Philosophy of Language

Edited by Berit Brogaard (University of Miami)
Assistant editor: Jiangtian Li (University of Western Ontario)
191 found
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1 — 50 / 191
  1. added 2021-05-12
    Unity and Application.Geoffrey Hall - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    Propositions represent the entities from which they are formed. This fact has puzzled philosophers and some have put forward radical proposals in order to explain it. This paper develops a primivitist account of the representational properties of propositions that centers on the operation of application. As we will see, this theory wins out over its competitors on grounds of strength, systematicity and unifying power.
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  2. added 2021-05-12
    There is No (Sui Generis) Norm of Assertion.Alexander Greenberg - 2020 - Philosophy 95 (3):337 - 362.
    There are norms on action and norms on assertion. That is, there are things we should and shouldn't do, and things we should and shouldn't say. How do these two kinds of norm relate? Are norms on assertion reducible to norms on action? Many philosophers think they are not. These philosophers claim there is a sui generis norm specific to assertion, a norm which is also often claimed to be constitutive of assertion. Both claims, I argue, should be rejected. The (...)
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  3. added 2021-05-12
    Philosophy of Language and Logic: A Study of Quine’s Philosophy.Salah Ismail - 1995 - Cairo, Egypt: Dar El Maaref.
    هذا الكتاب هو الجانب الأكبر من أطروحتي للدكتوراه من جامعة القاهرة "فلسفة اللغة والمنطق عند كواين" وهو أول دراسة عربية عن هذا المنطقي الفيلسوف. تنقسم الدراسة إلى خمسة فصول يسبقها مدخل ويلحقها خاتمة. يحدد المدخل المراد بفلسفة اللغة وفلسفة المنطق، وتيارات فلسفة اللغة المعاصرة وموقع كواين منها. ويناقش الفصل الأول مشكلة التحليلية. ويشرح الثاني نظرية كواين التجريبية السلوكية في دراسة اللغة والإشارة. ويعالج الفصل الثالث مشكلة المعنى. ويحلل الرابع دعوى اللاتحديد في الترجمة. ويبحث الخامس آراء كواين في فلسفة المنطق. وفي (...)
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  4. added 2021-05-11
    Trolling as Speech Act.Patrick Joseph Connolly - forthcoming - Journal of Social Philosophy.
    ‘Trolling’ has become a term to denote a wide range of behaviour we find particularly in internet communication, ranging from what appear to be harmless jokes through to bullying, abuse and hate speech. I argue that by using tools from the philosophy of language, and by considering trolling as a type of speech act, we can start to see some of the structural similarities between these seemingly disparate acts. Once these similarities become clearer, we can then understand better what trolling (...)
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  5. added 2021-05-11
    Exploring Linguistic Liability.Emma Borg & Patrick Joseph Connolly - forthcoming - In Ernest LePore & David Sosa (eds.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Language Volume 2.
    There is a well-established social practice whereby we hold one another responsible for the things that we say. Speakers are held liable for the truth of the contents they express and they can be sanctioned and/or held to be unreliable or devious if it turns out what they say is false. In this paper chapter we argue that a better understanding of this fundamental socio-linguistic practice – of ascribing what we will term (following Borg (2019)) ‘linguistic liability’ – helps to (...)
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  6. added 2021-05-11
    Grice’s Intentionalistic Theory of Meaning.Salah Ismail - 2005 - Kuwait: Annals of the Arts and Social Science, Kuwait University.
    Philosophical inquiry on the problem of meaning is as old as philosophy. There are two approaches to the study of meaning . the first is associated with formal theories of meaning, proposed by Frege, earlier Wittgenstein, Quine, Davidson and Dummett. The second is associated with use theories of meaning, which was supported by later Wittgenstein , Austin, Grice, Strawson and Searle. Formal theories are concerned with the formal structure of language and the interrelations between sentences. The use theories put central (...)
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  7. added 2021-05-11
    Davidson's Concept of Truth.Salah Ismail - 1996 - Arab Journal for the Humanities 14 (56):206-257.
