Philosophy of Mind

Edited by David Bourget and David Chalmers
Assistant editor: Chang Liu (University of Western Ontario, University of Western Ontario)
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  1. The Only Path to Tomorrow.Ayn Rand - unknown
    Totalitarianism is collectivism. Collectivism means the subjugation of the individual to a group — whether to a race, class or state does not matter. Collectivism holds that man must be chained to collective action and collective thought for the sake of what is called ``the common good.´´.
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  2. Mind in Objectivism.Ayn Rand - forthcoming - Philosophy.
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  3. Some Convergences and Divergences in the Realism of Charles Peirce and Ayn Rand.Marc Champagne - 2006 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 8 (1):19-39.
    Structured around Charles S. Peirce's three-fold categorical scheme, this article proposes a comparative study of Ayn Rand and Peirce's realist views in general metaphysics. Rand's stance is seen as diverging with Peirce's argument from asymptotic representation but converging with arguments from brute relation and neutral category. It is argued that, by dismissing traditional subject-object dualisms, Rand and Peirce both propose iconoclastic construals of what it means to be real, dismissals made all the more noteworthy by the fact each chose to (...)
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  4. Ayn Rand and the Cognitive Revolution in Psychology.Robert L. Campbell - 1999 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 1 (1):107-134.
    ROBERT L. CAMPBELL explains how Ayn Rand 's epistemology drew on ideas and findings from the Cognitive Revolution, the change in American psychology during the 1950' s that re-established mental processes as an object of study and overthrew behaviorism. Particularly noticeable is Rand 's reliance on George Miller's conclusions regarding limited cognitive capacity, and her broad agreement with Noam Chomsky's devastating critique of B. F. Skinner 's behaviorism. Both Rand 's points of contact-and differences-with the Cognitive Revolution are discussed. Once (...)
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  5. Human Nature, Flourishing, and Happiness: Toward a Synthesis of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand's Objectivism.Edward Younkins - 2010 - Libertarian Papers 2:35.
    This article presents a skeleton of a potential paradigm of human flourishing and happiness in a free society. It is an exploratory attempt to construct an understanding from various disciplines and to integrate them into a clear, consistent, coherent, and systematic whole. Holding that there are essential interconnections among objective ideas, the article specifically emphasizes the compatibility of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, Positive Psychology, and Ayn Rand’s Objectivism arguing that particular ideas from these areas can be integrated into a paradigm of (...)
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  6. Flourishing & Happiness in a Free Society: Toward a Synthesis of Aristotelianism, Austrian Economics, and Ayn Rand's Objectivism.Edward W. Younkins - 2011 - Upa.
    This book emphasizes the compatibility of Aristotelianism, Austrian economics, and Ayn Rand's Objectivism, arguing that particular ideas from these areas can be integrated as a potential paradigm of human flourishing and happiness in a free society. It constructs an understanding from various disciplines into a clear, consistent, and systematic whole.
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  7. Understanding Objectivism: A Guide to Learning Ayn Rand's Philosophy of Objectivism.Leonard Peikoff - 2012 - New American Library.
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  8. What About Suicide Bombers? A Terse Response to a Terse Objection.Marc Champagne - 2011 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 11 (2):233–236.
    Stressing that the pronoun "I" picks out one and only one person in the world (i.e., me), I argue against Hunt (and other like-minded Rand commentators) that the supposed "hard case" of destructive people who do not care for their own lives poses no special difficulty for rational egoism. I conclude that the proper response to a terse objection like "What about suicide bombers?" is the equally terse assertion "But I don't want to get blown up.".
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  9. Axiomatizing Umwelt Normativity.Marc Champagne - 2011 - Sign Systems Studies 39 (1):9-59.
    Prompted by the thesis that an organism’s umwelt possesses not just a descriptive dimension, but a normative one as well, some have sought to annex semiotics with ethics. Yet the pronouncements made in this vein have consisted mainly in rehearsing accepted moral intuitions, and have failed to concretely further our knowledge of why or how a creature comes to order objects in its environment in accordance with axiological charges of value or disvalue. For want of a more explicit account, theorists (...)
