About this topic
Summary The objective of this category is to create a up to date and comprehensive repertoire of the current literature on the philosophy of food and drinking. This is an up and coming area of philosophy. It is distinctly characterized by its appeal to virtually any philosophical sub-discipline, by its cross-disciplinary vocation, and by its relevance for society at large. Alike areas such as philosophy of biology, philosophy of gender, and the philosophy of art, the philosophy of food concerns questions that pertain to several sub-fields, including ethics, political philosophy, philosophy of science, metaphysics, aesthetics, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of language. The ethical and political aspects of the philosophy of food are without doubt its most advanced and well-known aspects. More recently, however, the philosophy of food has taken a more theoretical inflexion. Contemporary philosophers have indeed begun in-depth investigations of questions concerning topics such as: taste, the aesthetics experience of drinking and eating, food identity, food biodiversity, food policy, food law, food and social class, food and gender.

Key works Early contemporary works in the field include, Singer 2009, Korsmeyer 1999, Telfer 1996, and Thompson 1998
Introductions A wide repertoire of topics can be found in Thompson & Kaplan 2012 Area introductions include: Tom & Frey 2011, Barnhill et al 2018,  Monroe & Allhoff 2007Sandler 2014Thompson 2015, and Kaplan 2012. For some area-specific readers: [BROKEN REFERENCE: 0w]#BAITEO-10.  
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Material to categorize
  1. Food Landscapes: An Object-Centered Model of Food Appreciation.Matteo Ravasio - 2018 - The Monist 101 (3):309-323.
    In this paper I claim that Allen Carlson’s object-centered model for the aesthetic appreciation of nature could be extended to food. The application of an object-centered model to food requires the identification of appropriate foci of appreciative attention. I claim that knowledge about food function and history is relevant to its appreciation, as is the interplay between the resources of a territory and the way in which these are used by its inhabitants. After having offered a brief application of the (...)
  2. Le plaisir de manger du chocolat.Fabrice Teroni - 2014 - In Olivier Massin & Anne Meylan (eds.), Aristote chez les Helvètes: Onze essais de métaphysique helvétique. Ithaque.
    A l’instar de bien d’autres activités, manger du chocolat suscite du plaisir. Mais comment articuler de manière satisfaisante les différents sens en jeu dans l’ingestion d’un aliment – le goût, bien sûr, mais aussi l’odorat, l’ouïe et le toucher – avec ce plaisir ? Selon une approche traditionnelle, ce dernier n’est rien de plus qu’une expérience ineffable qui, si elle s’avère accompagner certaines stimulations sensorielles ou des activités plus intellectuelles, ne porte sur rien du tout. Est-ce plausible ? Ou faudrait-il (...)
  3. Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics.Paul B. Thompson & David M. Kaplan (eds.) - 2012
  4. Eating as a Gendered Act: Christianity, Feminism, and Reclaiming the Body.Christina Van Dyke - 2008 - In K. J. Clark (ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Religion, 2nd Edition. Peterborough: Broadview Press. pp. 475-489.
    In current society, eating is most definitely a gendered act: that is, what we eat and how we eat it factors in both the construction and the performance of gender. Furthermore, eating is a gendered act with consequences that go far beyond whether one orders a steak or a salad for dinner. In the first half of this paper, I identify the dominant myths surrounding both female and male eating, and I show that those myths contribute in important ways to (...)
Drinks and Drinking
Drunkenness
  1. Wine and Philosophy.Tim Crane - 2003 - Harper's Magazine 1 (May).
    What could be more dull than the idea of a symposium? The word conjures up associations with dusty dons, tedious academic papers on deservedly obscure facts and theories. In universities these days, what used to be called ‘symposia’ are often called ‘workshops’ – perhaps in a feeble attempt to make the symposium sound more exciting. If this is your view of the symposium, you may be surprised to learn that the original ancient Greek symposium was a drinking party: the word (...)