    Truth is a matter of interest not only to philosophers, but to scientists and other researchers in various branches of knowledge. This paper examines Davidson’s views of the concept of truth. In the first section, I provide a brief account of the basic ideas of Davidson’s philosophy. An understanding of Davidson’s philosophy is essential for anyone who wishes to follow recent debates in the philosophy of language, the philosophy of action, the philosophy of logic, and the philosophy of the mind. (...)
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  8. added 2021-05-10
    Closed Structure.Peter Fritz, Harvey Lederman & Gabriel Uzquiano - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophical Logic:1-43.
    According to the structured theory of propositions, if two sentences express the same proposition, then they have the same syntactic structure, with corresponding syntactic constituents expressing the same entities. A number of philosophers have recently focused attention on a powerful argument against this theory, based on a result by Bertrand Russell, which shows that the theory of structured propositions is inconsistent in higher order-logic. This paper explores a response to this argument, which involves restricting the scope of the claim that (...)
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  9. added 2021-05-09
    Composition as Identity, Now with All the Pluralities You Could Want.Jonathan D. Payton - forthcoming - Synthese:1-22.
    According to ‘composition as identity’ (CAI), a composite object is identical to all its parts taken together. Thus, a plurality of composite objects is identical to the plurality of those objects’ parts. This has the consequence that, e.g., the bricks which compose a brick wall are identical to the atoms which compose those bricks, and hence that the plurality of bricks must include each of those atoms. This consequence of CAI is in direct conflict with the standard analysis of plural (...)
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  10. added 2021-05-09
    How Does a Theoretical Term Refer?Ataollah Hashemi - forthcoming - Axiomathes:1-12.
    This paper deals with the question of what the most appropriate semantic theory for theoretical terms would be. Traditionally, in the contemporary literature of philosophy of language, there have been two widely held semantic theories: the descriptivist theory and the causal theory. Comparing theoretical terms with natural kind terms, I attempt to show that the causal theory of reference applies to natural kinds owing to certain ontological and epistemological assumptions of natural kinds realism. I argue that there is no reason (...)
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  11. added 2021-05-08
    A Study of Concepts from a Philosophical Point of View.Salah Ismail - 1997 - مجلة إسلامية المعرفة 2 (8):9-38.
    A question that I ask myself - and there is no doubt that someone else is asking it as well - whenever I see confusion between the meanings of the writers or the interlocutors, which is: What is the problem in our intellectual life? And every time the answer comes to me: The reason is the ambiguity of ideas or concepts at times, or their distortion at other times. In this paper, an attempt is made to shed light on this (...)
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  12. added 2021-05-07
    Fallibility Without Facts.Will Gamester - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    If, as expressivists maintain, the function of normative thought and talk is not to represent or describe the world, then how can normative judgements be correct or incorrect? In particular, how can I make sense of my own normative fallibility, the possibility that my own normative judgements might be mistaken? In this paper, I construct and defend a substantive but non-representational theory of normative (in)correctness for expressivists. Inspired by Blackburn’s (1998: 318) proposal that I make sense of my fallibility in (...)
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  13. added 2021-05-07
    Fake News and Ecstatic Truths: Alternative Facts in Lessons of Darkness.Kyle Novak - 2020 - In M. Blake Wilson & Christopher Turner (eds.), The Philosophy of Werner Herzog. Lanham, MD 20706, USA: Rowman & Littlefield.
    This chapter draws a connection between Herzog’s falsified epigraph to Lessons of Darkness and Kellyanne Conway’s claim that there are “alternative facts”. Philosophers have a commitment to the truth, but in cases like Herzog’s quote or Trump’s inauguration it’s very easy to fact-check. Being a good citizen may require that from us, but doing so leaves little to resolve philosophically. Thus, if Herzog raises a question about finding truth in an age of “alt-facts” and “fake news”, then it must be (...)
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  14. added 2021-05-07
    Tener fe en la razón. Una reflexión de Benedicto XVI.Francisco Fernández Labastida - 2016 - Pamplona (Spain): EUNSA.
