About this topic
Summary The philosophy of linguistics deals with philosophical issues arising in connection with the discipline of linguistics. It covers a wide variety of topics, including: (a) ontological issues, such as the nature of languages and of related entities (e.g. sentences and words), as well the proper characterization of the subject matter of the discipline; (b) epistemological issues, such as the nature and scope of a speaker's knowledge of her language; (c) methodological issues concerning the goals of theorization and the nature of linguistic explanation, the appropriate roles of abstraction and idealization, the import of the competence/performance distinction, and the kinds of data that may justify linguistic hypotheses.
Key works

Chapter 1 of Chomsky 1965 contains a seminal discussion of methodological and epistemological issues, such as the competence-performance distinction, the connection between explanatory adequacy and language acquisition, the place of intuitions/judgments as a source of evidence and the nature and role of abstraction and idealization in theorization. 

Chomsky 1980  has Chomsky's replies to criticisms posed by philosophers (among others), including worries about innateness and about the "psychological reality" of the posits of linguistic theory.

  Chomsky 1986 is the locus classicus for the distinction between I-Language and E-Language, and it also presents a very influential (and controversial) characterization of linguistics as a "branch of cognitive psychology".

Katz 1980 is a sustained critique of the Chomskyan perspective, and offers an alternative, Platonic conception of linguistics as a non-empirical, formal discipline. Soames 1984  and Higginbotham 1983, respectively, seek to combine an empirical view of linguistic research with a Platonic ontology of its subject matter. 

  Katz 1985 is the first collection of papers to bear the title "Philosophy of Linguistics", and it features many of the early key works. Chomsky & George 1989 includes several influential papers dealing with the ontology and epistemology of linguistics—notably George 1989 and Peacocke 1989

 Devitt 2006 is an attack on several aspects of the Chomskyan conception, such as the "psychological" view of linguistics and what Devitt calls the "Cartesian view" of linguistic intuitions.

Ludlow 2011  is one of the most recent monograph-length treatments of the topics mentioned above, and also contains discussions of issues such as normativity and rule-following, simplicity and formalization, and the externalist-internalist debate in semantics and in syntax. 

Introductions Pelletier 2000, Ludlow 1998
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  1. Florin Curta, Slavs in the Making: History, Linguistics, and Archaeology in Eastern Europe (Ca. 500–Ca. 700). London: Routledge, 2021. Pp. Xiv, 345; Black-and-White Figures. $170. ISBN: 978-1-1385-7414-4. [REVIEW]Eduard Mühle - 2022 - Speculum 97 (3):819-820.
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  2. Linguistics and Social Sciences.Michel Foucault - forthcoming - Theory, Culture and Society:026327642210915.
    Written with the suppression of the Tunisian students by their own government in view, Michel Foucault’s March 1968 ‘Linguistics and Social Sciences’ opens up a new horizon of historical inquiry and epitomises Foucault’s abiding interest in formulating new methods for studying the interaction of language and power. Translated into English for the first time by Jonathan D.S. Schroeder and Chantal Wright, this remarkable lecture constitutes Foucault’s most explicit and sustained statement of his project to revolutionise history by transposing the analysis (...)
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  3. The Anthropomorphic Principle in Cognitive Linguistics.L. G. Yusupova - forthcoming - Liberal Arts in Russia:121.
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  4. Can Linguistics and Semiotics Conceive Man Without Language?Emanuele Fadda - 2022 - Sign Systems Studies 50 (1):78-89.
    Saussure’s refusal to adopt a biological perspective in linguistics and to consider the problem of the origin of language does not imply a struggle against the natural and biological aspects of language. Rather, it derives from the awareness that it is impossible to look at language “from the outside” if one wants to drop into the perspective of the speaking subjects. This tendency to consider the nature of language “from within” has a strong philosophical importance.
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  5. Conditionals: Logic, Linguistics, and Psychology.Stefan Kaufmann, Over David & Ghanshyam Sharma (eds.) - forthcoming - Palgrave.
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  6. Mixed Computation.Diego Gabriel Krivochen - 2021 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 3 (2):215-244.