  2. Excess.Tim Crane - unknown
    The history of wine-drinking is a history of excess. From Noah’s disastrous first experiments and the bacchanalia of the ancient Greeks to the spectacular overindulgence described in the diaries of Evelyn Waugh, the consumption of wine to excess has been a recurrent theme among those drink and those who write about it. Sometimes the quantities consumed by the drinkers of the past are staggering. According to Roy Porter’s English Society in the Eighteenth Century, ‘to gain a reputation as a blade (...)
  3. In Vino Veritas.Barry C. Smith & Tim Crane - 2007 - The Philosophers' Magazine 39 (39):75-78.
Wine
  1. The Aesthetics of Wine.Douglas Burnham & Ole Martin Skilleas - 2012 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    This book represents the first full-length study of the aesthetics of the appreciation of wine. It introduces and argues for the validity and significance of several new concepts: competency, project, and aesthetic practices. Using these concepts -- together with analyses borrowed from cognitive science, sensory science, Husserlian phenomenology and hermeneutics -- the case is made that wine can be a proper and indeed significant object of aesthetic attention. The implications of this are pursued in three ways: First, within the culture (...)
  2. You'll Never Drink Alone: Wine Tasting and Aesthetic Practice.Douglas Burnham & Ole Martin Skilleås - 2008 - In Fritz Allhoff (ed.), Wine and Philosophy. Blackwell.
  3. "I Drink Therefore I Am: A Philosopher's Guide to Wine" by Roger Scruton. [REVIEW]Tim Crane - 2011 - Philosophy 86 (1):138-42.
    Of all the things we eat or drink, wine is without question the most complex. So it should not be surprising that philosophers have turned their attention to wine: complex phenomena can lend themselves to philosophical speculation. Wine is complex not just in the variety of tastes it presents – ‘wine tastes of everything apart from grapes’, I once heard an expert say – but in its meaning...
  4. Wine as an Aesthetic Object.Tim Crane - 2007 - In Barry C. Smith (ed.), Questions of Taste: The Philosophy of Wine. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 141--156.
    Art is one thing, the aesthetic another. Things can be appreciated aesthetically – for instance, in terms of the traditional category of the beautiful – without being works of art. A landscape can be appreciated as beautiful; so can a man or a woman. Appreciation of such natural objects in terms of their beauty certainly counts as aesthetic appreciation, if anything does. This is not simply because landscapes and people are not artefacts; for there are also artefacts which are assessable (...)
  5. Wine and Philosophy.Tim Crane - 2003 - Harper's Magazine 1 (May).
    What could be more dull than the idea of a symposium? The word conjures up associations with dusty dons, tedious academic papers on deservedly obscure facts and theories. In universities these days, what used to be called ‘symposia’ are often called ‘workshops’ – perhaps in a feeble attempt to make the symposium sound more exciting. If this is your view of the symposium, you may be surprised to learn that the original ancient Greek symposium was a drinking party: the word (...)
  6. Excess.Tim Crane - unknown
    The history of wine-drinking is a history of excess. From Noah’s disastrous first experiments and the bacchanalia of the ancient Greeks to the spectacular overindulgence described in the diaries of Evelyn Waugh, the consumption of wine to excess has been a recurrent theme among those drink and those who write about it. Sometimes the quantities consumed by the drinkers of the past are staggering. According to Roy Porter’s English Society in the Eighteenth Century, ‘to gain a reputation as a blade (...)
  7. Fermented Thoughts.Ophelia Deroy - 2010 - The Philosophers' Magazine 48 (48):104-105.
  8. Questions of Taste: The Philosophy of Wine.C. Korsmeyer - 2008 - British Journal of Aesthetics 48 (2):233-235.
  9. Wineworld. New Essays on Wine, Taste, Philosophy and Aesthetics.Nicola Perullo - 2012 - Rivista di Estetica 51:3-48.
  10. Wineworld: Tasting, Making, Drinking, Being.Nicola Perullo - 2012 - Rivista di Estetica 51:3-48.
  11. I Drink Therefore I Am: A Philosopher's Guide to Wine.Roger Scruton - 2009 - Continuum.
    This good-humoured book offers an antidote to the pretentious clap-trap that is written about wine today and a profound apology for the drink on which..
