About this topic
Summary People have long sought to give meaning to historical processes. One solution has been religion; engagement with associated philosophical issues continues. Since the Enlightenment with its “scientific” understanding history has been disciplinised in various ways as unassociated with religion; philosophical reflections by historians on historiographical methods also continue. For twentieth-century analytical philosophy there were two traditions in philosophy of history: “speculative” and “analytical”. A speculative philosopher of history, for example Hegel or Marx, would seek by non-empirical methods a profound understanding of the hitherto hidden plan of actual historical change and would offer a political ideology suitable for mass motivation; such speculations continue. Analytical philosophers initially addressed problems of historical knowledge and explanation, but much has migrated to the philosophies of science and of action. With Continental, post-Wittgenstein and pragmatic approaches permitting the historicising of philosophical analysis, metaphilosophical problems of the history and philosophy of history remain; the aesthetic understanding of “narrative” and the ethics of the recovery of shared memory are central. Philosophers and historians across the world often work in ignorance of the traditions of their many opponents, but the first conference of the International Network for the Theory of History attracted in 2013 a large and varied attendance which found much to share, although philosophy of history has not yet settled into an analytically well-structured discipline.
Key works Four journals in the subject should be perused: History and Theory, Storia della Storiografia, Rethinking History and The Journal of the Philosophy of History. For a clear logical empiricist expression of causal explanation in history see Hempel 1942, with Collingwood 1993 and Dray 1957 expressing noncausal modes of understanding past actions.  Skinner 1969 applies speech act theory to the history of ideas and the interpretation of evidence.  Danto 1965 takes narrative seriously and offers a largely reductionist account, while Gorman 1974 and Ankersmit 1983 argue in different ways for the epistemological centrality of narrative understanding.  White 1973 and 1987 argues that narrative history is a literary artefact with poetic modes of structure and sets much of the modern agenda.  Tucker 2004 offers an analytical account of reasoning from historical evidence in terms of Bayesian decision theory.
Introductions Day 2008 is a study guide that assesses the arguments of major philosophers and historians who have contributed to the theory of history. It is suitable for undergraduate students in both philosophy and history, and deals with historical evidence, methodology and reasoning; the relationships between history, science and causation; narrative, empathy and rational action; truth, objectivity and scepticism. Gorman 1992 is intended for both undergraduate and postgraduate philosophy and history students. It deals with fundamental issues in the epistemology and metaphysics of history from an analytical and pragmatic viewpoint, and offers a detailed analysis comparing economic history and traditional narrative history. Tucker 2008 contains 50 papers by international experts on a wide range of issues in the theory of history. Jenkins 1995 helpfully introduces postmodern approaches.
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  1. CLIO'S MIRROR. Historiography in Britain and the Netherlands. Edited by A. C. Duke and C. A. Tamse. [REVIEW]A. C. D. A. C. D. - 1986 - History and Theory 25 (3):355.
  2. The Historical Method of Herodotus. By Donald Lateiner. [REVIEW]A. D. H. A. D. H. - 1990 - History and Theory 29 (3):385.
  3. Due Saggi Su R. G. Collingwood. Con Un'appendice di Lettere Inedite di Collingwood a G. De Ruggiero. By Alessandra Greppi Olivetti. [REVIEW]A. G. O. A. G. O. - 1978 - History and Theory 17 (1):145.
  4. Rhetoric in Classical Historiography. Four Studies. By A. J. Woodman. [REVIEW]A. J. W. A. J. W. - 1989 - History and Theory 28 (2):253.
  5. The Prince and the Pretender. A Study in the Writing of History. By A. J. Youngson. [REVIEW]A. J. Y. A. J. Y. - 1987 - History and Theory 26 (2):237.
  6. Historical Understanding in Geography. An Idealist Approach. By Leonard Guelke. [REVIEW]A. L. L. A. L. L. - 1984 - History and Theory 23 (1):147.
  7. Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola, Symbol of His Age. Modern Interpretations of a Renaissance Philosopher. By William G. Craven. [REVIEW]A. A. A. A. - 1986 - History and Theory 25 (1):113.
