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  1. added 2019-01-09
    Wiele twarzy konceptualizmu.Piotr Kozak - 2018 - Diametros 57:88-100.
  2. added 2018-12-05
    Emotional Intentionality and the Attitude-Content Distinction.Jonathan Mitchell - forthcoming - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly.
    Typical emotions share important features with paradigmatic intentional states, and therefore might admit of distinctions made in theory of intentionality. One such distinction is between attitude and content, where we can specify the content of an intentional state separately from its attitude, and therefore the same content can be taken up by different intentional attitudes. According to some philosophers, emotions do not admit of this distinction, although there has been no sustained argument for this claim. In this article, I argue (...)
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  3. added 2018-11-28
    Can Evaluativism About Unpleasant Pains Meet the Normative Condition?Jonathan Mitchell - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy:1-24.
    This paper assesses whether Evaluativism, as a view about the nature of unpleasant pains, can meet a specific normative condition. The normative condition says whatever candidate state is offered as an analysis of unpleasant pain should be intrinsically phenomenally bad for its subject to be in. I first articulate a method reflecting this condition, called the normative contrast method, and then frame Evaluativism in detail. The view is then tested through this method. I show that Evaluativism can explain why cases (...)
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  4. added 2018-10-07
    We Are Not Alone: Perception and The Others.Andrea Bucci - 2018 - Brainfactor:1-14.
    In this paper, I have outlined an original Metaphysics of Perception which takes into consideration some of the most common views about perception in the contemporary debate. Then I will look at the consequences of this metaphysics about our perception of others and what we know about them. In the third section, I suggest how to make sense of certain neuroscientific discoveries about social perception and social cognition. In the conclusion, I recap what has been done to say that others (...)
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  5. added 2018-09-10
    Hallucinating Real Things.Steven P. James - 2014 - Synthese 191 (15):3711-3732.
    No particular dagger was the object of Macbeth’s hallucination of a dagger. In contrast, when he hallucinated his former comrade Banquo, Banquo himself was the object of the hallucination. Although philosophers have had much to say about the nature and philosophical import of hallucinations (e.g. Macpherson and Platchias, Hallucination, 2013) and object-involving attitudes (e.g. Jeshion, New essays on singular thought, 2010), their intersection has largely been neglected. Yet, object-involving hallucinations raise interesting questions about memory, perception, and the ways in which (...)
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  6. added 2018-09-07
    Introduction: Toward a Theory of Attention That Includes Effortless Attention.Brian Bruya - 2010 - In Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
    In this Introduction, I identify seven discrete aspects of attention brought to the fore by by considering the phenomenon of effortless attention: effort, decision-making, action syntax, agency, automaticity, expertise, and mental training. For each, I provide an overview of recent research, identify challenges to or gaps in current attention theory with respect to it, consider how attention theory can be advanced by including current research, and explain how relevant chapters of this volume offer such advances.
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  7. added 2018-08-11
    Por que razão? – Razões para acreditar, para agir e para preferir.Brena Fernandez, Luís Veríssimo & Diana Couto - 2017 - Oporto, Portugal: Universidade do Porto.
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  8. added 2018-06-25
    Gesticulation as the Integration of Body and Mind-a Semantics of Nodding.Daihyun Chung - manuscript
    Human mind and human body have been separated from each other as belonging to familiar different categories. But what if we are supposed to admit a category of bodily posture? This is a paper to advance a thesis that mental content in bodily posture is a basis to integrate mind and body. First, what is the basis to claim that there is such a thing as a bodily posture? We humans all communicate each other not only through an ordinary language (...)
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  9. added 2018-05-30
    La libertad en la filosofía de la mente de John Rogers Searle.Pablo Emanuel García - 2014 - Eikasia. Revista de Filosofía 2014 (55):203-226.
    El artículo tiene como objetivo presentar y valorar críticamente la propuesta de John Rogers Searle sobre la libertad. Para esto, en un primer momento mostraremos que para él la libertad debe entenderse desde la perspectiva de la primera persona, es decir desde la experiencia subjetiva. Desde allí establece que la libertad se expresa en el llamado fenómeno de la brecha, es decir, en el salto que experimentamos entre la causa y el efecto en el proceso de realización de una acción. (...)