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  10. Objectivism and the Corruption of Rationality.Scott Ryan - 2003 - Writers Club Press.
    Ayn Rand presented Objectivism as a philosophy of reason. But is it? That is the question Scott Ryan seeks to answer in this careful examination of the Objectivist epistemology and its alleged sufficiency as the philosophical foundation of a free and prosperous commonwealth. Sorting painstakingly through Rand’s writings on the subject, Mr. Ryan concludes that the epistemology of Objectivism is incoherent and debases both the concept and the practice of rationality.
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  11. The Puzzle of Music and Emotion in Rand's Aesthetics.Randall R. Dipert - 2001 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 2 (2):387 - 394.
    Randall R. Dipert argues that, at first glance, Rand's view of representational arts, such as literature and the visual arts, might seem to have little applicability to pure music. Nevertheless, Rand took music without words as a serious art form, and struggled to develop a plausible theory of music. As Torres and Kamhi note in What Art Is, Rand's approach probably contradicted certain elements of her full aesthetic theory. But her theory of music and its relationship to emotions offers some (...)
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  12. Reply to William Dwyer: Free Will Reconsidered.Tibor R. Machan - 2002 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 4 (1):215 - 220.
    Tibor R. Machan argues that William Dwyer's review of his book, Initiative: Human Agency and S odety (The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, Fall 2001), assumes that compatibilism is coherent. Machan argues that compatibilism is simply hard determinism with some soft edges but as such it is not coherent. In light of this, the agent-causation-based thesis of human initiative (or freedom of the human will) that Machan defends is superior to its alternatives.
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  13. Implied Epistemology, Epistemology of the Implicit.Robert L. Campbell - 2000 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 2 (1):211-219.
    ROBERT L. CAMPBELL replies to commentary on his article, "Ayn Rand and the Cognitive Revolution in Psychology" . He comments briefly on Richard Shedenhelm's historical analysis of the "counting crows" experiment. He agrees with Barry Vacker's view that nonlinear dynamics are required in any analysis of skill and implicit knowledge, but contends that Rand's explicit epistemological formulations exclude these dynamics and prevent her from offering an adequate treatment of the implicit. Campbell also responds to Will Thomas's comments made in the (...)
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  14. Rejoinder to George Lyons and Tibor R. Machan: Free Will and Determinism.William Dwyer - 2002 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 4 (1):221 - 230.
    William Dwyer responds to the comments of George Lyons and Tibor R. Machan on his review of Machan's Initiative (Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, Fall 2001). Dwyer reiterates points in his initial review, stressing the need to understand choice within a larger causal context.
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  15. Where Were the Counting Crows?Richard Shedenheim - 2000 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 2 (1):189-195.
    RICHARD SHEDENHELM responds to Robert Campbell's essay, "Ayn Rand and the Cognitive Revolution in Psychology" . He identifies the most likely source of the crow-counting experiment cited at the beginning of chapter seven of Ayn Rand's Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology. He finds that the crow study was not at all an experiment, but instead an anecdotal account dating from the eighteenth-century French writer of animal behavior, Charles-Georges Leroy.
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  16. Mind, Introspection, and "The Objective".Roger E. Bissell - 2008 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 10 (1):3 - 84.
    In this sequel to his essay "Ayn Rand and The Objective'" (JARS, Fall 2007), the author warns against "the seduction of 'the basic"' and uses ideas by Efron, Peikoff, and Aristotle to argue that introspection and mental data (including mind) are objective and that causal efficacy of mind and mind-body interaction only make sense if mind is conceived of not as an attribute, but as an entity (viz., the conscious human brain). None of this, however, implies Epiphenomenalism or that consciousness (...)
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  17. Integrating Mind and Body.Matthew Stoloff - 2004 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 6 (1):145 - 152.