    Centrando la mirada en Cristo, las enseñanzas de Benedicto XVI desarrollan la íntima conexión que existe entre las tres virtudes teologales y la Verdad Encarnada, el Hijo de Dios hecho hombre. En efecto, no nos es posible creer en Jesucristo, amarlo y esperar en Él, si no conocemos su verdadero rostro, que se revela al intelecto humano iluminado por la fe. Este hecho pone en evidencia que el hombre necesita su natural capacidad de conocer la verdad para poder descubrir el (...)
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  15. added 2021-05-06
    Slurs and Antipresuppositions.Nicolás Lo Guercio - forthcoming - Natural Language Semantics:1-24.
    It has been observed that when there is competition between alternative sentences with different presuppositional strength, use of the weaker alternative triggers an inference, sometimes called an antipresupposition, to the effect that the presupposition of the stronger alternative is not satisfied. Furthermore, it has been argued that in order to account for antipresuppositions, it is necessary to postulate an independent pragmatic principle called Maximize Presupposition!, which states that the sentence with the stronger presupposition should be preferred whenever its presupposition is (...)
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  16. added 2021-05-05
    Christine Ladd-Franklin on the Nature and Unity of the Proposition.Kenneth Boyd - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy.
    Although in recent years Christine Ladd-Franklin has received recognition for her contributions to logic and psychology, her role in late 19th and early 20th century philosophy, as well as her relationship with American pragmatism, has yet to be fully appreciated. My goal here is to attempt to better understand Ladd-Franklin’s place in the pragmatist tradition by drawing attention to her work on the nature and unity of the proposition. The question concerning the unity of the proposition – namely, the problem (...)
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  17. added 2021-05-04
    Comments to Wrenn's Truth From a Prosententialist Perspective.José Andrés Forero-Mora - 2017 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 1 (36):101-111.
    In his text Truth, Chase Wrenn provides us with an exposition and a critical assessment of some of the main contemporary theories of truth. The author defends a form of deflationism to explain our concept of truth. This text focuses on Wrenn's exposition of deflationism and the alleged relation that this theory has with our intuitions about realism and the value of truth.
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  18. added 2021-05-04
    Mind, Language and Society: Philosophy in the Real World, John R. Searle. Arabic translation and introduction by Salah Ismail.Salah Ismail - 2011 - Cairo, Egypt: National Center for Translation.
    In this book, John Searle brings concepts such as reality, truth, consciousness, and society from their abstract perch down to the world we all live in. He takes readers through the conceptual problems associate with basic metaphysics, the biology of the mind, the structure of consciousness, the paradox of intentionality, the nature of language and the structure of the social universe. Condemning the belief that our world is dependent on our perception of it, Searle stresses that there is a real (...)
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  19. added 2021-05-03
    Frege, the Self-Consciousness of Judgement, and the Indefinability of Truth.Colin Johnston - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-20.
    Frege characterizes judgement as the acknowledgement of the truth of a thought, appearing thereby to rule out false judgement. First in this paper I explain Frege’s characterization so that it does...
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  20. added 2021-05-02
    Eliciting and Conveying Information.Heimir Geirsson - 2021 - In Stephen Biggs & Heimir Geirsson (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Reference. New York, USA: pp. 153-166.
    I argue that Frege's puzzle can extend beyond semantic and to, for example, pictures and scent. Accordingly, attempted solutions to the puzzle should not focus solely on semantics. Solutions that do so can at best provide a partial solution to the puzzle. They will not provide a solution that explains the broader phenomenon; the one that includes my childhood case. Below I will provide a solution that accounts for the typical Frege case as well as my childhood case. The solution (...)
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  21. added 2021-04-30
    Toddlers Prefer Adults as Informants: Two- and Three-Year- Olds’ Use of and Attention to Pointing Gestures From Peer and Adult Partners.Gregor Kachel, Richard Moore, Robert Hepach & Michael Tomasello - 2021 - Child Development (1):1-18.