    Proof-theoretic models of grammar are based on the view that an explicit characterization of a language comes in the form of the recursive enumeration of strings in that language. That recursive enumeration is carried out by a procedure which strongly generates a set of structural descriptions Σ and weakly generates a set of strings S; a grammar is thus a function that pairs an element of Σ with elements of S. Structural descriptions are obtained by means of Context-Free phrase structure (...)
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  7. Introduction.Diego Gabriel Krivochen - 2021 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 3 (2):123-128.
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  8. Integrational Linguistics and Philosophy of Language in the Global South.Sinfree B. Makoni & Deryn P. Verity - 2021 - Routledge.
    Exploring the nature of possible relationships between Integrational Linguistics and Southern Epistemologies, this volume examines various ways in which Integrational Linguistics can be used to support the decolonizing interests of Southern Epistemologies, particularly the lay-oriented nature of Integrational Linguistics that Southern Epistemologies find productive as a 'positive counter-discourse.' As both an anti-elitist and antiestablishment way of thinking, these chapters consider how Integrational Linguistics can be consistent with the decolonial aspirations of Southern Epistemologies. They argue that the relationship between Southern Epistemologies (...)
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  9. Metaphors of Multilingualism: Changing Attitudes in Towards Language Diversity Literature, Linguistics and Philosophy.Rainer Guldin - 2020 - Routledge.
    Metaphors of Multilingualism explores changing attitudes towards multilingualism by focusing on shifts both in the choice and in the use of metaphors. Rainer Guldin uses linguistics, philosophy, literature, literary theory and related disciplines to trace the radical redefinition of multilingualism that has taken place over the last decades. This overall change constitutes a paradigmatic shift. However, despite the emergence of the new paradigm, the traditional monolingual point of view is still significantly influencing present-day attitudes towards multilingualism. Consequently, the emergent paradigm (...)
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  10. Indian Perspectives on Consciousness, Language and Self: The School of Recognition on Linguistics and Philosophy of Mind.Marco Ferrante - 2020 - Routledge.
    This book examines the theory of consciousness developed by the school of Recognition, an Indian philosophical tradition that thrived around the tenth c. CE in Kashmir, and argues that consciousness has a linguistic nature. It situates the doctrines of the tradition within the broader Indian philosophical context and establishes connections with the contemporary analytic debate. The book focuses on Utpaladeva and Abhinavagupta, two Hindu intellectuals belonging to the school of Recognition, Pratyabhijñā in Sanskrit. It argues that these authors promoted ideas (...)
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  11. The Reflexivity of Language and Linguistic Inquiry: Integrational Linguistics in Practice.Dorthe Duncker - 2018 - Routledge.
    This book explores the reflexivity of language both from the perspective of the lay speaker and the linguistic analyst. Linguistic inquiry is conditional upon linguistic reflexivity, but so is language. Without linguistic reflexivity, we would not be able to make sense of everyday linguistic communication, and the idea of a language would not be conceivable. Not even fundamental notions such as words or meaning would exist. Linguistic reflexivity is a feature of the communication process, and it essentially depends on situated (...)
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  12. The Linguistics of Laughter: A Corpus-Assisted Study of Laughter-Talk.Alan Partington - 2006 - Routledge.
    This unforgettable book chronicles the kidnapping, enslavement, and escape of a young Ugandan girl forced into fighting in a rebel army--and what we can do to help tens of thousands of children avoid the same fate.
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  13. Cognitive Science: A Multidisciplinary Journal of Anthropology, Artificial Intelligence, Education, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy, Psychology.Robert L. Goldstone & John R. Anderson - 2001 - Routledge.
    The Dictionary of World Philosophy covers the diverse and challenging terminology, concepts, schools and traditions of the vast field of world philosophy. Providing an extremely comprehensive resource and an essential point of reference in a complex and expanding field of study the Dictionary covers all major subfields of the discipline. Key features: * Cross-references are used to highlight interconnections and the cross-cultural diffusion and adaptation of terms which has taken place over time * The user is led from specific terms (...)
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  14. Cognitive Ontology: Taxonomic Practices in the Mind-Brain Sciences.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2022 - Cambridge University Press.
    The search for the “furniture of the mind” has acquired added impetus with the rise of new technologies to study the brain and identify its main structures and processes. Philosophers and scientists are increasingly concerned to understand the ways in which psychological functions relate to brain structures. Meanwhile, the taxonomic practices of cognitive scientists are coming under increased scrutiny, as researchers ask which of them identify the real kinds of cognition and which are mere vestiges of folk psychology. Muhammad Ali (...)
