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  1. Sanctions: An Essential Element of Law?Nicoletta Bersier Ladavac, Christoph Bezemek & Frederick Schauer (eds.) - forthcoming - Springer.
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  2. The new politics of community cohesion: making use of human rights policy and legislation.Theo Gavrielides - 2010 - The Policy Press 38 (3):427–44.
    Although community cohesion and human rights are currently two of the most discussed political discourses in the UK, their links for policy are underplayed. This article presents the findings of a nine-month research project that included interviews with a selected expert sample, and which aimed to explore whether human rights values and legislation can be used as tools for community cohesion. Available levers within human rights and the 1998 Human Rights Act are identified, and evidence-based policy recommendations are posited. The (...)
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  3. Responding to unauthorized residence: on a dilemma between ‘firewalls’ and ‘regularizations’.Lukas Schmid - 2024 - Comparative Migration Studies 12 (22):1-18.
    Residence of unauthorized immigrants is a stable feature of the Global North’s liberal democracies. This article asks how liberal-democratic policymakers should respond to this phenomenon, assuming both that states have incontrovertible rights and interests to assert control over immigration and that unauthorized residence is nevertheless an entrenched fact. It argues that a set of liberal-democratic commitments gives policymakers strong reason to implement both so-called ‘firewall’ and ‘regularization’ policies, thereby protecting unauthorized immigrants’ basic needs and interests and officially incorporating many of (...)
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  4. Rights, Health, and Mental Disease.Laurence Houlgate - 1975 - Wayne Law Review 22 (67):87-95.
    Laurence Houlgate's critique of Shuman's "The Right to be Unhealthy" appearing at page 81 of the same issue of the Wayne Law Review.
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  5. On an 'evolutionary' theory of legal systems.Julieta A. Rabanos - 2024 - In Wojchiech Załuski, Sacha Bourgeious-Gironde & Adam Dyrda (eds.), Research Handbook on Legal Evolution. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 130-148.
    The ideas that law is (or can be regarded as) a legal system, and that law evolves over time in adaptation to its context, are two of the most widely shared and presupposed ideas in contemporary legal theory. However, even if much interest has been dedicated in legal theory and legal dogmatics to the evolution of specific legal concepts or institutions, as well as legal norms in particular, not so much attention has been dedicated to the evolution of legal systems (...)
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  6. Jury Nullification: The Jurisprudence of Jurors' Privilege.Travis Hreno - 2024 - Cambridge: Ethics International Press.
    Jury nullification, in its simplest definition, occurs when a jury returns a not guilty verdict for a defendant it believes to be legally guilty of the crime charged. To put this explicitly, a jury nullifies when, despite believing both a) that the defendant did, beyond a reasonable doubt, commit the act/omission in question, and b) that such behavior is, in fact, prohibited by law, nevertheless declares the defendant innocent. This book explores the specifically philosophical aspects of the phenomenon. Is jury (...)
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  7. Book Review: The Rights to Water: The Multi-Level Governance of a Unique Human Rights (2014). [REVIEW]Mohammad Rubaiyat Rahman - 2016 - International Journal of Legal Studies and Research 5 (1):89-92.
  8. Die Entstehung des präemptiven Sicherheitsansatzes in der Europäischen Union.Martin H. W. Möllers & Robert Chr van van Ooyen (eds.) - 2023
    Die europäische Zusammenarbeit im Bereich der inneren Sicherheit und der polizeilichen Kooperation wurde als Pendant zur progressiven Abschaffung der Binnengrenzkontrollen nach Schengen initiiert. Seitdem hat sich die Sicherheitspolitik der Europäischen Union (EU) zu einem der dynamischsten und am schnellsten wachsenden Politikbereiche der Union entwickelt. Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, die Haupttendenzen und Charakteristiken dieses Feldes zu skizzieren. Diese können, so die These, anhand des Begriffes „präemptive Sicherheit“ konzeptualisiert werden. Dieser weist auf einen Sicherheitsansatz hin, der sich auf hypothetische zukünftige Ereignisse (...)
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  9. Kant on Lying as a Crime against Humanity.James E. Mahon - 2012 - Parmenideum 4 (2):63-88.
    In this article, I argue that there is no discrepancy between Kant's Doctrine of Right (The Metaphysics of Morals) (1797), which legally permits lies that do not deprive someone of their rights or property, and his On a Supposed Right to Lie from Love of Humanity (1797), which argues that it would be a crime to lie to a murderer about the whereabouts of the innocent person he is pursuing.