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  10. added 2018-03-27
    Mind: A Brief Introduction (by John Searle). [REVIEW]Rodrigo González - 2006 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 68 (2):403-5.
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  11. added 2018-03-27
    John Searle's Mind: A Brief Introduction. [REVIEW]Rodrigo González - 2006 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 68 (2):403-405.
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  12. added 2018-03-12
    Philosophy of Mind and Cognitive Science Since 1980.Elizabeth Schier & John Sutton - 2014 - In Graham Oppy & Nick Trakakis (eds.), History of Philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. New York: Springer.
    If Australasian philosophers constitute the kind of group to which a collective identity or broadly shared self-image can plausibly be ascribed, the celebrated history of Australian materialism rightly lies close to its heart. Jack Smart’s chapter in this volume, along with an outstanding series of briefer essays in A Companion to Philosophy in Australia and New Zealand (Forrest 2010; Gold 2010; Koksvik 2010; Lycan 2010; Matthews 2010; Nagasawa 2010; Opie 2010; Stoljar 2010a), effectively describe the naturalistic realism of Australian philosophy (...)
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  13. added 2018-03-09
    The Hybrid Contents of Memory.André Sant’Anna - forthcoming - Synthese.
    This paper proposes a novel account of the contents of memory. By drawing on insights from the philosophy of perception, I propose a hybrid account of the contents of memory designed to preserve important aspects of representationalist and relationalist views. The hybrid view I propose also contributes to two ongoing debates in philosophy of memory. First, I argue that, in opposition to eternalist views, the hybrid view offers a less metaphysically-charged solution to the co-temporality problem. Second, I show how the (...)
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  14. added 2018-03-09
    Thinking About Events: A Pragmatist Account of the Objects of Episodic Hypothetical Thought.André Sant’Anna & Kourken Michaelian - forthcoming - Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-31.
    The debate over the objects of episodic memory has for some time been stalled, with few alternatives to familiar forms of direct and indirect realism being advanced. This paper moves the debate forward by building on insights from the recent psychological literature on memory as a form of episodic hypothetical thought (or mental time travel) and the recent philosophical literature on relationalist and representationalist approaches to perception. The former suggests that an adequate account of the objects of episodic memory will (...)
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  15. added 2018-03-05
    Anton Wilhelm Amo: The African Philosopher in 18th Europe.Dwight Lewis - 2018 - Blog of The American Philosophical Association.
    Anton Wilhelm Amo (c. 1700 – c. 1750) – born in West Africa, enslaved, and then gifted to the Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel – became the first African to earn a Ph.D. in philosophy at a European university. He went on to teach philosophy at the Universities of Halle and Jena. On the 16th of April, 1734, at the University of Wittenberg, he defended his dissertation, De Humanae Mentis Apatheia (On the Impassivity of the Human Mind), in which Amo investigates the (...)
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  16. added 2018-02-22
    Dualistic Interaction, Neural Dependence, and Aquinas’s Composite View.Eric F. Larock - 2001 - Philosophia Christi 3 (2):459-472.
    I explicate the Churchland's dualistic interaction and neural dependence objections to Cartesian dualism and argue that Aquinas’s conception of Aristotelian hylomorphism provides a way out of those objections. -/- .
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  17. added 2018-02-18
    The Unsolvability of the Mind-Body Problem Liberates the Will.Scheffel Jan - manuscript
    The mind-body problem is analyzed in a physicalist perspective. By combining the concepts of emergence and algorithmic information theory in a thought experiment employing a basic nonlinear process, it is argued that epistemically strongly emergent properties may develop in a physical system. A comparison with the significantly more complex neural network of the brain shows that also consciousness is epistemically emergent in a strong sense. Thus reductionist understanding of consciousness appears not possible; the mind-body problem does not have a reductionist (...)
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  18. added 2018-02-17
    Natural Minds.Thomas Polger - 2004 - Bradford.