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  15. Corpus Linguistics for Low-Density Varieties. Minority Languages and Corpus-Based Morphological investigationsLinguistique du Corpus Pour les Variétés À Faible Densité. Langues Minoritaires Et Enquêtes Morphologiques Basées Sur Corpus.Livio Gaeta, Marco Angster, Raffaele Cioffi & Marco Bellante - 2022 - Corpus 23.
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  16. Manifestation of Foreign Language Anxiety Among Students Majoring in Linguistics.I. V. Atamanova & A. Ye Fedorovsky - forthcoming - Liberal Arts in Russia:67.
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  17. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics.Mark Aronoff (ed.) - 2022 - Oxford University Press.
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  18. The Study and Analysis of Semantics Through the Lens of Linguistics Based On a Philosophical Approach.Mohammad Zohrabi - 2021 - Philosophical Investigations 15 (37):375-396.
    Meaning is concerned with what a language expresses about the world in which we live or any imaginary or possible world. The study and analysis of meaning and its different angles is called semantics. Semantics is usually concerned with the investigation of the meanings of the words, expressions, sentences and sometimes to the meanings of utterances in discourse or the whole meaning of a text. There are different approaches in which meaning is studied in language. For example, philosophers investigate the (...)
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  19. Correction to: (What) Can Deep Learning Contribute to Theoretical Linguistics?Gabe Dupre - 2022 - Minds and Machines 32 (1):11-11.
  20. Counterfactuals, Hyperintensionality and Hurford Disjunctions.Hüseyin Güngör - forthcoming - Linguistics and Philosophy:1-27.
    This paper investigates propositional hyperintensionality in counterfactuals. It starts with a scenario describing two children playing on a seesaw and studies the truth-value predictions for counterfactuals by four different semantic theories. The theories in question are Kit Fine’s truthmaker semantics, Luis Alonso-Ovalle’s alternative semantics, inquisitive semantics and Paolo Santorio’s syntactic truthmaker semantics. These predictions suggest that the theories that distinguish more of a given set of intensionally equivalent sentences (Fine and Alonso-Ovalle’s) fare better than those that do not (inquisitive semantics (...)
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  21. A Major Challenge.Michael Joseph Winkler - 2021 - In The Image of Language. Northeast, NY: Artists Books Editions.
    This excerpted chapter of the book THE IMAGE OF LANGUAGE discusses the philosophical implications of geometric visualizations of the alphabetic patterning encoded in the orthography of words (a project showing examples of the visualizations is included). Reference pages are also included.
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  22. Chapter 8 Baroque Structuralism: Deleuze, Lacan and the Critique of Linguistics.Samo Tomšič - 2016 - In Boštjan Nedoh & Andreja Zevnik (eds.), Lacan and Deleuze: A Disjunctive Synthesis. Eup. pp. 123-140.
  23. Exploring RoBERTa's Theory of Mind Through Textual Entailment.Michael Cohen - manuscript
    Within psychology, philosophy, and cognitive science, theory of mind refers to the cognitive ability to reason about the mental states of other people, thus recognizing them as having beliefs, knowledge, intentions and emotions of their own. In this project, we construct a natural language inference (NLD) dataset that tests the ability of a state of the art language model, RoBERTa-large finetuned on the MNLI dataset, to make theory of mind inferences related to knowledge and belief. Experimental results suggest that the (...)
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  24. Indian Perspectives on Consciousness, Language and Self: The School of Recognition on Linguistics and Philosophy of Mind by Marco Ferrante.Mrinal Kaul - 2022 - Philosophy East and West 72 (1):1-6.
    Indian Perspectives on Consciousness, Language and Self by Marco Ferrante explores theories of consciousness by examining the non-dual philosophy of Recognition mainly represented by the two philosophers Utpaladeva and Abhinavagupta, and also carefully concludes that the trajectory of their ideas have compelling influence from Bhartṛhari and his commentator Helārāja. No philosophy ever evolves and develops in a void. No philosophical tradition or theory functions in oblivion. In the history of philosophy in South Asia, this is also true of the traditions (...)
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  25. Inquiries in Philosophical Pragmatics: Issues in Linguistics.Fabrizio Macagno & Alessandro Capone (eds.) - 2021 - Springer.
