Philosophy of Language

Edited by Berit Brogaard (University of Miami)
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  1. Philosophy of Language and Logic: A Study of Quine’s Philosophy.Salah Ismail - 1995 - Cairo, Egypt: Dar El Maaref.
    هذا الكتاب هو الجانب الأكبر من أطروحتي للدكتوراه من جامعة القاهرة "فلسفة اللغة والمنطق عند كواين" وهو أول دراسة عربية عن هذا المنطقي الفيلسوف. تنقسم الدراسة إلى خمسة فصول يسبقها مدخل ويلحقها خاتمة. يحدد المدخل المراد بفلسفة اللغة وفلسفة المنطق، وتيارات فلسفة اللغة المعاصرة وموقع كواين منها. ويناقش الفصل الأول مشكلة التحليلية. ويشرح الثاني نظرية كواين التجريبية السلوكية في دراسة اللغة والإشارة. ويعالج الفصل الثالث مشكلة المعنى. ويحلل الرابع دعوى اللاتحديد في الترجمة. ويبحث الخامس آراء كواين في فلسفة المنطق. وفي (...)
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  2. Grice’s Intentionalistic Theory of Meaning.Salah Ismail - 2005 - Kuwait: Annals of the Arts and Social Science, Kuwait University.
    Philosophical inquiry on the problem of meaning is as old as philosophy. There are two approaches to the study of meaning . the first is associated with formal theories of meaning, proposed by Frege, earlier Wittgenstein, Quine, Davidson and Dummett. The second is associated with use theories of meaning, which was supported by later Wittgenstein , Austin, Grice, Strawson and Searle. Formal theories are concerned with the formal structure of language and the interrelations between sentences. The use theories put central (...)
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  3. Davidson's Concept of Truth.Salah Ismail - 1996 - Arab Journal for the Humanities 14 (56):206-257.
    Truth is a matter of interest not only to philosophers, but to scientists and other researchers in various branches of knowledge. This paper examines Davidson’s views of the concept of truth. In the first section, I provide a brief account of the basic ideas of Davidson’s philosophy. An understanding of Davidson’s philosophy is essential for anyone who wishes to follow recent debates in the philosophy of language, the philosophy of action, the philosophy of logic, and the philosophy of the mind. (...)
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  4. A Study of Concepts from a Philosophical Point of View.Salah Ismail - 1997 - مجلة إسلامية المعرفة 2 (8):9-38.
    A question that I ask myself - and there is no doubt that someone else is asking it as well - whenever I see confusion between the meanings of the writers or the interlocutors, which is: What is the problem in our intellectual life? And every time the answer comes to me: The reason is the ambiguity of ideas or concepts at times, or their distortion at other times. In this paper, an attempt is made to shed light on this (...)
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  5. Slurs and Antipresuppositions.Nicolás Lo Guercio - forthcoming - Natural Language Semantics:1-24.
    It has been observed that when there is competition between alternative sentences with different presuppositional strength, use of the weaker alternative triggers an inference, sometimes called an antipresupposition, to the effect that the presupposition of the stronger alternative is not satisfied. Furthermore, it has been argued that in order to account for antipresuppositions, it is necessary to postulate an independent pragmatic principle called Maximize Presupposition!, which states that the sentence with the stronger presupposition should be preferred whenever its presupposition is (...)
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  6. Mind, Language and Society: Philosophy in the Real World, John R. Searle. Arabic translation and introduction by Salah Ismail.Salah Ismail - 2011 - Cairo, Egypt: National Center for Translation.
    In this book, John Searle brings concepts such as reality, truth, consciousness, and society from their abstract perch down to the world we all live in. He takes readers through the conceptual problems associate with basic metaphysics, the biology of the mind, the structure of consciousness, the paradox of intentionality, the nature of language and the structure of the social universe. Condemning the belief that our world is dependent on our perception of it, Searle stresses that there is a real (...)