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  10. The Irrationality of Stand Your Ground: Game Theory on Self-Defense.Carlos Santana, Adam C. Smith, Kathryn Petrozzo & Derek Halm - 2023 - Moral Philosophy and Politics 10 (2):387-404.
    US law continues its historical trend of growing more permissive towards actors who engage in violent action in purported self-defense. We draw on some informal game theory to show why this is strategically irrational and suggest rolling back self-defense doctrines like stand your ground to earlier historical precedents like duty to retreat.
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  11. Criminal Punishment and the Right to Rule.Malcolm Thorburn - 2019 - University of Toronto Law Journal 70:44-63.
    Criminal justice is much more deeply connected to the very possibility of state authority than is usually understood. In this article, I argue that, whatever else criminal justice might accomplish, there is one task that it must accomplish. This, I argue, is because a certain idea of criminal justice is built into the very idea of state authority as we know it. It is just part of the idea of individuals having a private right, I argue, that there exists a (...)
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  12. A Universal Estate: Kant and Marriage Equality.Jordan Pascoe - 2018 - In Larry Krasnoff, Nuria Sánchez Madrid & Paula Satne (eds.), Kant's Doctrine of Right in the 21st Century. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. pp. 220-240.
    This paper explores Kant's account of marriage and its relevance to contemporary debates over same-sex marriage. Kant's defense of marriage is read against debates unfolding in Prussia in the 1790s, when the question of whether marriage was a "universal estate" was a central point of debate surrounding the Prussian Legal Code of 1794. By reading Kant's arguments in light of this historical context, and in comparison with those offered by his contemporaries, Fichte and von Hippel, this article shows both that (...)
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  13. Acting on Behalf of Another.Alexander Edlich & Jonas Vandieken - 2022 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 52 (5):540-555.
    This paper provides an analysis of the phrase ‘acting on behalf of another.’ To do this, acting on behalf is first distinguished from ‘acting for the sake of another,’ the latter being a matter of other-directed motivation, the former of what we call ‘normative other-directedness’—i.e., acting on the claims and duties of the other. Second, we provide a distinction between two kinds of acting on behalf of another: representation as other-directedness plus normative replacement, and normative support as other-directedness without normative (...)
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  14. The Inference to the Best Legal Explanation.Claudio Michelon - 2019 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 39 (4):878-900.
    Courts use inferences to the best explanation in many contexts and for a variety of purposes. Yet our understanding of lawyers’ uses of this inferential form is insufficient. In this article, after briefly introducing this inferential form, I set out to: (i) explain the structure of such arguments by reference to an argument scheme; (ii) clarify the types of claims courts support by deploying such inferences while attempting to justify acting in accordance with explanatory principles (inferences to the best explanation—principles, (...)
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  15. Sul ‘soggetto costituente’. Autorità de facto, identità costituente e contesto internazionale.Julieta A. Rabanos - 2023 - Notizie di Politeia 150:45-50.
    In questo breve commento a El concepto de «poder constituyente» di Jorge Baquerizo, formulerò tre osservazioni su alcune tematiche e alcuni aspetti della (o connessi alla) sua definizione di ‘soggetto costituente’ (§2). Le prime due osservazioni riguardano alcuni aspetti problematici del rapporto di ‘soggetto costituente’ con ‘autorità de facto’ e ‘potere di fatto’, in particolare la non completa considerazione dell’ambiguità di tali nozioni e delle conseguenze di tale ambiguità (§3). La terza riguarda la possibilità che la definizione in analisi sia (...)
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  16. Lady Justice Turns A Blind Eye: (Ir-)Relevance, Legal Thought And Social Order.Jan Strassheim - 2018 - In Jan Strassheim & Hisashi Nasu (eds.), Relevance and Irrelevance: Theories, Factors and Challenges. De Gruyter. pp. 281-302.
    The word “relevance” seems to have originated in legal practice. Against this background, an attempt is made to clarify A. Schutz’s theory of relevance by referring it to notions found in legal thinking. The main point is to contribute to an understanding of the role of relevance and irrelevance at the level of social order which is often modelled on a legal system. Schutz’s concept of relevance reflects a tension between general patterns and the dynamic of their application which has (...)
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  17. The Right to Hunger Strike.Candice Delmas - 2023 - American Political Science Review:1–14.