    Two‐ and 3‐year‐old children (N = 96) were tested in an object‐choice task with video presentations of peer and adult partners. An immersive, semi‐interactive procedure enabled both the close matching of adult and peer conditions and the combination of participants’ choice behavior with looking time measures. Children were more likely to use information provided by adults. As the effect was more pronounced in the younger age‐group, the observed bias may fade during toddlerhood. As there were no differences in children’s propensity (...)
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  22. added 2021-04-30
    Philosophy of Language.Salah Ismail - 2017 - Cairo, Egypt: Al Dar Almasriah Allubnaniah.
    Philosophy of Language, introduces students to the main issues and theories in twenty-first-century philosophy of language, focusing specifically on linguistic phenomena. Author Salah Ismail divided the book into seven chapters. Ch. I, Philosophy of language: Defining term and Indication of trends. Ch.2, Empirical theory in language learning (Quine). Ch.3, Mental theory in language learning and its knowledge (Chomsky). Ch.4, Theories of meaning, surveys the competing theories of linguistic meaning and compares their various advantages and liabilities; theory of ideas, theory of (...)
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  23. added 2021-04-29
    The Role of Language in Building Abstract, Generalized Conceptual Representations of One- and Two-Place Predicates: A Comparison Between Adults and Infants.Mohinish Shukla & Jill de Villiers - forthcoming - Cognition:104705.
    Theories of relations between language and conceptual development benefit from empirical evidence for concepts available in infancy, but such evidence is comparatively scarce. Here, we examine early representations of specific concepts, namely, sets of dynamic events corresponding either to predicates involving two variables with a reversible, asymmetric relation between them (such as the set of all events that correspond to a linguistic phrase like “a dog is pushing a car,”) or to comparatively simpler, one-variable predicates (such as the set of (...)
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  24. added 2021-04-29
    The Best Thing About the Deflationary Theory of Truth.Jamin Asay - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-23.
    I argue that deflationary theories of truth reveal an important lesson for the broader theory of truth: although the notion of truthmaking has played an essential role in many traditional theories of truth, it can be separated from and survive the rejection of substantive theories of truth. I argue that many of the traditional substantive theories of truth (correspondence, coherence, pragmatic) are unified in defining truth in terms of the ontological grounds (or truthmakers) that are needed to account for truth. (...)
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  25. added 2021-04-29
    De Re Beliefs and Evidence in Legal Cases.Samuel J. Thomas - 2021 - Dissertation, Arizona State University
    For the past half-century, both jurisprudence and epistemology have been haunted by questions about why individual evidence (i.e., evidence which picks out a specific individual) can sufficiently justify a guilty or liable verdict while bare statistical evidence (i.e., statistical evidence which does not pick out a specific individual) does not sufficiently justify such a verdict. This thesis examines three popular justifications for such a disparity in verdicts – Judith Jarvis Thomson’s causal account, Enoch et al.’s sensitivity account, and Sarah Moss’ (...)
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  26. added 2021-04-29
    The Theory of Meaning in the Philosophy of Paul Grice.Salah Ismail - 2007 - Modern Quba: Cairo, Egypt.
    The primary function that philosophy has to perform is analysis of meanings. Contemporary philosophy is a story of the idea of meaning, in the words of Gilbert Ryle. The study of meaning in our time takes several ways. Two ways come in the forefront. The first relates to the formal theories proposed by Frege, earlier Wittgenstein, Quine, Chomsky and Dummmett. The second relates to the theories of use suggested by the later Wittgenstein, Austin, Ryle, Strawson, Grice and Searle. Formal theories (...)
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  27. added 2021-04-28
    Theory of Reference.Heimir Geirsson - 2021 - Oxford Bibliographies Online.
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  28. added 2021-04-27
    Broad-Spectrum Conceptual Engineering.Manuel Gustavo Isaac - forthcoming - Ratio: An International Journal for Analytic Philosophy.
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  29. added 2021-04-26
    Considering the Boundaries of Intellectual Disability: Using Philosophy of Science to Make Sense of Borderline Cases.Veerle Garrels - forthcoming - Philosophical Psychology:1-17.