    Together with the first volume “Inquiries in philosophical pragmatics: Theoretical developments,” this book collects contributions that represent the state of the art on the interconnection between pragmatics and philosophy. While the first volume presents the philosophical dimension of pragmatics, showing the path from theoretical advances to practical uses and approaches, this second volume offers a specular view on this discipline. Instead of adopting the top-down view of the first volume, this collection of eleven chapters starts from the analysis of linguistic (...)
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  26. Inquiries in Philosophical Pragmatics. Theoretical Developments.Fabrizio Macagno & Alessandro Capone (eds.) - 2021 - Cham: Springer.
    Together with the volume “Inquiries in philosophical pragmatics: Linguistic and theoretical issues,” this book collects selected contributions to the conference Pragmasophia II held in Lisbon in 2018. This first volume intends to contribute to the dialogue between philosophers and linguists, trying to broaden the boundaries of this discipline defined by the crucial notions of context and verbal action. To this purpose, the contributions are collected in an order that reflects the core and the frontiers of pragmatics, the former constituted by (...)
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  27. Mixed Computation: Grammar Up and Down the Chomsky Hierarchy.Diego Gabriel Krivochen - 2021 - Evolutionary Linguistic Theory 2 (3):215-244.
    Proof-theoretic models of grammar are based on the view that an explicit characterization of a language comes in the form of the recursive enumeration of strings in that language. That recur-sive enumeration is carried out by a procedure which strongly generates a set of structural de-scriptions Σ and weakly generates a set of strings S; a grammar is thus a function that pairs an element of Σ with elements of S. Structural descriptions are obtained by means of Context-Free phrase structure (...)
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  28. Systematizität der Sprache und Systematizität des Denkens bei Destutt de Tracy.Lucia Oliveri - 2020 - In Kurt Bayertz und Nikola Anna Kompa und Niko Strobach (ed.), Das Projekt einer ‚Idéologie‘ Destutt de Tracys Ideenlehre als Wissenschaftsbewegung der Spätaufklärung. Amburgo, Germania: pp. 61-84.
    Destutt de Tracy zielt darauf ab, zu erklären, wie inter- und transsubjektive Prozesse auf das einzelne Individuum wirken und es gestalten. Dafür braucht er eine externalistische Sprachtheorie und eine sensualistische kognitive Architektur, nach der Denken Empfinden ist. Das Denken ist relational, aber wird nicht auf kognitiver Ebene durch sprachähnliche Strukturen – durch die Syntax und Semantik einer Mentalsprache – implementiert. Obwohl Externalismus und sensualistische Architektur in eine inkohärente Theorie zu münden scheinen, versucht Destutt de Tracy die Spannung durch seine Entwicklungsgeschichte (...)
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  29. Slurs, Neutral Counterparts, and What You Could Have Said.Arianna Falbo - 2021 - Analytic Philosophy 62 (4):359-375.
    Analytic Philosophy, Volume 62, Issue 4, Page 359-375, December 2021.
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  30. Reimagining Illocutionary Force.Lucy McDonald - forthcoming - The Philosophical Quarterly.
    Speech act theorists tend to hold that the illocutionary force of an utterance is determined by one interlocutor alone: either the speaker or the hearer. Yet experience tells us that the force of our utterances is not determined unilaterally. Rather, communication often feels collaborative. In this paper, I develop and defend a collaborative theory of illocutionary force, according to which the illocutionary force of an utterance is determined by an agreement reached by the speaker and the hearer. This theory, which (...)
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  31. (What) Can Deep Learning Contribute to Theoretical Linguistics?Gabe Dupre - 2021 - Minds and Machines 31 (4):617-635.
    Deep learning techniques have revolutionised artificial systems’ performance on myriad tasks, from playing Go to medical diagnosis. Recent developments have extended such successes to natural language processing, an area once deemed beyond such systems’ reach. Despite their different goals, these successes have suggested that such systems may be pertinent to theoretical linguistics. The competence/performance distinction presents a fundamental barrier to such inferences. While DL systems are trained on linguistic performance, linguistic theories are aimed at competence. Such a barrier has traditionally (...)
