle Johannsen - 2019 - Philosophy in Review 39 (4):206-8.
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  7. From Field to Fork and on to Philosophy.Paul B. Thompson - 2017 - Social Philosophy Today 33:225-232.
    Jeffrey Brown, Greg Hoskins and Elizabeth Sperry pose questions about three different policy questions that are discussed in From Field to Fork: Food Ethics for Everyone: policy interventions to address obesity, welfare guidelines for egg production, and the safety of genetically engineered foods. However all three critiques turn on the question of what we can expect a non-specialist to know, and how much information they can be expected to process in making an ethical decision about what to eat. My response (...)
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  8. Commentary on Paul B. Thompson’s From Field to Fork: Food Ethics for Everyone.Elizabeth Sperry - 2017 - Social Philosophy Today 33:209-215.
    Paul Thompson’s excellent book, From Field to Fork: Food Ethics for Everyone, argues that contemporary food ethics persistently ignores the nature and actual impact of GMOs, Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, food aid to developing countries, and more. On Thompson’s view, such philosophical analyses must incorporate empirical knowledge. Additional strengths of Thompson’s book: its attention to quality-of-life issues, its openness to the concerns of the marginalized, and its emphasis on the interconnectedness of problems in food ethics. I raise one area of (...)
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  9. Democratic Legitimacy, Risk Governance, and GM Food.Neil Hibbert & Lisa F. Clark - 2014 - Social Philosophy Today 30:29-45.
    The use of Genetic Modification in food is the subject of deep political disagreement. Much of the disagreement involves different perceptions of the kinds of risks posed by pursuing GM food, and how these are to be tolerated and regulated. As a result, a primary institutional site of GM food politics is regulatory agencies tasked with risk assessment and regulation. Locating GM food politics in administrative areas of governance regimes produces unique challenges of democratic legitimacy, conventionally secured through legislative channels. (...)
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  10. Eat Right: Eating Local or Global?Joan McGregor - 2014 - Social Philosophy Today 30:95-111.
    In this paper, I will consider the moral considerations surrounding our food choices, including whether those choices are sustainable. Sustainability means preserving ecological integrity for current and future generations, and includes cultural sustainability which embodies values like justice and care for current and future generations as well as non-human animals. I will explore the widely accepted view that buying local is morally superior. In considering the moral reasons for buying local, I will investigate Peter Singer’s arguments against buying local, which (...)
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  11. The Power and Politics of Disgust: Toward a Critical Theory of Food.Andrew J. Pierce - 2014 - Social Philosophy Today 30:131-143.
    This essay argues, drawing from both philosophical and scientific work on disgust, that since disgust is a universal human emotion with roots in evolutionary adaptation, and since capitalism inevitably produces disgusting food, a critique of capitalism based upon the category of disgust and centered on the food system may be more practically effective than traditional critiques of capitalism. This critique forms the basis of what I call a critical theory of food.
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  12. The GMO Quandary and What It Means for Social Philosophy.Paul B. Thompson - 2014 - Social Philosophy Today 30:7-27.
    Agricultural crops developed using the tools of genetic engineering have become socially institutionalized in three ways that substantially compromise the inherent potential of plant transformation tools. The first is that when farming depends upon debt finance, farmers find themselves in a competitive situation such that efficiency-enhancing technology fuels a trend of bankruptcy and increasing scale of production. As efficiency increasing tools, GMOs are embedded in controversial processes of social change in rural economies. The United States, at least, has chosen not (...)
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  13. Vote With Your Fork? Responsibility for Food Justice.Erinn Gilson - 2014 - Social Philosophy Today 30:113-130.
    As popular food writers and activists urge consumers to express their social, political, and ethical commitments through their food choices, the imperative to ‘vote with your fork’ has become a common slogan of emerging food movements in the US. I interrogate the conception of responsibility embedded in this dictate, which has become a de facto model for how to comport ourselves ethically with respect to food. I argue that it implicitly endorses a narrow and problematic understanding of responsibility. To contextualize (...)
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  14. The Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics.Anne Barnhill, Mark Budolfson & Tyler Doggett (eds.) - 2017 - Oxford University Press.
    The handbook is a partial survey of multiple areas of food ethics: conventional agriculture and alternatives to it; animals; consumption ethics; food justice; food workers; food politics and policy; gender, body image, and healthy eating; and, food, culture and identity. -/- Food ethics, as an academic pursuit, is vast, incorporating work from philosophy as well as anthropology, economics, environmental sciences and other natural sciences, geography, law, and sociology. This Handbook provides a sample of recent philosophical work in food ethics. This (...)