    Who should be diagnosed with intellectual disability and who should not? For borderline cases, the answer to this question may be as difficult to decide on as determining the borderline between being bald or not. While going bald may be upsetting to some, it is also an inevitable and relatively undramatic course of nature. In contrast, getting a diagnosis of intellectual disability is likely to have more far-reaching consequences. This makes the question of where the cutoff point for intellectual disability (...)
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  30. added 2021-04-26
    How Children Process Reduced Forms: A Computational Cognitive Modeling Approach to Pronoun Processing in Discourse.Margreet Vogelzang, Maria Teresa Guasti, Hedderik van Rijn & Petra Hendriks - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (4):e12951.
  31. added 2021-04-26
    Sources of Legal Indeterminacy.Quentin du Plessis - 2021 - South African Law Journal 138 (1):115-151.
    Traditional analyses characterise or identify vagueness and ambiguity as the sole or primary sources of legal indeterminacy. In this article, I identify and characterise various other sources of legal indeterminacy. In addition to the semantic indeterminacy of vagueness and ambiguity, philosophers of language have identified conversational, pragmatic, and contextual indeterminacy, each of which is capable of generating a ‘hard case’ as applied to the legal sphere. Nor is all legal indeterminacy linguistic in nature. Following Henry Prakken, I identify non-monotonicity, or (...)
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  32. added 2021-04-26
    La relatividad ontológica del conocimiento científico y los límites de sus manifestaciones enunciativas.Sergio Aramburu - 2020 - In Andrés Ilcic, Sofía Mondaca, Torres Pablo & Venturelli Nicolás (eds.), 30° Jornadas de Epistemología e Historia de la Ciencia. Córdoba, Argentina: pp. 32-41.
    Parece haber una inconsistencia en el hecho de que se acepta que en la historia de la ciencia hay cambios teóricos con cambio de ontologías, de maneras de explicar, de términos y significados científicos, se descubren cosas nuevas, se modifican teorías vigentes, surgen nuevas disciplinas científicas y se formulan nuevas teorías sobre nuevos aspectos de la realidad, y también que, según la propia ciencia, la realidad no permanece fija (pues El Universo se expande, antes no había seres vivientes en La (...)
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  33. added 2021-04-26
    The Meaning of More.Alexis Wellwood - 2019 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    This book reimagines the compositional semantics of comparative sentences using words such as more, as, too, and others. The book's central thesis entails a rejection of a fundamental assumption of degree semantic frameworks: that gradable adjectives like tall lexicalize functions from individuals to degrees, i.e., measure functions. -/- I argue that comparative expressions in English themselves introduce “measure functions”; this is the case whether that morphology targets adjectives, as in *taller* or *more intelligent*; nouns, as in *more coffee*, *more coffees*; (...)
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  34. added 2021-04-24
    Atomism and Semantics in the Philosophy of Jerrold Katz.Keith Begley - 2021 - In Ugo Zilioli (ed.), Atomism in Philosophy A History from Antiquity to the Present. London, UK: pp. 312-330.
    Jerrold J. Katz often explained his semantic theory by way of an analogy with physical atomism and an attendant analogy with chemistry. In this chapter, I track the origin and uses of these analogies by Katz, both in explaining and defending his decompositional semantic theory, through the various phases of his work throughout his career.
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  35. added 2021-04-22
    The Opacity of Law. On the Impact of Experts' Opinion on Legal Decision-Making.Damiano Canale - forthcoming - Law and Philosophy.
    It is well known that experts’ opinion and testimony take on a decisive weight in judicial fact-finding, raising issues and perplexities that have long been under scholarly scrutiny. In this paper I argue that expert’s opinions have a much wider impact on legal decision-making. In particular, they may generate a problem that I will call ‘the opacity of law’. A legal text, such as a statute or regulation, becomes opaque if a legal authority is not able to grasp its full (...)
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  36. added 2021-04-22
    GENERATIVE GRAMMATIK.W. Grafe & U. Majer - 1978 - In Edmund Braun & Hans Radermacher (eds.), Wissenschaftstheoretisches Lexikon. Verlag Styria. pp. 208-210.
