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  1. Opening the Black Box of Commodification: A Philosophical Critique of Actor-Network Theory as Critique.Henrik Rude Hvid - manuscript
    This article argues that actor-network theory, as an alternative to critical theory, has lost its critical impetus when examining commodification in healthcare. The paper claims that the reason for this, is the way in which actor-network theory’s anti-essentialist ontology seems to black box 'intentionality' and ethics of human agency as contingent interests. The purpose of this paper was to open the normative black box of commodification, and compare how Marxism, Habermas and ANT can deal with commodification and ethics in healthcare. (...)
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  2. The Humors in Hume's Skepticism.Charles Goldhaber - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    In the conclusion to the first book of the Treatise, Hume's skeptical reflections have plunged him into melancholy. He then proceeds through a complex series of stages, resulting in renewed interest in philosophy. Interpreters have struggled to explain the connection between the stages. I argue that Hume's repeated invocation of the four humors of ancient and medieval medicine explains the succession, and sheds a new light on the significance of skepticism. The humoral context not only reveals that Hume conceives of (...)
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  3. Inductive Risk and Values in Composite Outcome Measures.Roger Stanev - forthcoming - In Kevin Elliot & Ted Richards (eds.), Exploring Inductive Risk. Oxford University Press.
    The use of composite outcomes is becoming widespread in clinical trials. By combining individual outcome measures into a composite, researchers claim a composite can increase statistical precision and trial efficiency, expediting the trial by reducing sample size and cost, and consequently enabling researchers to answer questions that could not otherwise be answered. Another rationale given for using a composite is that it provides a measure of the net effect of the intervention that is more patient-relevant than any single outcome measure. (...)
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  4. New Directions in Philosophy of Medicine.Jacob Stegenga, Ashley Kennedy, Serife Tekin, Saana Jukola & Robyn Bluhm - forthcoming - In James Marcum (ed.), Bloomsbury Companion to Contemporary Philosophy of Medicine. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 343-367.
    The purpose of this chapter is to describe what we see as several important new directions for philosophy of medicine. This recent work (i) takes existing discussions in important and promising new directions, (ii) identifies areas that have not received sufficient and deserved attention to date, and/or (iii) brings together philosophy of medicine with other areas of philosophy (including bioethics, philosophy of psychiatry, and social epistemology). To this end, the next part focuses on what we call the “epistemological turn” in (...)
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  5. Medical Ontology.Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh - 2nd ed. 2015 - In Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine. Springer Verlag.
    Due to the intricate nature of its subject matter, medicine is always threatened by speculations and disagreements about which among its entities exist, e.g., any specific biological structures, substructures or substances, pathogenic agents, pathophysiological processes, diseases, psychosomatic relationships, therapeutic effects, and other possible and impossible things. To avoid confusion, and to determine what entities an item of medical knowledge presupposes to exist if it is to be true, we need medical ontology. The term “medical ontology” we understand to mean the (...)
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  6. Types, Norms, and Normalisation: Hormone Research and Treatments in Italy, Argentina, and Brazil, C. 1900–50.Chiara Beccalossi - 2021 - History of the Human Sciences 34 (2):113-137.
    Displacing the physiological model that had held sway in 19th-century medical thinking, early 20th-century hormone research promoted an understanding of the body and sexual desires in which variations in sex characteristics and non-reproductive sexual behaviours such as homosexuality were attributed to anomalies in the internal secretions produced by the testes or the ovaries. Biotypology, a new brand of medical science conceived and led by the Italian endocrinologist Nicola Pende, employed hormone research to study human types and hormone treatments to normalise (...)
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  7. Mark Dennis Robinson. The Market in Mind: How Financialization Is Shaping Neuroscience, Translational Medicine, and Innovation in Biotechnology. Xi + 309 Pp., Notes, Bibl., Index. Cambridge, Mass./London: MIT Press, 2019. $40 (Paper); ISBN 9780262536875. [REVIEW]Lianne Habinek - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):213-214.