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  32. Chinese News Discourse: From Perspectives of Communication, Linguistics and Pedagogy.[author unknown] - 2021
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  33. Book Review: Nancy Xiuzhi Liu, Candace Veecock and Shixin Ivy Zhang (Eds.), Chinese News Discourse: From Perspectives of Communication, Linguistics and Pedagogy. [REVIEW]Jie Xia - 2022 - Discourse Studies 24 (1):139-141.
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  34. Intuitions About the Reference of Proper Names: a Meta-Analysis.Noah van Dongen, Matteo Colombo, Felipe Romero & Jan Sprenger - 2021 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 12 (4):745-774.
    The finding that intuitions about the reference of proper names vary cross-culturally was one of the early milestones in experimental philosophy. Many follow-up studies investigated the scope and magnitude of such cross-cultural effects, but our paper provides the first systematic meta-analysis of studies replicating. In the light of our results, we assess the existence and significance of cross-cultural effects for intuitions about the reference of proper names.
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  35. A Short History of Linguistics.Robert Henry Robins - 1967 - London, England: Longmans.
    This complete revision and updating of Professor Robins' classic text offers a comprehensive account of the history of linguistic thought from its European origins some 2500 years ago to the present day. It examines the independent development of linguistic science in China and Medieval Islam, and especially in India, which was to have a profound effect on European and American linguistics from the end of the eighteenth century. The fourth edition of A Short History of Linguistics gives a greater prominence (...)
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  36. Interdisciplinary Works in Logic, Epistemology, Psychology and Linguistics: Dialogue, Rationality, and Formalism.Manuel Rebuschi, Gerhard Heinzmann Martine Batt, Michel Musiol Franck Lihoreau & Alain Trognon (eds.) - 2014 - Cham, Switzerland: Springer.
    This book presents comparisons of recent accounts in the formalization of natural language with informal conceptions of interaction that have been developed in both psychology and epistemology. There are four parts which explore: historical and systematic studies; the formalization of context in epistemology; the formalization of reasoning in interactive contexts in psychology; the formalization of pathological conversations. Part one discusses the Erlangen School, which proposed a logical analysis of science as well as an operational reconstruction of psychological concepts. These first (...)
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  37. Mathematical Methods in Linguistics.Barbara Partee, Alice ter Meulen & Robert Wall - 1987 - Boston, MA, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Elementary set theory accustoms the students to mathematical abstraction, includes the standard constructions of relations, functions, and orderings, and leads to a discussion of the various orders of infinity. The material on logic covers not only the standard statement logic and first-order predicate logic but includes an introduction to formal systems, axiomatization, and model theory. The section on algebra is presented with an emphasis on lattices as well as Boolean and Heyting algebras. Background for recent research in natural language semantics (...)
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  38. New Horizons in Linguistics.John Lyons (ed.) - 1970 - Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books.
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  39. Foundations of the Formal Sciences Ii: Applications of Mathematical Logic in Philosophy and Linguistics, Papers of a Conference Held in Bonn, November 10–13, 2000. [REVIEW]Benedikt Löwe, Wolfgang Malzkom & Thoralf Räsch (eds.) - 2003 - Dordrecht, Netherland: Springer.
    "Foundations of the Formal Sciences" is a series of interdisciplinary conferences in mathematics, philosophy, computer science and linguistics. The main goal is to reestablish the traditionally strong links between these areas of research that have been lost in the past decades. The second conference in the series had the subtitle "Applications of Mathematical Logic in Philosophy and Linguistics" and brought speakers from all parts of the Formal Sciences together to give a holistic view of how mathematical methods can improve our (...)
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  40. Investigations in Modal and Tense Logics with Applications to Problems in Philosophy and Linguistics.Dov M. Gabbay - 1976 - Dordrecht and Boston: Reidel.
    This book is intended to serve as an advanced text and reference work on modal logic, a subject of growing importance which has applications to philosophy and linguistics. Although it is based mainly on research which I carried out during the years 1969-1973, it also includes some related results obtained by other workers in the field. Parts 0, 1 and 2, can be used as the basis of a one year graduate course in modal logic. The material which they contain (...)
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  41. Studies in Linguistic Semantics: Papers Presented at a Conference Sponsored by the Dept. Of Linguistics, Ohio State University, April 14-15, 1969. [REVIEW]Charles J. Fillmore & D. Terence Langendoen (eds.) - 1971 - New York, NY, USA: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.