    Mitte der fünfziger Jahre entsteht mit den Arbeiten der amerikanischen Linguisten Zellig S. Harris und Noam Chomsky die Theorie der generativen (Transformations-)Grammatiken a) Chomskys Grammatikmodell in den "Aspects" ... b) Entwicklung der Theorie ... nach 1965 ...
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  37. added 2021-04-22
    OBJEKTSPRACHE/METASPRACHE.W. Grafe & U. Majer - 1978 - In Edmund Braun & Hans Radermacher (eds.), Wissenschaftstheoretisches Lexikon. Graz - Wien - Köln: Verlag Styria. pp. 401-403.
    Das Begriffspaar O.-M. spielt eine wichtige Rolle für die Theorie formalisierter Wissenschaftssprachen bzw. formalisierter wissenschaftlicher Theorien. Die wichtigste Verwendung dieses Begriffspaars geht zurück auf Alfred Tarskis grundlegende Arbeit "Der Wahrheitsbegriff in den formalisierten Sprachen". ...
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  38. added 2021-04-21
    Formal Properties of "Now" Revisited.Una Stojnic & Daniel Altshuler - forthcoming - Semantics and Pragmatics.
    The traditional view is that 'now’ is a pure indexical, denoting the utterance time. Yet, despite its initial appeal, the view has faced criticism. A range of data reveal 'now’ allows for discourse-bound (i.e., anaphoric) uses, and can occur felicitously with the past tense. The reaction to this has typically been to treat ‘now’ as akin to a true demonstrative, selecting the prominent time supplied by the non-linguistic context or prior discourse. We argue this is doubly mistaken. The first mistake (...)
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  39. added 2021-04-21
    Scientific Conclusions Need Not Be Accurate, Justified, or Believed by Their Authors.Haixin Dang & Liam Kofi Bright - 2021 - Synthese:1-17.
    We argue that the main results of scientific papers may appropriately be published even if they are false, unjustified, and not believed to be true or justified by their author. To defend this claim we draw upon the literature studying the norms of assertion, and consider how they would apply if one attempted to hold claims made in scientific papers to their strictures, as assertions and discovery claims in scientific papers seem naturally analogous. We first use a case study of (...)
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  40. added 2021-04-20
    Discursive Injustice and the Speech of Indigenous Communities.Leo Townsend - forthcoming - In Leo Townsend, Preston Stovall & Hans Bernhard Schmid (eds.), The Social Institution of Discursive Norms. New York: pp. 248-263.
    Recent feminist philosophy of language has highlighted the ways that the speech of women can be unjustly impeded, because of the way their gender affects the uptake their speech receives. In this chapter, I explore how similar processes can undermine the speech of a different sort of speaker: Indigenous communities. This involves focusing on Indigeneity rather than gender as the salient social identity, and looking at the ways that group speech, rather than only individual speech, can be unjustly impeded. To (...)
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  41. added 2021-04-20
    Word Senses as Clusters of Meaning Modulations: A Computational Model of Polysemy.Jiangtian Li & Marc F. Joanisse - 2021 - Cognitive Science 45 (4):e12955.
    Most words in natural languages are polysemous; that is, they have related but different meanings in different contexts. This one‐to‐many mapping of form to meaning presents a challenge to understanding how word meanings are learned, represented, and processed. Previous work has focused on solutions in which multiple static semantic representations are linked to a single word form, which fails to capture important generalizations about how polysemous words are used; in particular, the graded nature of polysemous senses, and the flexibility and (...)
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  42. added 2021-04-19
    A Reinterpretation of the Semilattice Semantics with Applications.Yale Weiss - forthcoming - Logica Universalis:1-21.
    In the early 1970s, Alasdair Urquhart proposed a semilattice semantics for relevance logic which he provided with an influential informational interpretation. In this article, I propose a BHK-inspired reinterpretation of the semantics which is related to Kit Fine’s truthmaker semantics. I discuss and compare Urquhart’s and Fine’s semantics and show how simple modifications of Urquhart’s semantics can be used to characterize both full propositional intuitionistic logic and Jankov’s logic. I then present (quasi-)relevant companions for both of these systems. Finally, I (...)