  12. Categories and Appreciation – A Reply to Sackris.Ole Martin Skilleås & Douglas Burnham - 2014 - Journal of Value Inquiry 48 (3):551-557.
    In his article “Category Independent Aesthetic Experience: The Case of Wine” in this journal, David Sackris presents arguments against Kendall Walton’s view in the famous article “Categories of Art.”David Sackris, “Category Independent Aesthetic Experience: The Case of Wine,” The Journal of Value Inquiry, 47 (2013), pp. 111–120; Kendall Walton, “Categories of Art,” in Steven M. Cahn and Aaron Meskin (Eds) Aesthetics: A Comprehensive Anthology. (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007), pp. 521–537. [First published in The Philosophical Review, 79 (1970), pp. 334–367.] He claims, (...)
  13. Questions of Taste: The Philosophy of Wine.Barry C. Smith (ed.) - 2007 - Oxford University Press.
    Is the taste of a wine in our minds or in the glass? Can knowledge make a difference to the pleasure a wine gives us? Do the elaborate descriptions of wines in terms of fruits or spices, their "suppleness" or "brawniness," really mean anything? Questions of Taste is the first book to examine the philosophical issues surrounding our experience and enjoyment of wine. Featuring lucid essays from philosophers, a linguist, a biochemist, a wine producer and a wine critic, these leading (...)
  14. In Vino Veritas.Barry C. Smith & Tim Crane - 2007 - The Philosophers' Magazine 39 (39):75-78.
  15. Expression and Objectivity in the Case of Wine: Defending the Aesthetic Terroir of Tastes and Smells.Cain Todd - 2012 - Rivista di Estetica 51:95-115.
  16. Percevoir L’Expression Émotionnelle Dans les Objets Inanimés : L’Exemple du Vin: Dialogue.Cain Todd - 2012 - Dialogue 51 (1):129-139.
    ABSTRACT: Amongst inanimate objects, it is generally accepted that at least some art forms, such as music and painting, are capable of being genuinely expressive of emotion, even though it is difficult to understand exactly how. In contrast, although expressive properties can be attributed to non-artworks, such as natural objects or wine, it has often been claimed that such objects cannot be genuinely expressive. Focussing on wine, I argue that once we understand properly the nature of expressiveness, if we allow (...)
  17. The Philosophy of Wine: A Case of Truth, Beauty, and Intoxication.Cain Todd - 2010 - Routledge.
    Does this Bonnes-Mares really have notes of chocolate, truffle, violets, and merde de cheval? Can wines really be feminine, profound, pretentious, or cheeky? Can they express emotion or terroir? Do the judgements of 'experts' have any objective validity? Is a great wine a work of art? Questions like these will have been entertained by anyone who has ever puzzled over the tasting notes of a wine writer, or been baffled by the response of a sommelier to an innocent question. Only (...)
Drinks and Drinking, Misc
  1. Wine and Philosophy.Tim Crane - 2003 - Harper's Magazine 1 (May).
    What could be more dull than the idea of a symposium? The word conjures up associations with dusty dons, tedious academic papers on deservedly obscure facts and theories. In universities these days, what used to be called ‘symposia’ are often called ‘workshops’ – perhaps in a feeble attempt to make the symposium sound more exciting. If this is your view of the symposium, you may be surprised to learn that the original ancient Greek symposium was a drinking party: the word (...)
  2. Fermented Thoughts.Ophelia Deroy - 2010 - The Philosophers' Magazine 48 (48):104-105.
  3. Disputing Taste.Carolyn Korsmeyer - 2009 - The Philosophers' Magazine 45:70-76.
    The sense of taste falls low on the hierarchy of the senses because it seems a poor conduit for knowledge of the external world; it directs attention inward rather than outward; its pleasures are sensuous and bodily, prone to overindulgence that distracts from higher human endeavours; and its objects are at best merely pleasant, not of the highest aesthetic value. Such is the traditional assessment; now let us analyse its justice.