    In Natural Minds Thomas Polger advocates, and defends, the philosophical theory that mind equals brain -- that sensations are brain processes -- and in doing so brings the mind-brain identity theory back into the philosophical debate about consciousness. The version of identity theory that Polger advocates holds that conscious processes, events, states, or properties are type- identical to biological processes, events, states, or properties -- a "tough-minded" account that maintains that minds are necessarily indentical to brains, a position held by (...)
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  19. added 2018-02-17
    Work Down the Minds: A Sketch of Contemporary Philosophy of Mind.Samuel Guttenplan - 1996 - Critica 28 (82):67-107.
    In the article, I set out to outline the state of play in contemporary philosophy of mind. Given the wide range of issues and contributions which now make up the subject, the article sketches only some of the main areas of investigation, and their interconnections without attempting to give a complete listing of the positions (and arguments for them) within these areas.
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  20. added 2018-02-16
    Knowing What It is Like and Testimony.Yuri Cath - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-16.
    It is often said that ‘what it is like’-knowledge cannot be acquired by consulting testimony or reading books [Lewis 1998; Paul 2014; 2015a]. However, people also routinely consult books like What It Is Like to Go to War [Marlantes 2014], and countless ‘what it is like’ articles and youtube videos, in the apparent hope of gaining knowledge about what it is like to have experiences they have not had themselves. This article examines this puzzle and tries to solve it by (...)
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  21. added 2018-02-16
    The Philosophy of Autism.Jami L. Anderson & Simon Cushing (eds.) - 2012 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book examines autism from the tradition of analytic philosophy, working from the premise that Autism Spectrum Disorders raise interesting philosophical questions that need to be and can be addressed in a manner that is clear, jargon-free, and accessible. The goal of the original essays in this book is to provide a philosophically rich analysis of issues raised by autism and to afford dignity and respect to those impacted by autism by placing it at the center of the discussion.
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  22. added 2018-02-16
    Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Mind.Brian P. McLaughlin & Jonathan Cohen (eds.) - 2007 - Wiley-Blackwell.
  23. added 2018-02-16
    Rediscovering Empathy: Agency, Folk Psychology, and the Human Sciences.Karsten Stueber - 2006 - Bradford.
    In this timely and wide-ranging study, Karsten Stueber argues that empathy is epistemically central for our folk-psychological understanding of other agents--that it is something we cannot do without in order to gain understanding of other minds. Setting his argument in the context of contemporary philosophy of mind and the interdisciplinary debate about the nature of our mindreading abilities, Stueber counters objections raised by some in the philosophy of social science and argues that it is time to rehabilitate the empathy thesis.Empathy, (...)
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  24. added 2018-01-21
    Information-Theoretic Philosophy of Mind.Jason Winning & William Bechtel - 2016 - In Luciano Floridi (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 347-360.
  25. added 2018-01-17
    Przewodnik po filozofii umysłu.Marcin Miłkowski & Robert Poczobut (eds.) - 2012 - Kraków: W.A.M..
    A companion to the issues in the contemporary philosophy of mind.
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  26. added 2017-12-26
    The Collapse Argument.Joseph Gottlieb - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (1):1-20.
    We can divide philosophical theories of consciousness into two main camps: First-Order theories and Higher-Order theories. Like all Higher-Order theories, many First-Order theories are mentalistic theories of consciousness: they attempt to reduce a mental state’s being consciousness using mental (but non-phenomenal) terms, such as being available to certain cognitive centers. I argue that mentalistic First-Order theories, once fully cashed out, collapse into some form of Higher-Order theory. I contend that not only is there general considerations in favor of this conclusion, (...)
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  27. added 2017-12-03
    Attention, Not Self.Jonardon Ganeri - 2017 - Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Jonardon Ganeri presents a radically reoriented account of mind, to which attention is the key. It is attention, not self, that explains the experiential and normative situatedness of humans in the world. Ganeri draws together three disciplines: analytic philosophy and phenomenology, cognitive science and psychology, and Buddhist thought.
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  28. added 2017-11-27
    New Waves in Philosophy of Mind.Mark Sprevak & Jesper Kallestrup (eds.) - 2014 - London: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    Philosophy of mind is one of the core disciplines in philosophy. The questions that it deals with are profound, vexed and intriguing. This volume of 15 new cutting-edge essays gives young researchers a chance to stir up new ideas. The essays cover a wide range of topics, including the nature of consciousness, cognition, and action. A common theme in the essays is that the future of philosophy of mind lies in judicious use of resources from related fields, including epistemology, metaphysics, (...)