  8. Vanessa Heggie. Higher and Colder: A History of Extreme Physiology and Exploration. 253 Pp., Bibl., Index. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 2019. $40 (Cloth); ISBN 9780226650913. E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Andi Johnson - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):198-199.
  9. Philosophy of Advanced Medical Imaging.Elisabetta Lalumera & Stefano Fanti - 2021 - Springer International.
    This is the first book to explore the epistemology and ethics of advanced imaging tests, in order to improve the critical understanding of the nature of knowledge they provide and the practical consequences of their utilization in healthcare. Advanced medical imaging tests, such as PET and MRI, have gained center stage in medical research and in patients’ care. They also increasingly raise questions that pertain to philosophy: What is required to be an expert in reading images? How are standards for (...)
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  10. Evidence, Defeasibility, and Metaphors in Diagnosis and Diagnosis Communication.Pietro Salis & Francesca Ervas - 2021 - Topoi 40 (2):327–341.
    The paper investigates the epistemological and communicative competences the experts need to use and communicate evidence in the reasoning process leading to diagnosis. The diagnosis and diagnosis communication are presented as intertwined processes that should be jointly addressed in medical consultations, to empower patients’ compliance in illness management. The paper presents defeasible reasoning as specific to the diagnostic praxis, showing how this type of reasoning threatens effective diagnosis communication and entails that we should understand diagnostic evidence as defeasible as well. (...)
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  11. Eggs, Sugar, Grated Bones: Colour-Based Food Preferences in Autism, Eating Disorders, and Beyond.Mattias Strand - 2021 - Medical Humanities 47 (1):87-94.
    In 1913, eccentric French composer Erik Satie wrote a fragmentary, diary-like essay where he depicted a strikingly rigid diet consisting solely of white foods: eggs, sugar, coconuts, rice, cream cheese, fuchsia juice and so on. Satie’s brief essay has later been used as one of many puzzle pieces in attempts to retrospectively diagnose him with autism spectrum disorder. With Satie’s white meal as a starting point, this paper explores colour-based food preferences and selective eating in clinical and non-clinical populations, with (...)
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  12. Jan Peter Verhave. A Constant State of Emergency: Paul de Kruif: Microbe Hunter and Health Activist. (Historical Series of the Reformed Church in America, 98.) Xxii + 656 Pp., Figs., Bibl., Index. Holland, Mich.: Van Raalte Press, 2020. $35 (Paper); ISBN 9781950572069. [REVIEW]Daniel J. Wilson - 2021 - Isis 112 (1):200-201.
  13. Heat in Renaissance Philosophy.Filip Buyse - 2020 - In Marco Sgarbi (ed.), Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy. Berlin: Springer.
    The term ‘heat’ originates from the Old English word hǣtu, a word of Germanic origin; related to the Dutch ‘hitte’ and German ‘Hitze’. Today, we distinguish three different meanings of the word ‘heat’. First, ‘heat’ is understood in colloquial English as ‘hotness’. There are, in addition, two scientific meanings of ‘heat’. ‘Heat’ can have the meaning of the portion of energy that changes with a change of temperature. And finally, ‘heat’ can have the meaning of the transfer of thermal energy (...)
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  14. Julie Orlemanski. Symptomatic Subjects: Bodies, Medicine, and Causation in the Literature of Late Medieval England. (Alembics: Penn Studies in Literature and Science.) Ix + 333 Pp., Notes, Index. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019. $69.95 (Cloth); ISBN 9780812250909. E-Book Available. [REVIEW]Esther Cohen - 2020 - Isis 111 (4):871-872.
  15. What Does ‘Quality’ Add? Towards an Ethics of Healthcare Improvement.Alan Cribb, Vikki Entwistle & Polly Mitchell - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (2):118-122.