  4. Food for Thought: Philosophy and Food.Elizabeth Telfer - 1996 - Routledge.
    The importance of food in our individual lives raises moral questions from the debate over eating animals to the prominence of gourmet cookery in the popular media. Through philosophy, Elizabeth Telfer discusses issues including our obligations to those who are starving; the value of the pleasure of food; food as art; our duties to animals; and the moral virtues of hospitableness and temperance. Elizabeth Telfer shows how much traditional philosophy, from Plato to John Stuart Mill, has to say to illuminate (...)
Food Ethics
See also: Vegetarianism
  1. Against the Autonomy Argument for Mandatory GMO Labeling.Jonathan Herington - 2018 - Public Affairs Quarterly 32 (2):85-117.
    Many argue that consumers possess a “right to know” when products contain ingredients derived from genetically modified organisms, on the grounds that it would protect consumer autonomy. In this paper, I critically evaluate that claim. I begin by providing a version of the “consumer autonomy” argument, showing that its success relies on ambiguities in the notion of autonomy. I then distinguish four approaches to autonomy and articulate the circumstances under which they would support active disclosure of a product property. I (...)
Food Law
  1. Evaluating Equity Critiques in Food Policy: The Case of Sugar‐Sweetened Beverages.Anne Barnhill & Katherine F. King - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 41 (1):301-309.
    Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy — modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet — and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program assistance. We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that were (...)
  2. I Marchi Di Origine E I Miraggi Del Nominalismo Legislativo.Andrea Borghini - unknown
    È una credenza diffusa che i marchi di origine (DOCG, DOC, DOP, IGT, IGP e PAT, rispettivamente: di origine controllata e garantita; di origine controllata; di origine protetta; indicazione geografica tipica; indicazione geografica protetta; prodotti agroalimentari tradizionali) siano di grande utilità sia per i consumatori che per i produttori: certificando l’origine e il metodo di produzione di un prodotto, essi ne garantiscono una certa qualità di fronte al consumatore. Ma è proprio così? Che cosa giustifica l’introduzione di un marchio di (...)
  3. Nanotechnologies and Novel Foods in European Law.Daniela Marrani - 2013 - NanoEthics 7 (3):177-188.
    Food is a big business in the EU and nanofood products are beginning to be placed on the market. It is still unclear whether the absence of minimum regulation at a global level promotes or prevents the growth of a market in nanofood. However, the development of an adequate risk management policy in relation to food safety is a key concern for consumers. Importantly, the European Parliament in its 2009 Resolution on “Legal aspects on nanomaterials” called for more in-depth scientific (...)
Food Science and Technology
  1. Evaluating Equity Critiques in Food Policy: The Case of Sugar‐Sweetened Beverages.Anne Barnhill & Katherine F. King - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 41 (1):301-309.
    Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy — modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet — and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program assistance. We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that were (...)
  2. The World Agricultural System and Ethical Considerations Relating to the Rural Environment: Some Perspectives on Cause and Effect in Underdeveloped Countries.Brian Furze - 1989 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 2 (1):59-67.
    Food is a basic human need and therefore a basic human right. While food output has increased to a level where there is enough food produced to feed the world, still millions starve. Using the concept of capitalist world economy as a framework, this paper provides a structural analysis of the food production and distribution system within monopoly capitalism and its implications for countries of the underdeveloped world. Focusing on the impact of a dominant world food supply system on indigenous (...)
  3. Paul Pojman (Ed): Food Ethics, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, Boston, Massachusetts, 2012, 199 Pp, ISBN 9781111772307 David Kaplan (Ed): The Philosophy of Food, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 2012, 320 Pp, ISBN 9780520269330. [REVIEW]Daniel Hicks - 2013 - Agriculture and Human Values 30 (4):657-658.