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  29. added 2017-11-23
    Mental Files, Concepts, and Bodies of Information.Poong Shil Lee - 2018 - Synthese 195 (8):3499-3518.
    In this paper, I argue that mental files are both concepts and bodies of information, against the existing views proposed by Fodor and Recanati. Fodor argues that mental files are not concepts but memories of information because concepts are mental symbols. However, Fodor’s argument against the identification of mental files with concepts fails. Recanati disagrees with Fodor and argues that mental files are concepts. But Recanati’s view does not differ essentially from Fodor’s because Recanati holds that mental files are simple (...)
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  30. added 2017-10-09
    A questão do livre-arbítrio em John R. Searle: uma contraposição do naturalismo biológico ao fisicalismo e ao funcionalismo.Daniel P. Nunes & Everaldo Cescon - 2015 - Cognitio-Estudos 12 (2):179-190.
    This paper compares the theses of physicalism and functionalism – particularly the computacionalist line – with the biological naturalism of John Searle regarding the possibility of free will. In such contrast, each line is decomposed into its statements so that they can be reviewed. It is argued that the searlean biological naturalism can explain more than the other two philosophies on how free action can have the source of its motivation in what is external to the mental state that makes (...)
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  31. added 2017-09-14
    Materie Und Geist. Eine Philosophische Untersuchung [Matter and Mind. A Philosophical Investigation]. [REVIEW]Jôrg Schirra - 2007 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 28 (1).
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  32. added 2017-09-12
    THE HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE OF HUMAN COGNITION AND COMMUNNICATION: A COGNITIVE SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE OF THE UPANISHADS AND INDIAN PHILOSOPHICAL SYSTEMS.R. B. Varanasi Varanasi Varanasi Ramabrahmam, Ramabrahmam Varanasi, V. Ramabrahmam - 2016 - Science and Scientist Conference.
    The comprehensive nature of information and insight available in the Upanishads, the Indian philosophical systems like the Advaita Philosophy, Sabdabrahma Siddhanta, Sphota Vaada and the Shaddarsanas, in relation to the idea of human consciousness, mind and its functions, cognitive science and scheme of human cognition and communication are presented. All this is highlighted with vivid classification of conscious-, cognitive-, functional- states of mind; by differentiating cognition as a combination of cognitive agent, cognizing element, cognized element; formation; form and structure of (...)
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  33. added 2017-07-09
    Mind in a Physical World. [REVIEW]Henry Jackman - 2000 - Teaching Philosophy 23 (3):277-279.
  34. added 2017-07-06
    Love as a Disposition.Hichem Naar - forthcoming - In Christopher Grau & Aaron Smuts (eds.), Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Love. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter proposes that the question “What is love?” be given an ontological treatment. Rather than asking whether love can be identified with a familiar mental phenomenon (desire, emotion, etc.), it suggests that we should first ask what kind of phenomenon love is, where a kind should here be understood as the most general category to which a given phenomenon belongs, an inquiry that is largely missing from contemporary discussions about love. After motivating this project, the chapter discusses and rejects (...)
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  35. added 2017-07-06
    Process Philosophy and the Emergent Theory of Mind: Whitehead, Lloyd Morgan and Schelling.Arran Gare - 2002 - Concrescence 3:1-12.
    Attempts to ‘naturalize’ phenomenology challenge both traditional phenomenology and traditional approaches to cognitive science. They challenge Edmund Husserl’s rejection of naturalism and his attempt to establish phenomenology as a foundational transcendental discipline, and they challenge efforts to explain cognition through mainstream science. While appearing to be a retreat from the bold claims made for phenomenology, it is really its triumph. Naturalized phenomenology is spearheading a successful challenge to the heritage of Cartesian dualism. This converges with the reaction against Cartesian thought (...)
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  36. added 2017-05-26
    Máquinas sin engranajes y cuerpos sin mentes. ¿cuán dualista es el funcionalismo de máquina de Turing?Rodrigo González - 2011 - Revista de Filosofía 67:183-200.