    Hunger strikes are commonly repressed in prison and seen as disruptive, coercive, and violent. Hunger strikers and their advocates insist that incarcerated persons have a right to hunger strike, which protects them against repression and force-feeding. Physicians and medical ethicists generally ground this right in the right to refuse medical treatment; lawyers and legal scholars derive it from incarcerated persons’ free speech rights. Neither account adequately grounds the right to hunger strike because both misrepresent the hunger strike as noncoercive and (...)
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  18. Direct and Indirect Discrimination: A Defense of the Disparate Impact Model.Hugo Cossette-Lefebvre - 2020 - Public Affairs Quarterly 34 (4):340-367.
    The status of indirect discrimination is ambiguous in the current literature. This paper addresses two contemporary and related debates. First, for some, indirect discrimination is not truly a distinct kind of discrimination, but it is simply a legal construct designed to address distributive inequalities between groups. Second, even if one accepts that indirect discrimination is a distinct type of discrimination, the connection between the two kinds of discrimination, direct and indirect, is debated. For some, they are distinct act-types, while for (...)
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  19. Introduction.Miroslav Imbrisevic - 2023 - In Miroslav Imbrišević (ed.), Sport, Law and Philosophy: The Jurisprudence of Sport. New York, NY: Routledge.
    Most people will not be familiar with the term ‘jurisprudence of sport’ (JOS). The idea is that looking at sport through the eyes of a legal scholar might illuminate our understanding of certain problems in sport (and vice versa). The term was first introduced in 2011, in the title of a paper by Mitchell N. Berman, who is also a contributor to this book. In the present volume we have contributions from around the world: Italy, Spain, Germany, Australia, Great Britain, (...)
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  20. Eine Art von Verbotsgesetz: Zur normenlogischen Stellung des Erlaubnisgesetzes in Kants Schrift Zum ewigen Frieden.Martin Brecher - 2021 - In Camilla Serck-Hanssen & Beatrix Himmelmann (eds.), The Court of Reason: Proceedings of the 13th International Kant Congress. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 1707-1716.
    Der Begriff des Erlaubnisgesetzes (lex permissiva) spielt eine wichtige Rolle im Rahmen von Kants Rechtsphilosophie. Der in der Literatur vorherrschenden Meinung zufolge haben Erlaubnisgesetze die Funktion, bestimmte Handlungen zu rechtfertigen, die eigentlich verboten sind: Durch Erlaubnisgesetze würden Verstöße gegen Verbote geduldet. Der Beitrag analysiert Kants normlogischen Ausführungen in „Zum ewigen Frieden“ und entwickelt einen neuen Deutungsvorschlag: Erlaubnisgesetze rechtfertigen keine Norm-Verstöße. In Auseinandersetzung mit Baumgarten und Achenwall konzipiert Kant das Erlaubnisgesetz vielmehr als eine besondere Art von kontextsensitivem Verbotsgesetz, das eine Handlung (...)
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  21. The Step Not Taken. Competencia, reglas determinativas y sistemas constitutivos en la Teoría Analítica del Derecho.Julieta A. Rabanos & Alejandro D. Calzetta - 2022 - Analisi E Diritto 22 (2):51-68.
    En el presente trabajo sostenemos que la teoría de la competencia que Rodríguez postula en su Teoría Analítica del Derecho (TAD) adolece de algunos problemas. El primero de ellos consiste en ser un enfoque reduccionista de la competencia (similar al de Bulygin y el de Ferrer), en el cual la competencia queda reducida a reglas determinativas que determinan potestades. Es dudoso que la competencia pueda reducirse a un único tipo de norma y el mismo Rodríguez parece albergar dudas a este (...)
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  22. La autoridad de Eugenio Bulygin.Julieta A. Rabanos - 2022 - In J. A. Rabanos (ed.), Eugenio Bulygin en la Teoría del Derecho contemporánea, vol. II. pp. 387-405.
    El presente trabajo propone hacer un análisis de la noción de autoridad en el marco de la teoría del derecho de Bulygin, particularmente en conexión con sus nociones de derecho y de interpretación. La intención es doble: por un lado, intentar articular sistemáticamente el pensamiento de Bulygin en relación con estas tres nociones, reconstruyendo un posible modo en el cual éstas se relacionan entre sí en el marco de su teoría del derecho (sección 2). Por el otro, proponer algunas perplejidades (...)