    In this paper, we argue that there are important ethical questions about healthcare improvement which are underexplored. We start by drawing on two existing literatures: first, the prevailing, primarily governance-oriented, application of ethics to healthcare ‘quality improvement’, and second, the application of QI to healthcare ethics. We show that these are insufficient for ethical analysis of healthcare improvement. In pursuit of a broader agenda for an ethics of healthcare improvement, we note that QI and ethics can, in some respects, be (...)
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  16. The Belmont Report and Innovative Practice.Jake Earl - 2020 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 63 (2):313-326.
    One of the Belmont Report’s most important contributions was the clear and serviceable distinction it drew between standard medical practice and biomedical research. A less well-known achievement of the Report was its conceptualization of innovative practice, a type of medical practice that is often mistaken for research because it is new, untested, or experimental. Although the discussion of innovative practice in Belmont is brief and somewhat cryptic, this does not reflect the significant progress its authors made in understanding innovative practice (...)
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  17. Analytic Philosophy for Biomedical Research: The Imperative of Applying Yesterday's Timeless Messages to Today's Impasses.Sepehr Ehsani - 2020 - In P. Glauner & P. Plugmann (eds.), Innovative Technologies for Market Leadership - Investing in the Future. Springer. pp. 167-200.
    The mantra that "the best way to predict the future is to invent it" (attributed to the computer scientist Alan Kay) exemplifies some of the expectations from the technical and innovative sides of biomedical research at present. However, for technical advancements to make real impacts both on patient health and genuine scientific understanding, quite a number of lingering challenges facing the entire spectrum from protein biology all the way to randomized controlled trials should start to be overcome. The proposal in (...)
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  18. Descartes’ Man Under Construction: The Circulatory Statue of Salomon Reisel, 1680.Mattia Mantovani - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (2):101-134.
    This paper studies the “human circulatory statues” which Salomon Reisel designed in the 1670s in order to demonstrate the circulation of the blood and its effect on the brain. It investigates how Reisel intended this project to promote Descartes’ philosophy, and how it relates to contemporary diagrammatic schematizations of the blood circulation system. It further explores Reisel’s claims concerning the epistemological and practical advantages of working with a three-dimensional model and argues that Reisel intended his statua to address the concerns (...)
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  19. Defining What is Good: Pluralism and Healthcare Quality.Polly Mitchell, Alan Cribb & Vikki A. Entwistle - 2020 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 29 (4):367-388.
    'Quality' is a widely invoked concept in healthcare, and 'quality improvement' is now a central part of healthcare service delivery. However, these concepts and their associated practices represent relatively uncharted territory for applied philosophy and bioethics. In this paper, we explore some of the conceptual complexity of quality in healthcare and argue that quality is best understood to be conceptually plural. Quality is widely agreed to be multidimensional and as such constitutively plural. However, we argue that quality is plural in (...)
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  20. Experiential Knowledge in Clinical Medicine: Use and Justification.Mark R. Tonelli & Devora Shapiro - 2020 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 41 (2):67-82.
    Within the evidence-based medicine construct, clinical expertise is acknowledged to be both derived from primary experience and necessary for optimal medical practice. Primary experience in medical practice, however, remains undervalued. Clinicians’ primary experience tends to be dismissed by EBM as unsystematic or anecdotal, a source of bias rather than knowledge, never serving as the “best” evidence to support a clinical decision. The position that clinical expertise is necessary but that primary experience is untrustworthy in clinical decision-making is epistemically incoherent. Here (...)
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  21. The Ethical and Epistemic Roles of Narrative in Person Centred Healthcare.Mary Jean Walker, Wendy A. Rogers & Vikki Entwistle - 2020 - European Journal of Person Centred Healthcare 8 (3):345-354.