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  7. Eliciting and Conveying Information.Heimir Geirsson - 2021 - In Stephen Biggs & Heimir Geirsson (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Linguistic Reference. New York, USA: pp. 153-166.
    I argue that Frege's puzzle can extend beyond semantic and to, for example, pictures and scent. Accordingly, attempted solutions to the puzzle should not focus solely on semantics. Solutions that do so can at best provide a partial solution to the puzzle. They will not provide a solution that explains the broader phenomenon; the one that includes my childhood case. Below I will provide a solution that accounts for the typical Frege case as well as my childhood case. The solution (...)
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  8. La relatividad ontológica del conocimiento científico y los límites de sus manifestaciones enunciativas.Sergio Aramburu - 2020 - In Andrés Ilcic, Sofía Mondaca, Torres Pablo & Venturelli Nicolás (eds.), 30° Jornadas de Epistemología e Historia de la Ciencia. Córdoba, Argentina: pp. 32-41.
    Parece haber una inconsistencia en el hecho de que se acepta que en la historia de la ciencia hay cambios teóricos con cambio de ontologías, de maneras de explicar, de términos y significados científicos, se descubren cosas nuevas, se modifican teorías vigentes, surgen nuevas disciplinas científicas y se formulan nuevas teorías sobre nuevos aspectos de la realidad, y también que, según la propia ciencia, la realidad no permanece fija (pues El Universo se expande, antes no había seres vivientes en La (...)
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  9. Conditional Analysis of Clausal Exceptives.Ekaterina Vostrikova - forthcoming - Natural Language Semantics:1-69.
    In this paper I argue that English exceptive constructions introduced by except can be derived from full clauses by ellipsis. I offer a compositional analysis for this clausal exceptive construction. I propose that except introduces quantification over possible situations and the clause following it provides the restriction for this quantification. I show how the analysis developed here derives the inferences except contributes to sentences it occurs in and the restrictions on its use. I also show how this approach captures certain (...)
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  10. Wittgenstein's Objects and the Theory of Names in the Tractatus.Napoleon Mabaquiao - 2021 - Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy (2):29-43.
    The supposition that Wittgenstein's Tractatus advances a certain metaphysics has given rise to a controversy over the ontological status of his Tractarian objects. It has been debated, for instance, whether these objects consist only of particulars or of both particulars and universals; whether they are physical, phenomenal, or phenomenological entities; and whether they correspond to Russell's objects of acquaintance or Kant's phenomena and substance. In this essay, I endorse Ishiguro's view that these objects, being formal concepts, are ontologically neutral and (...)
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  11. The Constructionist Approach Offers a Useful Lens on Language Learning in Autistic Individuals.Adele Goldberg & Kirsten Abbot-Smith - forthcoming - Language.
    The constructionist approach argues that communication is central to language learning, language use, and language change. We argue that the approach provides a useful perspective on how autistic children learn language, as it anticipates variable outcomes and suggests testable predictions. First, a reduced ability and interest in tracking the attention and intentions of others should negatively impact early language development, and a wealth of evidence indicates that it does. Secondly, and less discussed until recently, a hyper-focus on specifics at the (...)
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  12. Varlıktan Dile Dilden Varlığa.Engin Yurt & Erdal Yıldız - 2016 - Kutadgubilig Felsefe-Bilim Araştırmaları Dergisi 30 (30):777-799.
    In this text presented here, it has been tried to Show the difference between Heidegger’s first and second era understanding of language. In his first era, to manifest Heidegger’s understanding of language, outlines of Being and Time has been discussed and concerned chapter is read carefully. To manifest his understanding of language in second era, the work of On the Way to the Language has been taken as a base. With this comparative study, it has been tried to shown the (...)
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  13. General Triviality for Counterfactuals.Paolo Santorio - forthcoming - Analysis.