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  42. Basic Problems in Methodology and Linguistics.Robert E. Butts & Kaarlo Jaakko Juhani Hintikka (eds.) - 1977 - Dordrecht and Boston: Reidel.
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  43. Evolutionary Linguistics Can Help Refine (and Test) Hypotheses About How Music Might Have Evolved.Antonio Benítez-Burraco - 2021 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 44.
    Both the music and social bonding hypothesis and the music as a credible signal hypothesis emerge as solid views of how human music and human musicality might have evolved. Nonetheless, both views could be improved with the consideration of the way in which human language might have evolved under the effects of our self-domestication.
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  44. Words, Species, and Kinds.J. T. M. Miller - 2021 - Metaphysics 4 (1):18–31.
    It has been widely argued that words are analogous to species such that words, like species, are natural kinds. In this paper, I consider the metaphysics of word-kinds. After arguing against an essentialist approach, I argue that word-kinds are homeostatic property clusters, in line with the dominant approach to other biological and psychological kinds.
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  45. Corpus Linguistics in Legal Discourse.Stanisław Goźdź-Roszkowski - 2021 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 34 (5):1515-1540.
    There are many different ways in which modern Corpus Linguistics can be used to enrich and broaden our understanding of legal discourse. Based on the central principle of co-occurrence and co-selection in language construction, this paper reviews current applications of Corpus Linguistics in the area of legal discourse focusing on issues ranging from phraseology, variation in legal discourse, legal translation, register and genre perspectives on legal discourse, legal discourse in forensic contexts to evaluative language in judicial settings. It revisits the (...)
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  46. Lexicon Grammaticorum: A Bio-Bibliographical Companion to the History of Linguistics.Harro Stammerjohann, Sylvain Auroux, Lois Grossman & Mark DeVoto (eds.) - 2009
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  47. Chomsky Vis-a-Vis the Methodology of Science.Thomas Johnston - manuscript
    (1) In the first part of this paper, I review Chomsky's meandering journey from the formalism/mentalism of Syntactic Structures, through several methodological positions, to the minimalist theory of his latest work. Infected with mentalism from first to last, each and every position vitiates Chomsky's repeated claims that his theories will provide useful guidance to later theories in such fields as cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. With the guidance of his insights, he claims, psychologists and neuroscientists will be able to avoid (...)
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  48. Linguistics and Deception Detection (DD): A Work in Progress.Thomas Wulstan Christiansen - 2021 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 66 (2):169-200.
    Linguistic Deception Detection DD is a well-established part of forensic linguistics and an area that continues to attract attention on the part of researchers, self-styled experts, and the public at large. In this article, the various approaches to DD within the general field of linguistics are examined. The basic method is to treat language as a form of behaviour and to equate marked linguistic behaviour with other marked forms of behaviour. Such a comparison has been identified in other fields such (...)
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  49. What Can Cognitive Linguistics Tell Us About Language-Image Relations? A Multidimensional Approach to Intersemiotic Convergence in Multimodal Texts.Javier Marmol Queralto & Christopher Hart - 2021 - Cognitive Linguistics 32 (4):529-562.
    In contrast to symbol-manipulation approaches, Cognitive Linguistics offers a modal rather than an amodal account of meaning in language. From this perspective, the meanings attached to linguistic expressions, in the form of conceptualisations, have various properties in common with visual forms of representation. This makes Cognitive Linguistics a potentially useful framework for identifying and analysing language-image relations in multimodal texts. In this paper, we investigate language-image relations with a specific focus on intersemiotic convergence. Analogous with research on gesture, we extend (...)
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  50. Not a Negation? A Logico-Philosophical Perspective on the Ugaritic Particles lā/ ’al.Cristina Barés Gómez & Matthieu Fontaine - forthcoming - Topoi:1-12.
    The negative particles lā/ ’al in Ugaritic change from positive to negative in modal contexts, conditional, questions, disjunctions, etc. They have usually been studied from a Semitic and linguistic points of view. On the basis of their occurrence in Ugaritic texts, we pretend to explain their uncommon behaviour from a philosophical and logico-semantic perspective. Is it possible to translate this linguistic structure in our Modern languages? Starting from a general view of their use in Ugaritic language, we claim that this (...)
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