    Objectivism holds that there is no mind-body dichotomy. Unfortunately, many fitness enthusiasts fail to adopt a rational fitness program. This article highlights champion bodybuilder Mike Mentzer's application of Objectivist principles to integrating mind and body. In his books, Ayn Rand's influence on Mentzer's understanding of the science of bodybuilding is clear and incontrovertible. Since Mentzer became an outspoken advocate of Rand's philosophy in the early 1990s, publishing books and numerous articles in several bodybuilding magazines, his impact in the health fitness (...)
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  18. Goals, Values, and the Implicit: Explorations in Psychological Ontology.Robert L. Campbell - 2002 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 3 (2):289 - 327.
    Robert L. Campbell examines Ayn Rand's handling of the distinction between implicit and explicit knowledge. Using interactivist developmental psychology, he shows how human knowledge and goals develop through a hierarchy of knowing levels, and elaborates a significant differentiation between what is subconsciously known or believed and what is merely implied. He applies these distinctions to three problem areas in Rand's treatment of the implicit: the notion of a "pre-moral" choice to live, the peculiar status of implicit concepts, and Rand's ambivalence (...)
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  19. If "Emotions Are Not Tools of Cognition," What Are They?: An Exploration of the Relationship Between Reason and Emotion.Marsha Familaro Enright - 2002 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 4 (1):25 - 67.
    Marsha Familaro Enright discusses the commonly accepted view in Objectivism that "emotions are not tools of cognition," i.e., that one cannot and should not use emotions in one's reasoning process. Ayn Rand's views on emotions are extensively examined and evaluated in light of common experience and current scientific evidence. The author draws on neuropsychological as well as other scientific evidence to more precisely define the relation between reason and emotion, and she examines Rand's premises in light of the evidence.
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  20. Reply to Campbell: Where Were the Counting Crows?Richard Shedenhelm - 2000 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 2 (1):189 - 195.
    Richard Shedenhelm responds to Robert Campbell's essay, "Ayn Rand and the Cognitive Revolution in Psychology" (Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, Fall 1999). He identifies the most likely source of the crow-counting experiment cited at the beginning of chapter seven of Ayn Rand's Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology. He finds that the crow study was not at all an experiment, but instead an anecdotal account dating from the eighteenth-century French writer of animal behavior, Charles-Georges Leroy.
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  21. Reason, Emotion, and the Importance of Philosophy.Wayne A. Davis - 2002 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 4 (1):1-23.
    Wayne A. Davis uses his theory of happiness to clarify and deepen Rand's theory of emotion. He distinguishes belief from knowledge, volitive from appetitive desire, and occurrent thinking from believing. He suggests that values in Rand's sense are things we volitively desire. Happiness is defined in terms of the sum of the products of the degree of belief and desire functions over all thoughts. Davis then evaluates such Randian maxims as that happiness cannot be achieved by the pursuit of irrational (...)
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  22. Objectivism: On Stage and Self Destructive. [REVIEW]Karen Michalson - 2004 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 5 (2):469 - 478.
    Michalson reviews Sky Gilbert's play, The Emotionalists. She reads Gilbert's play as an exploration of the tragic effects of Objectivism on individuals who wholeheartedly embrace Rand's philosophy before finding that they cannot live up to all of its demands. She focuses on the character of Marcel Pin, a closeted gay man who destroys his very self in a startling attempt to conform his life to Objectivist ideals.
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  23. To Think or Not: A Structural Resolution to the Mind-Body and Free Will-Determinism Problem.Neil K. Goodell - 2007 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 9 (1):1-51.
    The mind - body and free will - determinism problem is presented as an instance of the more general top-down versus bottom-up process model. The construct of a metaphysical hierarchy consisting of 3 levels is introduced, with each level governed by emergent, non-overlapping fundamental causal forces. Rand's theories of epistemology, language, and volition are shown to be inherently circular and impossible to be true. The concepts of metaphysical identity and epistemological identity are introduced. Metaphysics and epistemology are recharacterized in exclusively (...)
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  24. Art: What a Concept.John Enright - 2001 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 2 (2):341 - 359.