  8. Driving Forces in History. [REVIEW]B. D. A. - 1965 - Review of Metaphysics 19 (1):155-155.
  9. Historians and the Law in Postrevolutionary France. By Donald R. Kelley. [REVIEW]C. A. C. A. - 1985 - History and Theory 24 (2):231.
  10. The Origin of Formalism in Social Science. By Jeffrey T. Bergner. [REVIEW]D. A. D. A. - 1983 - History and Theory 22 (1):101.
  11. On History. [REVIEW]F. G. A. - 1964 - Review of Metaphysics 17 (3):477-478.
  12. The Idea of History. [REVIEW]R. A. - 1956 - Review of Metaphysics 10 (2):360-360.
  13. La Valeur Dans l'Histoire. [REVIEW]R. A. - 1956 - Review of Metaphysics 9 (3):515-515.
  14. The Revolutionary Histories. Contemporary Narratives of the American Revolution. By Lester H. Cohen. [REVIEW]R. A. R. A. - 1981 - History and Theory 20 (2):234.
  15. A Functional Past. The Uses of History in Nineteenth-Century Chile. By Allen Woll. [REVIEW]W. A. W. A. - 1983 - History and Theory 22 (1):104.
  16. Pufendorf and Condillac on Law and Language.Hans Aarsleff - 2011 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (3):308-321.
    This essay argues that Pufendorf conceived the principles of natural law against the rationalism and innatism of the 17th century, and that Condillac similarly formulated a conception of the human origin of language, both of them thus securing open and human foundations for the two primal institutions of law and language, and also making all citizens free agents in the ordering of communal living.
  17. La historia como producto y proyecto humanos.José Antonio Merino Abad - 1984 - Cuadernos Salmantinos de Filosofía 11:267-278.
  18. Connecting Historiographical Traditions.Oscar Moro Abadía - 2010 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (1):105-108.
  19. Beyond the Whig History Interpretation of History: Lessons on 'Presentism' From Hélène Metzger.Oscar Moro Abadía - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (2):194-201.
    During the second half of the twentieth century, historians of science have shown a considerable interest in ‘presentism’, a term first applied to the kind of history of science in which past knowledge is judged to celebrate and legitimize modern science. Taking Herbert Butterfield’s The Whig interpretation of history as a point of reference, ‘presentism’ has been usually associated with ‘Whig history’ or ‘Whiggish history’. Nevertheless, Butterfield’s essay is one of many approaches to this question. In this article, I examine (...)
  20. El Folklore Entre la Etnografía, la Historia y la Lingüística: El Habla Criolla Chaqueña y la Gauchesca Escrita.Ricardo G. Abduca - 2014 - Corpus 4 (1).
  21. Iskon I Smisao. Covjek I Sudbina Kulture Zapada.C. Abdulah Sarcevi - 1971 - "Svjetlost".
  22. The Trait-Dominance Theory of Historical Periodization.Edmund D. Abegg - 1972 - Journal of Critical Analysis 3 (4):188-198.
  23. Historical Importance.Edmund D. Abegg - 1972 - Journal of Value Inquiry 6 (2):102-111.
  24. Historical Periodization: A Trait-Dominance Theory.Edmund Deats Abegg - 1969 - Dissertation, Columbia University
  25. Verstehen I and Verstehen II.Theodore Abel - 1975 - Theory and Decision 6 (1):99-102.
  26. Comparative Narratives: Some Rules for the Study of Action.Peter Abell - 1984 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 14 (3):309–331.
    The paper explores the concept of a Narrative which is defined as a connected structure on a set of constrained actions and forbearances. Explanation via Narratives is compared with explanation through variable centred methodology and an interpretation of correlations in terms of Narratives is also outlined.
  27. Making Histories: Studies in History-Writing and Politics. Edited by Richard Johnson, Gregor McLennan, Bill Schwarz, and David Sutton. [REVIEW]Henry Abelove - 1984 - History and Theory 23 (1):149.
  28. Review. [REVIEW]Henry Abelove - 1982 - History and Theory 21:132-142.
  29. E. P. THOMPSON, "The Poverty of Theory". [REVIEW]Henry Abelove - 1982 - History and Theory 21 (1):132.
  30. The Nature of Biography. By Robert Gittings. [REVIEW]Henry Abelove - 1979 - History and Theory 18 (3):437.
  31. The Poverty of Theory.Henry Abelove & E. P. Thompson - 1982 - History and Theory 21 (1):132.
  32. In Defense of Historical Understanding.Raziel Abelson - 1966 - World Futures 4 (3):91-95.
  33. Epistemologia pluralizada e história da psicologia.José Antônio Damásio Abib - 2009 - Scientiae Studia 7 (2):195-208.