    Both of the books reviewed here are anthologies edited by philosophers, intended for use in undergraduate “ethics of eating” classes taught under the auspices of philosophy departments; I review them as a teacher of such a class. The Pojman anthology is rather outdated, and not recommended. The Kaplan anthology, by contrast, would be a valuable starting point or addition to such a class, though it could not carry the class on its own.
  4. GMOs: Non-Health Issues.Daniel Hicks & Roberta L. Millstein - 2016 - In Paul B. Thompson & David Kaplan (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics (Second Edition). Springer. pp. 1-11.
    The controversy over genetically modified [GM] organisms is often framed in terms of possible hazards for human health. Articles in a previous volume of this *Encyclopedia* give a general overview of GM crops [@Mulvaney2014] and specifically examine human health [@Nordgard2014] and labeling [@Bruton2014] issues surrounding GM organisms. This article explores several other aspects of the controversy: environmental concerns, political and legal disputes, and the aim of "feeding the world" and promoting food security. Rather than discussing abstract, hypothetical GM organisms, this (...)
  5. French Women Don’T Get Fat: The Secret of Eating for Pleasure. [REVIEW]Michelle Kelly - 2005 - Colloquy 9:169-170.
  6. Nanotechnologies and Novel Foods in European Law.Daniela Marrani - 2013 - NanoEthics 7 (3):177-188.
    Food is a big business in the EU and nanofood products are beginning to be placed on the market. It is still unclear whether the absence of minimum regulation at a global level promotes or prevents the growth of a market in nanofood. However, the development of an adequate risk management policy in relation to food safety is a key concern for consumers. Importantly, the European Parliament in its 2009 Resolution on “Legal aspects on nanomaterials” called for more in-depth scientific (...)
  7. The Agrarian Vision: Sustainability and Environmental Ethics.Paul B. Thompson - 2010 - University Press of Kentucky.
    Agrarian political philosophies since ancient Greece stress the role of agriculture in forming political solidarity and civic virtue. More recent transformations suggest a way to conjoin these elements of what makes a polity politically sustainable with environmental sensitivity and literacy.
  8. The Spirit of the Soil: Agriculture and Environmental Ethics.Paul B. Thompson - 1994 - Routledge.
    The Spirit of the Soil challenges environmentalists to think more deeply and creatively about agriculture. Paul B. Thompson identifies four `worldviews' which tackle agricultural ethics according to different philosophical priorities; productionism, stewardship, economics and holism. He examines current issues such as the use of pesticides and biotechnology from these ethical perspectives. This book achieves an open-ended account of sustainability designed to minimise hubris and help us to recapture the spirit of the soil.
  9. A Latin American Perspective to Agricultural Ethics.Cristian Timmermann - forthcoming - In Eduardo Rivera-López & Martín Hevia (eds.), Controversies in Latin American Bioethics. Dordrecht: Springer.
    The mixture of political, social, cultural and economic environments in Latin America, together with the enormous diversity in climates, natural habitats and biological resources the continent offers, make the ethical assessment of agricultural policies extremely difficult. Yet the experience gained while addressing the contemporary challenges the region faces, such as rapid urbanization, loss of culinary and crop diversity, extreme inequality, disappearing farming styles, water and land grabs, malnutrition and the restoration of the rule of law and social peace, can be (...)
  10. Agroecology as a Vehicle for Contributive Justice.Cristian Timmermann & Georges F. Félix - 2015 - Agriculture and Human Values 32 (3):523-538.
    Agroecology has been criticized for being more labor-intensive than other more industrialized forms of agriculture. We challenge the assertion that labor input in agriculture has to be generally minimized and argue that besides quantity of work one should also consider the quality of work involved in farming. Early assessments on work quality condemned the deskilling of the rural workforce, whereas later criticisms have concentrated around issues related to fair trade and food sovereignty. We bring into the discussion the concept of (...)