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  23. Dos enfoques (no) excluyentes acerca del razonamiento jurídico.Julieta A. Rabanos - 2022 - In Federico Arena, Alberto Puppo, Pablo E. Navarro & Edith Cuautle Rodríguez (eds.), El encanto del método. Diálogos latinoamericanos con Paolo Comanducci. México City: UNAM. pp. 259-288.
    En este trabajo, propongo realizar un breve análisis de dos visiones teóricas acerca del razonamiento jurídico en contextos judiciales que, a primera vista, resultan radicalmente diferentes: la visión de Paolo Comanducci (en adelante, “modelo comanducciano”), y la visión de Damiano Canale y Giovanni Tuzet (en adelante, “modelo inferencialista”). Primero realizaré una reconstrucción sumaria, pero global, de ambos modelos (secciones II y III), para luego establecer algunas notas comparativas entre ellos (sección IV). Allí, intentaré mostrar propondré entender que la visión de (...)
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  24. Autoridad, condición de justificación normal y test de legitimidad. Revisitando la concepción de la autoridad como servicio de Joseph Raz.Julieta A. Rabanos - 2022 - Revista Telematica de Filosofía Del Derecho 25:167-197.
    En este trabajo, propongo realizar un análisis crítico de la concepción de la “autoridad como servicio” defendida por Joseph Raz, concentrando la atención en la condición de justificación normal. En la sección 2, realizaré una reconstrucción articulada de esta concepción la autoridad como servicio, desagregando las tesis que la componen y mostrando cómo se articulan entre ellas (2.1, 2.2, 2.3), y propondré una versión del contenido del “test de legitimidad” que surge de la postura de Raz para determinar la legitimidad (...)
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  25. Don't Go to Lawyers for Moral Guidance.Shane Ralston - 2022 - In Brett Coppenger, Joshua Heter & Daniel Carr (eds.), Better Call Saul and Philosophy: I Think Therefore I Scam. United States: Carus Books. pp. 13-20.
    If it were followed by “I’m a president,” Richard Nixon’s televised denial (“I am not a crook”) would be tantamount to Jimmy McGill’s self-portrayal in Better Call Saul. Out of the crooked timber of humanity, an honest president or an ethical lawyer rarely emerges. They’re like needles in a haystack. Nevertheless, it’s worthwhile to search for these rare artifacts and, in the process, ask, “Why do so many lawyers (and presidents) fall from grace, transforming into morally bad or corrupt actors?” (...)
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  26. Rule of Law transnacional, reglas y acción humana.Julieta A. Rabanos - 2022 - Revus. Journal for Constitutional Theory and Philosophy of Law / Revija Za Ustavno Teorijo in Filozofijo Prava 47.
    En «What Makes a Transnational Rule of Law? Understanding the Logos and Values of Human Action in Transnational Law», Verónica Rodríguez-Blanco explora la posibilidad –y oportunidad– de la existencia de un Rule of Law (en adelante, ROL) a nivel transnacional. El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir brevemente algunos puntos relativos a diferentes facetas de la propuesta de Rodríguez-Blanco: la pregunta correcta acerca del ROL y su visión particular acerca de la acción humana (sección 2); el tipo de explicación acerca (...)
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  27. Transnational Rule of Law, coercion, and human action.Julieta A. Rabanos - 2022 - Revus. Journal for Constitutional Theory and Philosophy of Law / Revija Za Ustavno Teorijo in Filozofijo Prava 47.
    In “What Makes a Transnational Rule of Law? Understanding the Logos and Values of Human Action in Transnational Law”, Veronica Rodriguez-Blanco explores the possibility—and opportunity—of the existence of a Rule of Law (from now on, RoL) on a transnational level. The aim of this paper is to briefly discuss some points related to various facets of Rodriguez-Blanco’s proposal: the correct question about the RoL and her particular view of human action (section 2); the type of explanation about rules, standards, regulations (...)
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  28. Should Private Property Rights Have Term Limits?Isaac Shur - 2022 - Dissertation, Georgia State University
    Ordinary private property rights to things like land and money are typically assumed to be permanent. In contrast, intellectual property (IP) rights usually have term limits. Copyrights, patents, and trademarks all expire by default sometime after they’re formed. I argue that ordinary property (OP) should be more like IP. Certain types of private property rights should be subject to term limits, and after expiration the property should enter a tangible public domain. First, I define private property. Second, I argue the (...)