    John Enright examines difficulties in Rand's concept of art, particularly in light of fundamental issues raised about architecture by Torres and Kamhi in their book, What Art Is. Neither architecture nor music presents a "re-creation" in the narrow sense of the term. Rand insists at times that art cannot involve utilitarian function, but elsewhere sees such functions as compatible with aesthetic effect. Enright argues for the aesthetic power of architecture. In evaluating an alternative definition of art, he views the concept (...)
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  25. Self-as-Organism and Sense of Self: Toward a Differential Conception.Andrew Schwartz - 2007 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 9 (1):93 - 111.
    This article proposes that Rand's identification of self with mind is at odds with an approach to self that would optimally recognize and honor the integrated nature of mind and body. The article seeks to demonstrate the logic and value of identifying the self with the whole organism, and proposes that differentiating the self from the sense of self is crucial to developing objectivity of self-understanding and a skillful lifestyle.
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  26. Reply to Ari Armstrong's "A Direct Realist's Challenge to Skepticism" (Spring 2004): How to Be a Perceptual Realist.Michael Huemer - 2005 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 7 (1):229 - 237.
    In response to Ari Armstrong's essay, "A Direct Realist's Challenge to Skepticism," Huemer defends his views on two issues concerning the nature of perception, against the Objectivist position: First, he argues that perceptual experiences have propositional but nonconceptual content; second, he argues that in perceptual illusions, the senses misrepresent their objects. He finds that the Objectivist view that perception cannot misrepresent because it lacks propositional content not only is absurd but opens the door to philosophical skepticism.
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  27. Direct Realism and Causation.Ari Armstrong - 2005 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 7 (1).
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  28. Mistaken Identity: Long's Conflation of Dialectics and Organicism.Roger E. Bissell - 2002 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 3 (2).
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  29. Flourishing Objectivism. [REVIEW]Lester Hunt - 2000 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 2 (1):105 - 115.
    Lester Hunt reviews Tara Smith's Viable Values: A Study of the Root and Reward of Morality. He finds it an excellent contribution to the ongoing discussion of Objectivist ethics. Especially noteworthy, he says, are Smith's treatment of the concept of intrinsic value, her use of the concept of flourishing, and her treatment of the relations between the interests of different people. Though the book provides no sustained discussion of casuistical applications, epistemological assumptions, or potentially interesting side-issues, it raises many provocative (...)
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  30. Second Thoughts.Carolyn Ray - 2003 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 4 (2).
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  31. Unrugged Individualism: The Selfish Basis of Benevolence.Tibor R. Machan - 2000 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 1 (2).
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  32. Reply to Fred Seddon, "Recent Writings on Ethics" (Spring 2007): On Behalf of Ethical Intuitionism.Michael Huemer - 2007 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 9 (1):181 - 184.
    This is a response by the author of Ethical Intuitionism to criticisms raised by Fred Seddon (Jars, Spring 2007). Among other things, Huemer observes that his attack on ethical reductionism does not depend upon excluding relational properties from consideration at the start; that he does not claim that all philosophers are intuitionists; and that Objectivism is susceptible to the general arguments he discusses against the possibility of deriving an "ought" from an "is".
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  33. Readings on Human Nature.Peter Loptson (ed.) - 1998 - Broadview Press.
    This anthology brings together 45 selections by a wide range of philosophers and other thinkers, and provides a representative sampling of the approaches to the study of human nature that have been taken within the western tradition. The selections range in time from the ancient Greeks to the 1990s, and in political orientation from the conservative individualism of Ayn Rand to the liberalism of John Rawls. Classic writings from the sixteenth through nineteenth centuries are here (Descartes, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Rousseau, and (...)
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  34. Free Will and Determinism.William Dwyer - 2002 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 4 (1).
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  35. Life, Death, Renewal.Chris Matthew Sciabarra - 2014 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 14 (1):1-4.
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  36. The Fiction of Corporate Scapegoating.P. Eddy Wilson - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (10):779 - 784.
    If the agent responsible for an action is to be given praise or blame by the moral community for that action, then accurate responsibility ascriptions must be made. Since the moral community may have to evaluate the actions of corporate agents, care must be taken to insure that the assumption of Methodological Individualism (MI) does not infect that process. Nevertheless, there is no guarantee that accurate responsibility ascriptions will be made in cases connected with corporate action as long as corporate (...)