    On an influential line of thinking tracing back to Ramsey, conditionals are closely linked to the attitude of supposition. When applied to counterfactuals, this view suggests a subjunctive version of the so-called Ramsey test: the probability of a counterfactual "If A, would B" ought to be equivalent to the probability of B, under the subjunctive supposition that A. I present a collapse result for any view that endorses the subjunctive version of the Ramsey test. Starting from plausible assumptions, the result (...)
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  14. Presuppositions, Implicatures, and Contextual Equivalence.Paul Marty & Jacopo Romoli - forthcoming - Natural Language Semantics:1-52.
    Maximize Presupposition!, as originally proposed in Heim and developed in subsequent works, offers an account of the otherwise mysterious unassertability of a variety of sentences. At the core of MP is the idea that speakers are urged to use a sentence ψ over a sentence ϕ if ψ contributes the same new information as ϕ, yet carries a stronger presupposition. While MP has been refined in many ways throughout the years, most of its formulations have retained this characterisation of the (...)
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  15. On the presuppositional strength of interrogative clauses.Maayan Abenina-Adar & Yael Sharvit - 2021 - Natural Language Semantics 29 (1):47-90.
    A central question in the study of presuppositions is how a presupposition trigger contributes to the meaning of a complex expression containing it. Two competing answers are found in the literature on quantificational expressions. According to the first, a quantificational expression presupposes that every member of its domain satisfies the presuppositions triggered in its scope, and according to the second, a quantificational expression presupposes that at least one member of its domain satisfies the presuppositions triggered in its scope. The former (...)
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  16. Still Going Strong.Kai von Fintel & Anthony S. Gillies - 2021 - Natural Language Semantics 29 (1):91-113.
    In “Must...stay...strong!”, we set out to slay a dragon, or rather what we called The Mantra: that epistemic must has a modal force weaker than expected from standard modal logic, that it doesn’t entail its prejacent, and that the best explanation for the evidential feel of must is a pragmatic explanation. We argued that all three sub-mantras are wrong and offered an explanation according to which must is strong, entailing, and the felt indirectness is the product of an evidential presupposition (...)
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  17. Higher-order readings of wh -questions.Yimei Xiang - 2021 - Natural Language Semantics 29 (1):1-45.
    In most cases, a wh-question calls for an answer that names an entity in the set denoted by the extension of the wh-complement. However, evidence from questions with necessity modals and questions with collective predicates argues that sometimes a wh-question must be interpreted with a higher-order reading, in which this question calls for an answer that names a generalized quantifier. This paper investigates the distribution and compositional derivation of higher-order readings of wh-questions. First, I argue that the generalized quantifiers that (...)
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  18. Broad-Spectrum Conceptual Engineering.Manuel Gustavo Isaac - forthcoming - Ratio: An International Journal for Analytic Philosophy.
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  19. Мислене и стихотворене.Vasil Penchev - 2000 - Philosophical Alternatives 9 (1):11-18.
    Подходът на Хайдегер за синтез на философия и поезия е артикулиран преди всичко чрез цикъла работи на Хайдегер за Хьолдерлин. Привлечени са също някои иъ изследванията му за предсократиците, както и за езика като онтология.
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  20. Can a Bodily Theorist of Pain Speak Mandarin?Chenwei Nie - forthcoming - Philosophia:1-12.
    According to a bodily view of pain, pains are objects which are located in body parts. This bodily view is supported by the locative locutions for pain in English, such as that “I have a pain in my back.” Recently, Liu and Klein (Analysis, 80(2), 262–272, 2020) carry out a cross-linguistic analysis, and they claim that (1) Mandarin has no locative locutions for pain and (2) the absence of locative locutions for pain puts the bodily view at risk. This paper (...)
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  21. The Playful Thought Experiments of Louis CK.Chris A. Kramer - 2016 - In Mark Ralkowski (ed.), Louis CK and Philosophy. Chicago, IL, USA: pp. 225-236.