    Positive claims about narrative approaches to healthcare suggest they could have many benefits, including supporting person-centred healthcare (PCH). Narrative approaches have also been criticised, however, on both theoretical and practical grounds. In this paper we draw on epistemological work on narrative and knowledge to develop a conception of narrative that responds to these concerns. We make a case for understanding narratives as accounts of events in which the way each event is described as influenced by the ways other events in (...)
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  22. Is Coronavirus an Object? Metametaphysics Meets Medical Sciences.Raoni Wohnrath Arroyo - 2020 - Voluntas: Revista Internacional de Filosofia 11 (7):01-08.
    In ontological terms, what can we learn from the current state of the art in Epidemiology? Applying the Quinean criterion of ontological commitment, we can learn that there are several fundamental entities for the theory to work. One is a virus type entity, in which the (in)famous Coronavirus is a particular case. In metaphysical terms, this entity can, in principle, be understood in several ways. One of those ways, apparently, and perhaps intuitively, is the notion of object. Applying the metametaphysical (...)
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  23. Evidence Amalgamation, Plausibility, and Cancer Research.Marta Bertolaso & Fabio Sterpetti - 2019 - Synthese 196 (8):3279-3317.
    Cancer research is experiencing ‘paradigm instability’, since there are two rival theories of carcinogenesis which confront themselves, namely the somatic mutation theory and the tissue organization field theory. Despite this theoretical uncertainty, a huge quantity of data is available thanks to the improvement of genome sequencing techniques. Some authors think that the development of new statistical tools will be able to overcome the lack of a shared theoretical perspective on cancer by amalgamating as many data as possible. We think instead (...)
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  24. Teaching, Learning, and "Doing": Ethics for the Clinic and the Future of Psychiatry.Rebecca Weintraub Brendel - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (3):195-197.
    Just over a decade ago, I began teaching medical students in the required preclinical course ethics and professionalism. The point of the course was to introduce basic ethical and professional norms through a small number of large group sessions, but mostly small group tutorials of 10 or 12 students engaging in weekly sessions combining readings from the literature and case scenarios highlighting real-life ethical tensions they either had, or would most likely, encounter in the future. The students wrote perceptively and (...)
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  25. Pere Grapí, Inspiring Air: A History of Air-Related Science. Wilmington: Vernon Press, 2019. Pp. Ix + 352. ISBN 1-62273-738-5. £44.00. [REVIEW]Nicholas Danne - 2019 - British Journal for the History of Science 52 (4):717-719.
    Greatly detailed history of design changes of the eudiometer; unfortunately the annotation on many diagrams is illegible.
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  26. Did Descartes Die of Poisoning?Theodor Ebert - 2019 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (2):142-185.
    The paper discusses the circumstances of the fatal illness and the death of René Descartes in 1650 at the French embassy in Stockholm. It considers the hitherto available evidence, in particular the main medical documents: two letters, the first written in Dutch by Descartes’ servant, Henri Schluter, the second written in Latin by the Dutch doctor Johann van Wullen. English translations of these two documents are given respectively in Appendix 1 and Appendix 3 of this paper. Other documents, letters by (...)
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  27. Fanti, S., Oyen, W., & Lalumera, E. (2019). Consensus Procedures in Oncological Imaging: The Case of Prostate Cancer.Stefano Fanti, Wim Oyen & Elisabetta Lalumera - 2019 - Cancers 11:1178-1190.
    Recently, there has been increasing interest in methodological aspects of advanced imaging, including the role of guidelines, recommendations, and experts’ consensus, the practice of self-referral, and the risk of diagnostic procedure overuse. In a recent Delphi study of the European Association for Nuclear Medicine (EANM), panelists were asked to give their opinion on 47 scientific questions about imaging in prostate cancer. Nine additional questions exploring the experts’ attitudes and opinions relating to the procedure of consensus building itself were also included. (...)
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  28. Scientific Ignorance.Manuela Fernández Pinto - 2019 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 34 (2):195-211.