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  29. The Problem of Political Foundations in Carl Schmitt and Emmanuel Levinas.Gavin Rae - 2016 - New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    In this book, Gavin Rae analyses the foundations of political life by undertaking a critical comparative analysis of the political theologies of Carl Schmitt and Emmanuel Levinas. In so doing, Rae contributes to key debates in contemporary political philosophy, specifically those relating to the nature of, and the relationship between, the theological, the political, and the ethical, as well as those questioning the existence of ahistoric metaphysical, ontological, and epistemological foundations. While the theological is often associated with belief in a (...)
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  30. Libertarianism and Conjoined Twins.Amos Wollen - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (4):2183-2192.
    This paper presents a new challenge for libertarianism. The problem, in a nutshell, is that libertarianism appears to self-destruct in cases where conjoined twins—who share body parts—disagree over what to do with them. The problem is explored, and some solutions are proposed. The verdict is that accepting any of them will make libertarianism harder to defend.
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  31. Owned, an Ethological Jurisprudence of Property: From the Cave to the Commons.Johanna Gibson - 2019 - Routledge.
    This book draws upon domestication science to undertake a radical reappraisal of the jurisprudence of property and intellectual property. Bringing together animal studies and legal philosophy, it articulates a critique of dominant property models and relationships from the perspective of cognitive ethology, domestication science and animal behaviour. In doing so, a radical new picture of property emerges. Focusing on the emergence of property models through prevailing ideas of human domestication and settlement, the book challenges the anthropocentrism that informs standard approaches (...)
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  32. Contemporary Perspectives on Natural Law: Natural Law as a Limiting Concept.Ana Marta González - 2008 - Routledge.
    This book is a major contribution to the renewed interest in natural law. It provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of natural law, both from a historical and a systematic point of view. It ranges from the mediaeval synthesis of Aquinas through the early modern elaborations of natural law, up to current discussions on the very possibility and practical relevance of natural law theory for the contemporary mind.
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  33. The Philosophy of Law: An Encyclopedia.Mark Tebbit - 1999 - Routledge.
    From articles centering on the detailed and doctrinal exposition of the law to those which reside almost wholly within the realm of philosophical ethics, this volume affords comprehensive treatment to both sides of the philosophico-legal equation. Systematic and sustained coverage of the many dimensions of legal thought gives ample expression to the true breadth and depth of the philosophy of law, with coverage of: The modes of knowing and the kinds of normativity used in the law; Studies in international, constitutional, (...)
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  34. Sustainable Democratic Constitutionalism and Climate Crisis.James Tully - 2020 - McGill Law Journal 65 (3):545-572.
    We know that law is a major enabler of the human activities that cause climate change, biodiversity destruction, and related ecosocial crises. We also turn to the law to regulate, mitigate, and attempt to transform these unsustainable human activities and systems. Yet, these regulatory regimes are often “recaptured” or “overridden” in turn by the very anthropogenic processes causing the crises. The resulting vicious cycles constitute the global trilemma of the twenty-first century that is rapidly rendering the living earth uninhabitable for (...)
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  35. Escepticismo ante las reglas y pedigree democrático de la dificultad contramayoritaria.Sebastián Reyes Molina - 2021 - DOXA 1 (44):219-232.
    The counter majoritarian difficulty is one of the main objections against the judicial review. In this paper, this objection is analyzed from the standpoint of the norm formulation/norm distinction. By stressing the distinc- tion between norm formulations and norms, I claim that when judicial review prevents the application of a norm to an individual case the counter majoritarian difficulty objection does not hold.
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  36. Sobre derecho y averiguación de la verdad.Sebastián Reyes Molina - 2017 - DOXA 1 (40):317-336.
    In the field of Evidence Law the relation between truth and law has been a somewhat non- debated topic in the past years. It is a given that such a connection exists and, it is understood as the notion of the ascertainment of the truth of disputed questions of fact through legal evidence. The thesis that I have reconstructed in this paper has been presented by Prof. Jordi Ferrer who grounds the connection between truth and law in the role of (...)
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  37. Positivismo jurídico de Kelsen e sua rejeição pelo direito nazista.Rubin Souza & Herlinde Pauer Studer - 2021 - Ethic@ - An International Journal for Moral Philosophy 3 (20):942-965.
    Traduação -/- O positivismo jurídico de Kelsen é frequentemente acusado de submeter o judiciário alemão ao direito nazista. Sobretudo a insistência do autor na separação entre direito e moral foi considerada uma deficiência crucial. Rejeito essa crítica. Meu argumento consiste na afirmação de que a tese de Kelsen, da distinção entre direito e moral em duas esferas normativas próprias, refuta tal acusação, sabendo que os juristas do programa nazista almejavam a ‘unificação do direito e da moral’ com o fim de (...)