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  15. Food, Ethics, and Society: An Introductory Text with Readings.Anne Barnhill, Mark Budolfson & Tyler Doggett - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Like the subtitle says, this is an intro to food ethics that also collects writings on food ethics by others. Topics include: animals, consumption, farming, identity, justice, paternalism, religion, and workers.
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  16. Potency and Permissibility.Clayton Littlejohn - forthcoming - In Ben Bramble Bob Fischer (ed.), Stirring the Pot. Oxford University Press.
    In this paper, I respond to the (infamous) causal impotence objection to the standard arguments for ethical vegetarianism. The paper defends a non-consequentialist response to this objection, one that draws on an account of the principle of non-maleficence inspired by Ross.
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Food Law
  1. Religious Dietary Practices and Secular Food Ethics; or, How to Hope That Your Food Choices Make a Difference Even When You Reasonably Believe That They Don’T.Andrew Chignell - 2018 - In Mark Budolfson, Anne Barnhill & Tyler Doggett (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Food Ethics. New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    Religious dietary practices foster a sense of communal identity, certainly, but traditionally they are also regarded as pleasing to God (or the gods, or the ancestors) and spiritually beneficial. In other words, for many religious people, the effects of fasting go well beyond what is immediately observed or empirically measurable, and that is a large part of what motivates participation in the practice. The goal of this chapter is to develop that religious way of thinking into a response to a (...)
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  2. The Ethics and Politics of Plant-Based and Cultured Meat.Jeff Sebo - 2018 - Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 13 (1):159-183.
    JEFF SEBO | : In this paper I examine several of the moral and political questions raised by new kinds of meat. I begin by discussing the risks and harms associated with industrial animal agriculture, and I argue that plant-based meat and cultured meat are promising alternatives to conventional meat. I then explore the moral, conceptual, social, political, economic, and technical challenges that stand in the way of widespread adoption of these alternatives. For example, whether or not we achieve widespread (...)
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  3. Edible Insects – Defining Knowledge Gaps in Biological and Ethical Considerations of Entomophagy.Isabella Pali-Schöll, Regina Binder, Yves Moens, Friedrich Polesny & Susana Monsó - 2019 - Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 17 (59):2760-2771.
    While seeking novel food sources to feed the increasing population of the globe, several alternatives have been discussed, including algae, fungi or in vitro meat. The increasingly propagated usage of farmed insects for human nutrition raises issues regarding food safety, consumer information and animal protection. In line with law, insects like any other animals must not be reared or manipulated in a way that inflicts unnecessary pain, distress or harm on them. Currently, there is a great need for research in (...)
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  4. Against the Autonomy Argument for Mandatory GMO Labeling.Jonathan Herington - 2018 - Public Affairs Quarterly 32 (2):85-117.
    Many argue that consumers possess a “right to know” when products contain ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms, on the grounds that it would protect consumer autonomy. In this paper, I critically evaluate that claim. I begin by providing a version of the “consumer autonomy” argument, showing that its success relies on ambiguities in the notion of autonomy. I then distinguish four approaches to autonomy and articulate the circumstances under which they would support active disclosure of a product property. I (...)
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  5. Genetically Engineered Animals and the Ethics of Food Labeling.Robert Streiffer & Alan Rubel - 2007 - In Paul Weirich (ed.), Labeling Genetically Modified Food: The Philosophical and Legal Debate. Oup Usa. pp. 63--87.
    The current debate about labeling genetically engineered (GE) food focuses on food derived from GE crops, neglecting food derived from GE animals. This is not surprising, as GE animal products have not yet reached the market. Participants in the debate may also be assuming that conclusions about GE crops automatically extend to GE animals. But there are two GE animals - the Enviropig and the AquAdvantage Bred salmon - that are approaching the market, animals raise more ethical issues than plants, (...)
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  6. Nanotechnologies and Novel Foods in European Law.Daniela Marrani - 2013 - NanoEthics 7 (3):177-188.
    Food is a big business in the EU and nanofood products are beginning to be placed on the market. It is still unclear whether the absence of minimum regulation at a global level promotes or prevents the growth of a market in nanofood. However, the development of an adequate risk management policy in relation to food safety is a key concern for consumers. Importantly, the European Parliament in its 2009 Resolution on “Legal aspects on nanomaterials” called for more in-depth scientific (...)
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