    The aim of the paper is to clarify the concept of scientific ignorance: what is it, what are its sources, and when is it epistemically detrimental to science. While some sources of scientific ignorance come inevitably with the process of knowledge acquisition, others are deliberately created. The former includes selection processes, inductive reasoning, and cognitive biases, while the latter includes scientific fraud. Another important source of scientific ignorance appears when scientists introduce methodological biases through micro-decisions in the research process. I (...)
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  29. Sobre la polaridad simpatía-antipatía en la interpretación hipocrática de la phýsis humana.Ruy J. Henriquez Garrido - 2019 - Agora 38 (2).
    The purpose of this paper is studying the importance of the antithetical pair sympathy-antipathy, as an interpretive instrument of the human phýsis in the Hippocratic medical epistemology. His study aims to be a contribution to the understanding of the methods of inference developed by ancient medicine, in parallel to the demonstrative method.
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  30. The Importance of Learning Ethics for and From Psychiatrists: A Teacher–Trainee Reflection.Cynthia Geppert & Hammam Yahya - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (3):199-201.
    It is our privilege to be invited to write a commentary on the "Interface of Ethics and Psychiatry: A Philosophical Case Consultation on Psychiatric Ethics on the Ground." The article presents an innovative collaboration between a philosopher and a psychiatrist reasoning together through the ethical aspects of three clinical cases. The case consultation also offers a unique opportunity to reflect on the teaching of psychiatric ethics in clinical settings. This commentary explores those areas of the article from the perspective of (...)
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  31. Justice and Genes. [REVIEW]Adam Hayden - 2019 - Science 366 (6461):42.
  32. The Ideological Matrix of Science: Natural Selection and Immunity as Case Studies.Agustin Ostachuk - 2019 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 15 (1):182-213.
    The modern concept of ideology was established by the liberal politician and philosopher Destutt de Tracy, with the objective of creating an all-embracing and general science of ideas, which followed the sensualist and empiricist trend initiated by Locke that culminated in the positivism of Comte. Natural selection and immunity are two key concepts in the history of biology that were strongly based on the Malthusian concept of struggle for existence. This concept wrongly assumed that population grew faster than the means (...)
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  33. Psychiatry's Problem with Reductionism.Rebecca Roache - 2019 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 26 (3):219-229.
    Psychiatry uncomfortably spans biological, psychological, and social perspectives on mental illness. As a branch of medicine, psychiatry is under pressure to conform to a biomedical model, according to which diseases are characterized primarily in biological terms. But psychiatry also draws on the psychotherapeutic tradition, which explains mental distress in terms of life experience and social influences.These approaches ought to complement each other, but historically this has not happened. With no theory creating global, systematic links between the two approaches, psychiatry is (...)
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  34. Book-Review of V. Tripodi , Philosophy and Medicine, In: "Medicina E Storia", Vol. IX-X, 2016. [REVIEW]Davide Serpico - 2019 - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 10 (1):94-97.
  35. The Bloomsbury Companion to Philosophy of Psychiatry.Serife Tekin & Robyn Bluhm - 2019 - London: Bloomsbury.
    This book explores the central questions and themes lying at the heart of a vibrant area of philosophical inquiry. Aligning core issues in psychiatry with traditional philosophical areas, it presents a focused overview of the historical and contemporary problems dominating the philosophy of psychiatry. -/- Beginning with an introduction to research issues, it addresses what psychiatry is and distinguishes it from other areas of medical practice, other health care professions and psychology. With each section of the companion corresponding to a (...)
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  36. Il modello medico forte e i disturbi antisociali della personalità (Eng. The strong medical model and antisocial personality disorders)).Zdenka Brzović, Marko Jurjako & Luca Malatesti - 2018 - Sistemi Intelligenti 30 (1):175-188.