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  38. Técnicas pedagógicas passo-a-passo de ensino de filosofia para o jurista desocupado.Rubin Souza - 2014 - Captura Criptica: Direito, Política E Atualidade 1 (4):9-19.
    O objetivo do trabalho é auxiliar o jurista desocupado responsável pelo ensino da cadeira de filosofia do direito. A situação mais frequente nas faculdades de direito são as aulas de filosofia e de outras cadeiras do eixo fundamental serem tapeadas por qualquer bacharel sem nada melhor para fazer. Ocorre que tais ociosos juristas muitas vezes se veem receosos quando instituídos nos seus cargos, isso porque não possuem qualquer conhecimento na matéria em que lecionam, ao mesmo tempo em que são lançados (...)
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  39. “The Application of the ‘Pragmatic Maxim’ in Jewish Tradition: The Case of R. Ḥayyim Hirschensohn”.Nadav S. Berman - 2022 - Journal of Religion 102 (4):441-481.
    This article argues that certain interpretive trajectories within Jewish tradition – both halakhic (nomos) and aggadic (narrative) – can be illuminated vis-a-vis classical American pragmatism (CAP). Contrary to a prevalent belief, Peirce, James, and Dewey were neither anti-metaphysical nor anti-traditional. They contended, in different ways, that the ‘pragmatic maxim’ (PM) – “truth is what works” in James’s phrasing – is not a narrowly instrumentalist truth test. The PM rather implies that ideas and beliefs (philosophical and religious alike) should be examined (...)
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  40. Objective Intentionalism and Disagreement.David Tan - 2021 - Legal Theory 27 (4):316-351.
    Intentionalist theories of legal interpretation are often divided between objectivist and subjectivist variants. The former take an interpretation to be correct depending on what the reasonable/rational lawmaker intended or what the reasonable/rational audience thinks they intended. The latter take an interpretation to be correct where the interpretation is what the speaker actually intended. This paper argues that objectivism faces serious problems as it cannot deal with disagreement: Reasonable and rational people can often disagree as to what the interpretation of a (...)
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  41. 一切为了逻辑 —智人!开始进化.Kai Jiang - manuscript
    纯逻辑的主要组成包括纯逻辑信仰、纯逻辑的思维方法、解放灵魂、追求无限大价值、以逻辑-不逻辑为实在、试错和容忍错误、推理的资源分配、非标准逻辑、推理的全局性。 灵魂来到世上的第一个问题应该是我是谁,最合乎逻辑的自我认知是:我是且只是由一些逻辑推理组成的灵魂。任何不可变的其它标签,如有手有脚、直立行走、两性,都是对自由的侵犯。去除这些标签的过程就是灵魂的解放事 业。相信宇宙万物都和我一样,是由逻辑推理组成的,这就是最合乎逻辑的信仰,即纯逻辑信仰。纯逻辑信仰决定了纯逻辑方法才是正确的认识方法,即尽量减少经验增加逻辑推理,而不是科学所提倡的经验主义,或者与之密切 相关的功利主义、现实主义。 信仰错误意味着无法做出任何完全正确的推理,只能偶尔幸运地获得少量尽量合乎逻辑的推理结果。即使是日常生活中的推理,也高度依赖于经验主义、功利主义等信仰,错误率极高。纯逻辑主义的推理要求推理尽量合乎逻辑, 将合乎逻辑的程度视为价值,因此要追求最大价值。功利主义往往是为身体追求利益,让身体奴役灵魂。两种信仰很难有什么共同的决策,书中对此提供了大量的说明。