    En este trabajo examino cómo el Funcionalismo de Máquina de Turing resulta compatible con una forma de dualismo, lo que aleja a la IA clásica o fuerte del materialismo que la inspiró originalmente en el siglo XIX. Para sostener esta tesis, argumento que efectivamente existe una notable cercanía entre el pensamiento cartesiano y dicho funcionalismo, ya que el primero afirma que es concebible/posible separar mente y cuerpo, mientras que el segundo sostiene que no es estrictamente necesario que los estados mentales (...)
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  37. added 2017-05-23
    Descartes: Las intuiciones modales y la inteligencia artificial clásica.Rodrigo González - 2011 - Alpha (Osorno) 32:181-198.
    Descartes niega que una máquina pueda ser inteligente, pues los mecanismos son predecibles, inflexibles y limitados. Los seguidores de la Inteligencia Artificial clásica (o IA fuerte) argumentan lo contrario. Pese a esto, Descartes y la IA proponen que la mente podría no estar adscrita a propiedades físicas, posibilidad explorada por el primero a partir de una intuición modal que separa mente y cuerpo. La IA fuerte se acerca a esta tesis cuando reduce la mente a una Máquina de Turing cuya (...)
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  38. added 2017-05-04
    Dos Criterios Para la Presencia de Estados Mentales: Descartes y Turing.Rodrigo González - 2016 - Cinta de Moebio 56:159-171.
    En este artículo examino dos criterios para la existencia de estados mentales, el de Descartes y el de Turing. Mientras que el primero plantea que las máquinas no pueden pensar en principio, el segundo defiende la inteligencia de máquina. Pese a esto, ambos parecen coincidir en que la decisión sobre la presencia de estados mentales es tomada por alguien que juzga internamente la misma. Si bien ello es esperable del racionalismo cartesiano, en el funcionalismo de Turing es sorprendente. En efecto, (...)
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  39. added 2017-04-13
    The Causal History of Computational Activity: Maudlin and Olympia.Eric Barnes - 1991 - Journal of Philosophy 88 (6):304.
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  40. added 2017-03-30
    (Meta-Philosophy) There is No Thing Such as Mind/Consciousness.Ulrich de Balbian - forthcoming - Oxford: Academic Publishers.
    https://www.academia.edu/32135680/There_is_no_such_things_as_Mind_or_Consciousness -/- ABSTRACT The introduction presents merely roughly‭ (‬as they undergo change all the time‭) ‬the contemporary,‭ ‬insular,‭ ‬Anglo-Phone speculations‭ (‬supposedly by means of the discourse of philosophy and the socio-cultural practice of philosophizing‭) ‬about notions of consciousness and mind. -/- These,‭ ‬almost epistemological solipsistic,‭ ‬self-centered and anthropo-centered,‭ ‬restricted speculations about the notions of mind and consciousness are made by means of cognitively biased metaphysical,‭ ‬ontological,‭ ‬epistemological and methodological assumptions and selective interpretations of the nature and the doing of philosophy.‭ (...)
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  41. added 2017-03-23
    The Myth of the Closed Mind: Understanding Why and How People Are Rational.Ray Scott Percival - 2012 - Chicago: Open Court Publishing Company.
    It’s often claimed that some people—fundamentalists or fanatics—are indeed sealed off from rational criticism. And every month new pop psychology books appear, describing the dumb ways ordinary people make decisions, as revealed by psychological experiments. The conclusion is that all or most people are fundamentally irrational. -/- Ray Scott Percival sets out to demolish the whole notion of the closed mind and of human irrationality. There is a difference between making mistakes and being irrational. Though humans are prone to mistakes, (...)
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  42. added 2017-03-18
    Philosophy of Mind: An Introduction.George Graham - 1994 - Behavior and Philosophy 22 (1):75-77.
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  43. added 2017-03-16
    The Ontology of Intentional Agency in Light of Neurobiological Determinism: Philosophy Meets Folk Psychology.Dhar Sharmistha - 2017 - Journal of Indian Council of Philosophical Research 34 (1):129-149.