    Dominic Murphy in several influential publications has formulated and defended what he calls the strong medical model of mental illness. At the core of this project is the objectivist requirement of classifying mental illness in terms of their aetiologies, preferably characterised by multilevel mechanistic explanations of dysfunctions in neurocomputational processes. We are sympathetic to this project and we devise an argument to support it based on a conception of psychiatric kinds. Murphy has, moreover, maintained that there are some open issues (...)
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  37. Universal Etiology, Multifactorial Diseases and the Constitutive Model of Disease Classification.Jonathan Fuller - 2018 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 67:8-15.
  38. Evolution, Dysfunction, and Disease: A Reappraisal: Table 1.Paul E. Griffiths & John Matthewson - 2018 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 69 (2):301-327.
    Some ‘naturalist’ accounts of disease employ a biostatistical account of dysfunction, whilst others use a ‘selected effect’ account. Several recent authors have argued that the biostatistical account offers the best hope for a naturalist account of disease. We show that the selected effect account survives the criticisms levelled by these authors relatively unscathed, and has significant advantages over the BST. Moreover, unlike the BST, it has a strong theoretical rationale and can provide substantive reasons to decide difficult cases. This is (...)
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  39. The Case for a Meta-Nosological Investigation of Pragmatic Disease Definition and Classification.Jonathan Livingstone-Banks - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):1013-1018.
    Nosology is the science of defining and classifying diseases. Meta‐nosology is the study of how we do this, on what principles nosological practices are based, the quality of the resulting medical taxonomy, and primarily whether/how diseases can be defined better than they are now. In modern Western medicine, there are a wide variety of ways in which diseases are defined and categorized. Examples include by the symptoms they present with (syndromic), their underlying causes (etiological), the biological mechanisms involved (pathogenetic), available (...)
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  40. Advancing the Philosophy of Medicine: Towards New Topics and Sources.Thaddeus Metz & Chadwin Harris - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (3):281-288.
    The first part of a symposium devoted to Alex Broadbent's essay titled ‘Prediction, Understanding and Medicine’, this article notes the under-development of a variety of issues in the philosophy of medicine that transcend bioethics and the long-standing debates about the nature of health/illness and of evidence-based medicine. It also indicates the importance of drawing on non-Western, and particularly African, traditions in addressing these largely metaphysical and epistemological matters.
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  41. Bioethics and the Hypothesis of Extended Health.Nicolae Morar & Joshua August Skorburg - 2018 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 28 (3):341-376.
    Dominant views about the nature of health and disease in bioethics and the philosophy of medicine have presumed the existence of a fixed, stable, individual organism as the bearer of health and disease states, and as such, the appropriate target of medical therapy and ethical concern. However, recent developments in microbial biology, neuroscience, the philosophy of cognitive science, and social and personality psychology (Ickes...
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  42. The Evolution Concept: The Concept Evolution.Agustin Ostachuk - 2018 - Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 14 (3):354-378.
    This is an epistemologically-driven history of the concept of evolution. Starting from its inception, this work will follow the development of this pregnant concept. However, in contradistinction to previous attempts, the objective will not be the identification of the different meanings it adopted through history, but conversely, it will let the concept to be unfolded, to be explicated and to express its own inner potentialities. The underlying thesis of the present work is, therefore, that the path that leads to the (...)
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  43. Four Basic Concepts of Medicine in Kant and the Compound Yijing.Stephen R. Palmquist - 2018 - Journal of Wuxi Zhouyi 21 (June):31-40.
    This paper begins the last instalment of a six-part project correlating the key aspects of Kant’s architectonic conception of philosophy with a special version of the Chinese Book of Changes that I call the “Compound Yijing”, which arranges the 64 hexagrams (gua) into both fourfold and threefold sets. I begin by briefly summarizing the foregoing articles: although Kant and the Yijing employ different types of architectonic reasoning, the two systems can both be described in terms of three “levels” of elements. (...)
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  44. Renewing Medicine’s Basic Concepts: On Ambiguity.Joel Michael Reynolds - 2018 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 13 (1):8.