    It is trivially true that comedians make jokes and thus are not serious; they are “just playing.” But watching Louis CK, especially his performances in Chewed Up, Shameless, and Hilarious, it is evident that he has more in mind than simply getting his audience to frivolously guffaw. I will make the case that this is so given the content of some of his humor which centers on areas of socio-political-ethical tensions that can be uncomfortable when addressed in a direct, “bona-fide” (...)
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  22. Mark Twain’s Serious Humor and That Peculiar Institution: Christianity.Chris A. Kramer - 2017 - In Alan H. Goldman (ed.), Mark Twain and Philosophy. Lanham, MD 20706, USA: pp. 125-136.
    According to Manuel Davenport, “The best humorists--Mark Twain, Will Rogers, Bob Hope, and Mort Sahl--share [a] mixture of detachment and desire, eagerness to believe, and irreverence concerning the possibility of certainty. And when they become serious about their convictions--as Twain did about colonialism…they cease to be humorous” (p. 171). I agree with the first part, but not the second. Humor does require disengagement, but not completely such that one has no emotional interest in the subject of the humor. Humor does (...)
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  23. The Semiotic Foundation of Ingarden’s Analysis of Music.Hélène Leblanc - 2020 - In N. A. Michna D. Czakon (ed.), Roman Ingarden and His Times. Varsovie, Pologne: pp. 173-190.
    Based on chapter 3 “The musical Work and its score” of Roman Ingarden’s The Work of Music and the Problem of its Identity, this paper examines the semiotic theory from which the Polish philosopher develops his analysis of music.
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  24. Japanese Free Choice Items as Unconditionals.Hiromune Oda - forthcoming - Natural Language Semantics:1-58.
    This article examines syntactic and semantic properties of free choice items in Japanese. It is argued that Japanese FCIs, which have been considered to have a wh-item and a scalar focus particle demo, actually involve a clausal structure, which contains a null subject, a copula, and a subjunctive modal/mood. This proposal explains a number of puzzling issues regarding their distribution as FCIs compared with those in other languages. A compositional semantic analysis of Japanese FCIs is then proposed based on this (...)
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  25. Fiction and Importation.Andreas Stokke - forthcoming - Linguistics and Philosophy:1-25.
    Importation in fictional discourse is the phenomenon by which audiences include information in the story over and above what is explicitly stated by the narrator. This paper argues that importation is distinct from generation, the phenomenon by which truth in fiction may outstrip what is made explicit, and draws a distinction between fictional truth and fictional records. The latter comprises the audience’s picture of what is true according to the narrator. The paper argues that importation into fictional records operates according (...)
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  26. Referential and general calls in primate semantics.Shane Steinert-Threlkeld, Philippe Schlenker & Emmanuel Chemla - forthcoming - Linguistics and Philosophy:1-26.
    In recent years, the methods of formal semantics and pragmatics have been fruitfully applied to the analysis of primate communication systems. Most analyses therein appeal to a division of labor between semantics and pragmatics which has the following three features: calls are given referential meanings, some calls have a general meaning, and the meanings of calls in context are enriched by competition with more informative calls, along the lines of scalar implicatures. In this paper, we develop highly simplified models to (...)
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  27. Can There Be a Davidsonian Theory of Empty Names?Siu-Fan Lee - 2016 - In Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations into Proper Names. Frankfurt, Germany: pp. 203-226.
    This paper examines to what extent Davidsonian truth-theoretic semantics can give an adequate account for empty names in natural languages. It argues that the prospect is dim because of a tension between metaphysical austerity, non-vacuousness of theorems and empirical adequacy. Sainsbury (2005) proposed a Davidsonian account of empty names called ‘Reference Without Referents’ (RWR), which explicates reference in terms of reference-condition rather than referent, thus avoiding the issue of existence. This is an inspiring account. However, it meets several difficulties. First, (...)
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  28. Reflexive Ungewissheit in der Literaturrezeption.Berendes Jochen - 2013 - In Sabina Jeschke, Eva-Maria Jakobs & Alicia Dröge (eds.), Exploring Uncertainty. Ungewissheit und Unsicherheit im interdisziplinären Diskurs. Berlin, Deutschland: pp. 17-32.