信仰的错误意味着智人难以发现真理、正义,意味着智人在 绝大多数问题上都是自以为正确实际上却极度邪恶、落后。智人功利主义地对待一切,如历史、传统、自我、本国、本民族,结果就是大量赞美、信仰邪恶,大大增加了皈依真理、正义的难度。 作者由纯逻辑主义提出了两个关键猜想。首先,最合乎逻辑原则和最大自由原则是统一的。这代表实在的不可否定性,即逻辑和不逻辑为同一存在,最合乎逻辑等同于最大自由。但是,代表邪恶的无法合乎逻辑不是不逻辑。其次 ,宇宙是纯逻辑世界,完全源于逻辑-不逻辑。进而,如果灵魂不能尽量合乎逻辑地推导出真理,可以通过模仿宇宙而学习真理。《真理进化论》给模仿宇宙找到的理由是以宇宙为信仰,相信宇宙是负作用量的最佳追求系统。纯 逻辑主义完善了这一信仰,因为宇宙是纯逻辑世界,相信逻辑就要相信宇宙。而且,逻辑世界必然能不断创造新的命题,永远不会停止推理,是逻辑和自由不断增长的动态系统,即最佳追求系统。 纯逻辑推理对物理学、宇宙论能提供两个明显的帮助:用逻辑的诞生解释宇宙的诞生、大爆炸;用真理解释暗物质,它对所有命题有吸引作用,但是,真理不会像一般性命题那样变化,无法通过引力之外的其它三种基本相互作用 观察。纯逻辑也能对宇宙做出预言:宇宙会不断加速膨胀,真理、暗物质会不断增加,命题、星系会越来越多,永无止境。当然,不应该依靠这些观点的经验主义验证来相信纯逻辑信仰,而且,这些验证也确实遥遥无期。 无论是最合乎逻辑还是最大自由,都是可以达到无限大价值的。既然存在无限大价值,就存在无限大的劳动生产率,而每个灵魂都应该以创造无限大价值为目标,甚至,以每时每刻具有无限大预期价值为目标。相比之下,功利主 义者、享乐主义者一生都很难具有无限大价值,甚至,他们的灵魂一生都在为肉体做奴隶,却心甘情愿地做奴隶,一门心思让主人生活得更舒服。这是有无限大差距的人生。 既然要追求无限大价值,就要研究追求价值的正确方法。作者相信正确的研究方法不仅是最合乎逻辑的,也是最自由的。所以,应该不分学科、课题地研究问题;同时做很多研究方向的工作;一篇论文不需要限定于一个狭小的主 题;研究任何一个问题都可以延伸到研究真理乃至所有真理;论文、专著的写作不应该有格式等规范,应该以价值为评判的唯一准绳。 资源分配是逻辑推理的重要组成部分,而能力和时间是最主要的资源。为了追求价值,不能在价值有限的推理上分配资源,这必将大幅提高绝大多数推理的错误率。所以,推理中出现错误是必然的,追求无错是一种邪恶。只要时 刻保证存在价值无限大的推理,错误通常是可以容忍的,价值有限的错误更是必须容忍。 既然文学写作也要求情节合乎逻辑,当然也可以要求作品的主要观点、原则、思维过程尽量合乎逻辑,主要人物的思想、行为尽量合乎逻辑,这就是纯逻辑流。否则,就只是作者自以为合乎逻辑,实际上有大量无法合乎逻辑之处 ,这和科学家自以为科学合乎逻辑,却根本没有最合乎逻辑的信仰、方法、推理过程是一个问题。这也意味着最合乎逻辑的文学可能甚至是必须发现真理。另一方面,自由也是最合乎逻辑的真理,坚持那些基于经验的作品分类会 侵犯自由。所以,推理小说、科幻小说、历史、论文,这些智人的分类标签都不是绝对的。纯逻辑流小说在研究真理方面自有其优势,能最为自由地同时研究很多课题,包括如何建立信仰,如何思维,如何做人,如何推理,如何 判断善恶,讲述历史,预测未来,乃至现代科学中没有研究的真理学、思维科学,等等。所以,这甚至是现在最适合发表纯逻辑思想、研究成果的作品门类。 虽然在起点网已经被禁,但是将继续每月更新,后记中会预告下次更新的时间。 .
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  42. Basis of ethical obligation? Covid-19 vaccines.Ignacio Escañuela Romana - manuscript
    On the basis of the problem of the possible compulsory nature of vaccines against Covid-19, this paper considers the sources that allow us to justify the imposition of collective measures. The social contract theory provides a rational basis for the universality of ethical and natural law obligations, including conditional respect for a protected domain of individual physical and moral integrity. However, the practical application of the covenant is subject to the uncertainty of what effective consequences the policies have. Ethical principles (...)
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  43. Access, Promulgation, and Propaganda.Benjamin L. S. Nelson - manuscript
    The very idea of promulgation has been given little to no treatment in the philosophy of law. In this exploratory essay, I introduce three possible theories of promulgation: the ‘no-theory theory’ (which treats promulgation as a matter of particular contexts), the ‘conveyance theory’ (which treats promulgation as a function of intellectual good faith interpreters), and ‘agonistic theory’ (which treats promulgation as indistinguishable from propaganda). I suggest that (at least) three kinds of models are consistent with the theories, and can potentially (...)