    In this paper, I argue that the concept of normality in medical research and clinical practice is inextricable from the concept of ambiguity. I make this argument in the context of Edmund Pellegrino's call for a renewed reflection on medicine’s basic concepts and by drawing on work in critical disability studies concerning Deafness and body integrity identity disorder. If medical practitioners and philosophers of medicine wish to improve their understanding of the meaning of medicine as well as its concrete practice, (...)
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  45. The Doctrine of Specific Etiology.Lauren N. Ross - 2018 - Biology and Philosophy 33 (5-6):37.
    Modern medicine is often said to have originated with nineteenth century germ theory, which attributed diseases to bacterial contagions. The success of this theory is often associated with an underlying principle referred to as the “doctrine of specific etiology”. This doctrine refers to specificity at the level of disease causation or etiology. While the importance of this doctrine is frequently emphasized in the philosophical, historical, and medical literature, these sources lack a clear account of the types of specificity that it (...)
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  46. Twierdzenie Bayesa w projektowaniu strategii diagnostycznych w medycynie.Tomasz Rzepiński - 2018 - Diametros 57:39-60.
    The paper will compare two methods used in the design of diagnostic strategies. The first one is a method that precises predictive value of diagnostic tests. The second one is based on the use of Bayes’ theorem. The main aim of this article is to identify the epistemological assumptions underlying both of these methods. For the purpose of this objective, example projects of one and multi-stage diagnostic strategy developed using both methods will be considered.
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  47. Modeling the Invention of a New Inference Rule: The Case of ‘Randomized Clinical Trial’ as an Argument Scheme for Medical Science.Jodi Schneider & Sally Jackson - 2018 - Argument and Computation 9 (2):77-89.
    A background assumption of this paper is that the repertoire of inference schemes available to humanity is not fixed, but subject to change as new schemes are invented or refined and as old ones are obsolesced or abandoned. This is particularly visible in areas like health and environmental sciences, where enormous societal investment has been made in finding ways to reach more dependable conclusions. Computational modeling of argumentation, at least for the discourse in expert fields, will require the possibility of (...)
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  48. Using Pharmaceuticals to Change Personality: Self-Transformation, Identity, and Authenticity.David DeGrazia - 2017 - In Dien Ho (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Pharmaceutics: Development, Dispensing, and Use. Springer.
    Opening with a vignette about Francis, who wants to use medications to achieve particular changes in his personality, the paper asks the following: whether his plan involves the use of a biomedical enhancement and, if so, whether this makes his plan morally problematic; whether his plan poses a threat to his identity in a problematic way; and whether his intentions are inauthentic. In response to, it is argued that Francis’ plan does involve biomedical enhancement on either of two plausible understandings (...)
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  49. Are We Prosaic Deep Inside?: Depression Memoirs, Resourceful Narratives, and the Biomedical Model of Depression.Anne E. Johnson - 2017 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 24 (4):299-301.
    In “Prozac or Prosaic Diaries?”, Ginger Hoffman and Jennifer Hansen examine gendered messages in popular depression memoirs, using narrative self-constitution theory to emphasize the damaging effects such messages can have on women readers. In doing so, they bring a welcome feminist perspective to matters of mental health, as well as raising thought-provoking questions about depression memoirs, a genre that can have a far-reaching impact on public opinions about mental illness. Overall, Hoffman and Hansen do an excellent job of explaining the (...)
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  50. Harm and the Concept of Medical Disorder.Neil Feit - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (5):367-385.
    According to Jerome Wakefield’s harmful dysfunction analysis of medical disorder, the inability of some internal part or mechanism to perform its natural function is necessary, but not sufficient, for disorder. HDA also requires that the part dysfunction be harmful to the individual. I consider several problems for HDA’s harm criterion in this article. Other accounts on which harm is necessary for disorder will suffer from all or almost all of these problems. Comparative accounts of harm imply that one is harmed (...)
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