    Die Rezeption von Literatur ist von besonderen Herausforderungen gekennzeichnet. Einerseits gibt es erlernbare Techniken des Lesens und Deutens, andererseits gibt es das Wissen um eine dennoch verbleibende Deutungsvielfalt. Statt die Ungewissheiten bei der Deutung zu beklagen, besteht die (in der Moderne zunehmend wichtiger werdende) Möglichkeit, diese Ungewissheit als produktiv zu deuten und das Lesen von Literatur als einen ästhetisch eröffneten Spielraum zu fassen, in dem wir gefahrlos unsere Kenntnisse, Erwartungen und Überzeugungen einsetzen, erproben und erweitern können. Es werden zunächst grundlegende (...)
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  29. Negative existentials as corrections: a partial solution to the problem of negative existentials in segmented discourse representation theory.Lenny Clapp - forthcoming - Linguistics and Philosophy:1-35.
    Paradigmatic uses of negative existentials such as ‘Vulcan does not exist’ are problematic because they present the interpreter with a pragmatic paradox: a speaker who uses such a sentence seems to be asserting something that is incompatible with what she presupposes. An adequate solution must therefore explain why we interpret paradigmatic uses of negative existentials as saying something true, even though such uses present us with a pragmatic paradox. I provide such an explanation by analyzing paradigmatic uses of negative existentials (...)
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  30. Perfectoid Diamonds and N-Awareness. A Meta-Model of Subjective Experience.Shanna Dobson & Robert Prentner - manuscript
    In this paper, we propose a mathematical model of subjective experience in terms of classes of hierarchical geometries of representations (“n-awareness”). We first outline a general framework by recalling concepts from higher category theory, homotopy theory, and the theory of (infinity,1)-topoi. We then state three conjectures that enrich this framework. We first propose that the (infinity,1)-category of a geometric structure known as perfectoid diamond is an (infinity,1)-topos. In order to construct a topology on the (infinity,1)-category of diamonds we then propose (...)
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  31. Pragmatic Theory of Meaning.Saleh Afroogh - 2020 - PhilPapers.
    In this paper, I propose a pragmatic theory of meaning. In section 1, I clarify the distinction between meanNN and meanN proposed by Grice (1957), and I suggest a new distinction between linguistic and non-linguistic meanNN. In section 2, I shall explain Grice theory of meaning and criticize it. In section 3, I explain the classical theory of meaning and shall propose some consideration about it. Then, in section 4, I shall elaborate on the pragmatic theory of meaning, and I (...)
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  32. Counterfactuals and Modality.Gabriel Greenberg - 2021 - Linguistics and Philosophy 1:1-26.
    This essay calls attention to a set of linguistic interactions between counterfactual conditionals, on one hand, and possibility modals like could have and might have, on the other. These data present a challenge to the popular variably strict semantics for counterfactual conditionals. Instead, they support a version of the strict conditional semantics in which counterfactuals and possibility modals share a unified quantificational domain. I’ll argue that pragmatic explanations of this evidence are not available to the variable analysis. And putative counterexamples (...)
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  33. Frege Plagiarized the Stoics.Susanne Bobzien - 2021 - In Fiona Leigh (ed.), Themes in Plato, Aristotle, and Hellenistic Philosophy, Keeling Lectures 2011-2018. University of Chicago Press. pp. 149-206.
    In this essay, I argue that Frege plagiarized the Stoics --and I mean exactly that-- on a large scale in his work on the philosophy of logic and language as written mainly between 1890 and his death in 1925 (much of which published posthumously) and possibly earlier. I use ‘plagiarize' (or 'plagiarise’) merely as a descriptive term. The essay is not concerned with finger pointing or casting moral judgement. The point is rather to demonstrate carefully by means of detailed evidence (...)
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