    The moot point of the Western philosophical rhetoric about free will consists in examining whether the claim of authorship to intentional, deliberative actions fits into or is undermined by a one-way causal framework of determinism. Philosophers who think that reconciliation between the two is possible are known as metaphysical compatibilists. However, there are philosophers populating the other end of the spectrum, known as the metaphysical libertarians, who maintain that claim to intentional agency cannot be sustained unless it is assumed that (...)
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  44. added 2017-03-09
    Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century-Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization 2nd Ed. (2018).Starks Michael (ed.) - 2018 - Las Vegas ,NV, USA: Reality Press.
    This collection of articles was written over the last 10 years and edited to bring them up to date (2018). All the articles are about human behavior (as are all articles by anyone about anything), and so about the limitations of having a recent monkey ancestry (8 million years or much less depending on viewpoint) and manifest words and deeds within the framework of our innate psychology as presented in the table of intentionality. As famous evolutionist Richard Leakey says, it (...)
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  45. added 2017-03-08
    Utopian Social Delusions in the 21st Century.Starks Michael - 2017 - Henderson,NV, USA: Michael Starks.
    This collection of articles was written over the last 10 years and edited them to bring them up to date (2017). All the articles are about human behavior (as are all articles by anyone about anything), and so about the limitations of having a recent monkey ancestry (8 million years or much less depending on viewpoint) and manifest words and deeds within the framework of our innate psychology as presented in the table of intentionality. As famous evolutionist Richard Leakey says, (...)
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  46. added 2017-03-07
    Skeuomorphic Reassurance: Personhood, Dementia, and Gerontechnology.David Kreps - 2016 - In David Kreps, Gordon Fletcher & Marie Griffiths (eds.), Technology and Intimacy: Choice or Coercion. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International. pp. 61-71.
    This paper introduces the concept of ‘skeuomorphic reassurance’ as a guiding principle for human interfaces in technological development and design, particularly for older people and people with dementia (PwD). Skeuomorphs exhibit decorative design elements reminiscent of ‘parent’ objects that incorporated such design elements because they were structurally integral. Human interfaces adopted by new technologies need to be carefully balanced between novelty and recognisability. -/- The philosophy of personhood is discussed in the context of dementia, concluding that the subjective character of (...)
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  47. added 2017-03-07
    Christian Theology and the Mind-World Relationship.Paul A. Macdonald Jr - 2010 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 84 (1):1-23.
    In this article, I explore how orthodox Christian theology informs a philosophical understanding of the mind-world relationship. First, I contend that the Christian doctrine of creation entails that the world possesses an intrinsic rationality and intelligibility. I then go on to show how three different views of the mind-world relationship are compatible with this fact about the world: (a) realism, (b) idealism, and (c) fallibilism. I also delineate the strengths of each view, in terms of how well each view comports (...)
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  48. added 2017-03-03
    Can Cartesian Mind Survive?Masako Ota - 2011 - Kagaku Tetsugaku 44 (1):75-90.
    In Kagaku no Sekai to Kokoro no Tetsugaku, Mr.Michio Kobayashi features on Descartes' theory of minds as "subjecitive-active consciousness", and defends it against the materialist movement. I show that Kobayashi's method has a difficulty for defending existence of our minds because Descartes didn't allow the scientific investigation of our mental experience from outside,and so cannot appropriately grasp the significance of other minds.
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  49. added 2017-02-06
    Subject, Thought, and Context by Philip Pettit and John McDowell, Eds. [REVIEW]Christopher S. Hill - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (2):106-112.
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  50. added 2017-01-26
    First Philosophy: God, Mind, and Freedom: Fundamental Problems and Readings in Philosophy.Andrew R. Bailey (ed.) - 2004 - Broadview Press.
    First Philosophy : God, Mind, and Freedom brings together classic and ground-breaking readings on metaphysics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of religion. Mindful of the intrinsic difficulty of much of the material, the editor has provided comprehensive introductions both to the central topics and to each individual selection. By providing a detailed discussion of the historical and intellectual background to each piece, he aims to enable readers to approach the material without unnecessary barriers to understanding. In an introductory (...)
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