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  43. added 2021-04-19
    A New Hope.Kyle H. Blumberg & John Hawthorne - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    The analysis of desire ascriptions has been a central topic of research for philosophers of language and mind. This work has mostly focused on providing a theory of want reports, i.e. sentences of the form 'S wants p'. In this paper, we turn attention from want reports to a closely related, but relatively understudied construction, namely hope reports, i.e. sentences of the form 'S hopes p'. We present two contrasts involving hope reports, and show that existing approaches to desire fail (...)
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  44. added 2021-04-19
    Modeling Gender as a Multidimensional Sorites Paradox.Rory W. Collins - 2021 - Hypatia 36:1-19.
    Gender is both indeterminate and multifaceted: many individuals do not fit neatly into accepted gender categories, and a vast number of characteristics are relevant to determining a person's gender. This article demonstrates how these two features, taken together, enable gender to be modeled as a multidimensional sorites paradox. After discussing the diverse terminology used to describe gender, I extend Helen Daly's research into sex classifications in the Olympics and show how varying testosterone levels can be represented using a sorites argument. (...)
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  45. added 2021-04-18
    Accounting for the Preference for Literal Meanings in ASC.Agustin Vicente & Ingrid Lossius Falkum - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    Impairments in pragmatic abilities, that is, difficulties with appropriate use and interpretation of language – in particular, non-literal uses of language – are considered a hallmark of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Despite considerable research attention, these pragmatic difficulties are poorly understood. In this paper, we discuss and evaluate existing hypotheses regarding the literalism of ASC individuals, that is, their tendency for literal interpretations of non-literal communicative intentions, and link them to accounts of pragmatic development in neurotypical children. We present evidence (...)
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  46. added 2021-04-18
    Explaining Away Kripke’s Wittgenstein.Derek Green - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-21.
    The paradox of rule-following that Saul Kripke finds in Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations purports to show that words and thoughts have no content—that there is no intentionality. This paper refutes the paradox with a dilemma. Intentional states are posited in rational explanations, which use propositional attitudes to explain actions and thoughts. Depending on which of the two plausible views of rational explanation is right, either: the paradox is mistaken about the a priori requirements for content; or, a fatal flaw in content (...)
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  47. added 2021-04-18
    Abstraction: How to Understand It.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory/.
  48. added 2021-04-17
    Conditional Analysis of Clausal Exceptives.Ekaterina Vostrikova - forthcoming - Natural Language Semantics:1-69.
    In this paper I argue that English exceptive constructions introduced by except can be derived from full clauses by ellipsis. I offer a compositional analysis for this clausal exceptive construction. I propose that except introduces quantification over possible situations and the clause following it provides the restriction for this quantification. I show how the analysis developed here derives the inferences except contributes to sentences it occurs in and the restrictions on its use. I also show how this approach captures certain (...)
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  49. added 2021-04-16
    A Simple Theory of Rigidity.Tristan Grøtvedt Haze - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-13.
    The notion of rigidity looms large in philosophy of language, but is beset by difficulties. This paper proposes a simple theory of rigidity, according to which an expression has a world-relative semantic property rigidly when it has that property at, or with respect to, all worlds. Just as names, and certain descriptions like 'The square root of 4', rigidly designate their referents, so too are necessary truths rigidly true, and so too does 'cat' rigidly have only animals in its extension. (...)
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  50. added 2021-04-16
    The Constructionist Approach Offers a Useful Lens on Language Learning in Autistic Individuals.Adele Goldberg & Kirsten Abbot-Smith - forthcoming - Language.
    The constructionist approach argues that communication is central to language learning, language use, and language change. We argue that the approach provides a useful perspective on how autistic children learn language, as it anticipates variable outcomes and suggests testable predictions. First, a reduced ability and interest in tracking the attention and intentions of others should negatively impact early language development, and a wealth of evidence indicates that it does. Secondly, and less discussed until recently, a hyper-focus on specifics at the (...)
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