  34. The World-System Perspective in the Construction of Economic History.Janet Lippman Abu-Lughod - 1995 - History and Theory 34 (2):86-98.
    This essay examines the experience of rewriting historical narratives from a world-system perspective, drawing on the author's attempt to construct an integrated image of the world economy in the thirteenth century. Searching for an intermediate epistemological path between unanchored postmodern hermeneutics and overconfident positivism, the author argues that three apparent deviations from the "ideals of positivist social science," which she ironically labels eccentricity, ideology, and idiosyncrasy, can yield significant "remakings" of world history. Eccentricity, namely, recognizing perspectives other than those that (...)
  35. 4. Mediterranean History as Global History.David Abulafia - 2011 - History and Theory 50 (2):220-228.
    Mediterranean history, and the history of other closed seas, is seen here as the experience of those who traversed the sea and arrived as decentered aliens on the other side. Mainly these have been men, with merchants generally as pioneers who introduced the goods, ideas, and religion of one region to another. From antiquity onwards, port cities such as Carthage, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Livorno acted as links among the three continents facing the Mediterranean, and visitors from other lands were sometimes (...)
  36. bOOkS IN SUmmary.Sapir Abulafia, Howard Hotson & Richard A. Muller - 2010 - History and Theory 49 (2):447-450.
    James A. Diefenbeck, Wayward Reflections on the History ofPhilosophyThomas R. Flynn Sartre, Foucault and Historical Reason. Volume 1:Toward an Existential Theory of HistoryMark Golden and Peter Toohey Inventing Ancient Culture:Historicism, Periodization and the Ancient WorldZenonas Norkus Istorika: Istorinis IvadasEverett Zimmerman The Boundaries of Fiction: History and theEighteenth‐Century British Novel.
  37. An Empire of Facts: Colonial Power, Cultural Knowledge, and Islam in Algeria, 1870–1914. By George R. Trumbull IV. [REVIEW]Jamil Abun-Nasr - 2011 - Journal of Islamic Studies 22 (3):449-452.
  38. WALSH, W. H. - An Introduction to Philosophy of History. [REVIEW]H. B. Acton - 1953 - Mind 62:564.
  39. The Materialist Conception of History.H. B. Acton - 1951 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 52:207 - 224.
  40. IV.—The Philosophy of History.H. B. Acton - 1940 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 40 (1):75-88.
  41. The Philosophy of History.H. B. Acton - 1939 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 40:75 - 88.
  42. Book Review: The What and the Why of History. [REVIEW]A. M. Adam - 2000 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 30 (1):131-140.
  43. On the Methods of History.A. M. Adam - 1999 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 29 (2):315-324.
  44. "The Idea of History", by R. G. Collingwood, Edited and with a New Introduction by J. Van der Dussen. [REVIEW]A. M. Adam - 1995 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (2):256.
  45. Book Reviews : R. G. Collingwood, The Idea of History. Rev. Ed., Edited and with a New Introduction by J. Van der Dussen, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993. Pp. Xlvii, 510. $108.00 (Cloth. [REVIEW]A. M. Adam - 1995 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 25 (2):256-258.
  46. William H. Dray, Philosophy of History. Foundations of Philosophy Series Reviewed By.A. M. Adam - 1995 - Philosophy in Review 15 (1):25-28.
  47. Book Reviews : Leon Pompa, Human Nature and Historical Knowledge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Pp. 234. $44.50. [REVIEW]A. M. Adam - 1994 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 24 (2):250-252.
  48. "Human Nature and Historical Knowledge", by Leon Pompa. [REVIEW]A. M. Adam - 1994 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 24 (2):250.
  49. An Historian's Approach to Religion.R. J. Adam & Arnold Toynbee - 1959 - Philosophical Quarterly 9 (34):94.
  50. History.Ben Adams - 2012 - Philosophy Now 88:34-35.
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