Food Politics
  1. The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory.Carol J. Adams - 2000 - Continuum.
  2. The Five Horsemen of the Modern World: Climate, Food, Water, Disease, and Obesity. [REVIEW]George J. Aulisio - 2017 - The European Legacy 22 (7-8):865-867.
  3. Evaluating Equity Critiques in Food Policy: The Case of Sugar‐Sweetened Beverages.Anne Barnhill & Katherine F. King - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 41 (1):301-309.
    Many anti-obesity policies face a variety of ethical objections. We consider one kind of anti-obesity policy — modifications to food assistance programs meant to improve participants' diet — and one kind of criticism of these policies, that they are inequitable. We take as our example the recent, unsuccessful effort by New York State to exclude sweetened beverages from the items eligible for purchase in New York City with Supplemental Nutrition Support Program assistance. We distinguish two equity-based ethical objections that were (...)
  4. Cooking, Eating, Thinking: Transformative Philosophies of Food.Deane W. Curtin & Lisa M. Heldke (eds.) - 1992 - Indiana University Press.
    Philosophy has often been criticized for privileging the abstract; this volume attempts to remedy that situation. Focusing on one of the most concrete of human concerns, food, the editors argue for the existence of a philosophy of food.
  5. The World Agricultural System and Ethical Considerations Relating to the Rural Environment: Some Perspectives on Cause and Effect in Underdeveloped Countries.Brian Furze - 1989 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 2 (1):59-67.
    Food is a basic human need and therefore a basic human right. While food output has increased to a level where there is enough food produced to feed the world, still millions starve. Using the concept of capitalist world economy as a framework, this paper provides a structural analysis of the food production and distribution system within monopoly capitalism and its implications for countries of the underdeveloped world. Focusing on the impact of a dominant world food supply system on indigenous (...)
  6. Paul Pojman (Ed): Food Ethics, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, Boston, Massachusetts, 2012, 199 Pp, ISBN 9781111772307 David Kaplan (Ed): The Philosophy of Food, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 2012, 320 Pp, ISBN 9780520269330. [REVIEW]Daniel Hicks - 2013 - Agriculture and Human Values 30 (4):657-658.
    Both of the books reviewed here are anthologies edited by philosophers, intended for use in undergraduate “ethics of eating” classes taught under the auspices of philosophy departments; I review them as a teacher of such a class. The Pojman anthology is rather outdated, and not recommended. The Kaplan anthology, by contrast, would be a valuable starting point or addition to such a class, though it could not carry the class on its own.
  7. GMOs: Non-Health Issues.Daniel Hicks & Roberta L. Millstein - 2016 - In Paul B. Thompson & David Kaplan (eds.), Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics (Second Edition). Springer. pp. 1-11.
    The controversy over genetically modified [GM] organisms is often framed in terms of possible hazards for human health. Articles in a previous volume of this *Encyclopedia* give a general overview of GM crops [@Mulvaney2014] and specifically examine human health [@Nordgard2014] and labeling [@Bruton2014] issues surrounding GM organisms. This article explores several other aspects of the controversy: environmental concerns, political and legal disputes, and the aim of "feeding the world" and promoting food security. Rather than discussing abstract, hypothetical GM organisms, this (...)
  8. In but Not of, of but Not In: On Taste, Hipness, and White Embodiment.Robin James - 2009 - Contemporary Aesthetics Special Issues 2 (Aesthetics and Race).
    The status of the body figures paradoxically in the interrelated discourses of whiteness, aesthetic taste, and hipness. While Richard Dyer’s analysis of whiteness argues that white identity is “in but not of the body,” Carolyn Korsmeyer’s and Julia Kristeva’s feminist analyses of aesthetic “taste” demonstrate that this faculty is traditionally conceived as something “of” but not “in” the body. While taste directly distances whiteness from embodiment, hipness negatively affirms this same distance: the hipster proves his elite status within white culture (...)
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