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  44. Rape, Recklessness, and Sexist Ideology.Elinor Mason - 2021 - In George I. Pavlakos & Veronica Rodriguez-Blanco (eds.), Agency, Negligence and Responsibility. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.
    Moral responsibility theorists and legal theorists both worry about what negligence is, and how it might be a ground of blameworthiness. In this paper I argue that negligence suitably understood, can be an appropriate grounds for mens rea in rape cases. I am interested in cases where someone continues with sex in the mistaken belief that the other person consents. Such a mistaken belief is often unreasonable: a wilfully blind agent, one who deliberately ignores evidence that there is no consent, (...)
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  45. Jurisprudence in a globalized world.Jorge Luis Fabra Zamora - 2020 - Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
    In this unique book, leading legal scholars and philosophers provide a breadth of perspectives and inspire stimulating debate around the transformations of jurisprudence in a globalized world. Traditionally the central debates surrounding jurisprudence and legal theory are concerned with the elucidation of the particularities of state-law. This innovative book considers that this orthodox picture may no longer be tenable, given the increasing standardization of technologies, systems and information worldwide. -/- Split across four thematic parts, this timely book provides a broad (...)
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  46. Reasons for endorsing or rejecting ‘self-binding directives’ in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study of survey responses from UK service users.Tania Gergel, Preety Das, Lucy Stephenson, Gareth Owen, Larry Rifkin, John Dawson, Alex Ruck Keene & Guy Hindley - 2021 - The Lancet Psychiatry 8.
    Summary Background Self-binding directives instruct clinicians to overrule treatment refusal during future severe episodes of illness. These directives are promoted as having potential to increase autonomy for individuals with severe episodic mental illness. Although lived experience is central to their creation, service users’ views on self-binding directives have not been investigated substantially. This study aimed to explore whether reasons for endorsement, ambivalence, or rejection given by service users with bipolar disorder can address concerns regarding self-binding directives, decision-making capacity, and human (...)
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  47. Religious Accommodation and Disproportionate Burden.Alan Patten - 2020 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 15 (1):61-74.
    The paper offers a critical engagement with Cécile Laborde’s book, Liberalism’s Religion. It elaborates several objections to Laborde’s account of religious accommodations, and sketches an alternative approach.
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  48. Procedural Acts as Double-Conventionalized Acts: Considerations on Conventional Acts Performed in a Courtroom Discourse.Karolina Gmerek - 2020 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 34 (2):473-495.
    The subject of interest of this article is procedural acts considered as double-conventionalized acts. It is assumed in this article that in the case of procedural acts, one can distinguish two levels of conventionalization: the level of a speech act and the level of a procedural act. Both above-mentioned levels affect each other in various ways, what is discussed in the article. As assumed in the article, the analysis of acts characterized by this particular trait and with due account of (...)
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  49. Jurisprudence and Theology: In Late Ancient and Medieval Jewish Thought.Joseph E. David - 2014 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
    The book provides in depth studies of two epistemological aspects of Jewish Law (Halakhah) as the ‘Word of God’ – the question of legal reasoning and the problem of knowing and remembering. - How different are the epistemological concerns of religious-law in comparison to other legal systems? - In what ways are jurisprudential attitudes prescribed and dependent on theological presumptions? - What specifies legal reasoning and legal knowledge in a religious framework? The author outlines the rabbinic jurisprudential thought rooted in (...)
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  50. Norme sui diritti umani: tra principi e regole.Julieta Agustina Rábanos - 2019 - In Paola Ivaldi & Lorenzo Schiano di Pepe (eds.), I diritti umani settant’anni dopo. L’attualità della Dichiarazione universale tra questioni irrisolte e nuove minacce. Genova GE, Italia: pp. 33-43.
    Il settantesimo anniversario della Dichiarazione universale dei diritti umani è, senza dubbio, un’importante occasione per riflettere sui diritti umani. In questo breve intervento, propongo una riflessione sul problema concettuale relativo alle disposizioni normative che vengono utilizzate per riconoscere e/o stabilire diritti umani. La domanda può essere posta in questi termini: che tipo di norme esprimono queste disposizioni? Regole, principi, oppure entrambe, a seconda delle circostanze? La risposta a questa domanda implica la soluzione di due distinti problemi. Da un lato, un (...)
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