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  37. Do Knowledge, Ethics, and Liberty Require Free Will? [REVIEW]William Dwyer - 2001 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 3 (1):83 - 108.
    William Dwyer reviews Initiative: Human Agency and Society, in which Tibor Machan argues that free will is a prerequisite for knowledge, ethics, and political liberty. Machan criticizes Hayek, Stigler, and "public choice" economics for their economic determinism and for discounting the importance of abstract ideas. Despite making a good case against environmental and economic determinism, Machan fails adequately to defend his central thesis that free will exists and that it is required for normative values.
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  38. How to Be a Perceptual Realist.Michael Huemer - 2005 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 7 (1).
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  39. Free Will Reconsidered.Tibor R. Machan - 2002 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 4 (1).
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  40. The Peikovian Doctrine of the Arbitrary Assertion.Robert L. Campbell - 2008 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 10 (1):85-170.
    The doctrine of the arbitrary assertion is a key part of Objectivist epistemology as elaborated by Leonard Peikoff. For Peikoff, assertions unsupported by evidence are neither true nor false; they have no context or place in the hierarchy of conceptual knowledge; they are meaningless and paralyze rational cognition; their production is proof of irrationality. A thorough examination of the doctrine reveals worrisomely unclear standards of evidence and a jumble of contradictory claims about which assertions are arbitrary, when they are arbitrary, (...)
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  41. Guggenheims and Grand Canyons.Barry Vacker - 2001 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 2 (2):361 - 382.
    Barry Vacker argues that Torres and Kamhi's What Art Is seems destined to become the seminal explication of Randian aesthetics. But the authors conflate a psychology of art with a philosophy of aesthetics, and, in so doing, embrace several aesthetic divides that have plagued modern arts and culture—art versus beauty, art versus material function, and order versus chaos. What Art Is presents a theory of aesthetics that is inherently anti-aesthetic, ultimately seeking to preserve a past order against the chaotic future.
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  42. Missing the Mark: Salsman's Review of the Great Depression.Larry J. Sechrest - 2008 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 9 (2):305 - 339.
    Objectivist Richard Salsman has recently offered a provocative commentary on business cycles in general and on the Great Depression in particular. The present paper closely examines Salsman's essay, with special attention given to his condemnation of Austrian business cycle theory. It demonstrates that Salsman's account of the Great Depression is confused and inadequate, because it is riddled with both factual errors and misunderstandings. Moreover, his attack on Austrian economists is indefensible. Indeed, he is not even reliably able to recognize their (...)
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  43. Rejoinder to Michael Huemer's "How to Be a Perceptual Realist" (Fall 2005): Direct Realism and Causation.Ari Armstrong - 2005 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 7 (1):239 - 245.
    Armstrong disagrees with Huemer over the proper interpretation of the Objectivist theory of concepts. Huemer worries that Objectivists empty perception of content, while Armstrong argues mat Objectivists recognize some content. However, Huemer attempts to inject conceptual content into perception, which explains why his treatment of illusions differs from that of Objectivists.
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  44. A Direct Realist's Challenge to Skepticism. [REVIEW]Ari Armstrong - 2004 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 5 (2):421 - 440.
    Armstrong reviews Michael Huemer's Skepticism and the Veil of Perception and finds in it strong support for the perceptual theory of direct realism. However, Huemer incorrectly assumes perceptual experiences can contain conceptual—and thus causal —information. Regardless, Huemer's theory of "phenomenal conservatism" serves to justify our perceptual judgments and refute skepticism in a way compatible with the preliminary work of Objectivist philosophers, such as David Kelley and Leonard Peikoff.
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  45. Demystifying Emotion: Introducing the Affect Theory of Silvan Tomkins to Objectivists.Steven H. Shmurak - 2006 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 8 (1):1-18.
    Objectivism's approach to the nature of emotion is incomplete. It has oversimplified emotional phenomena and has substantially underestimated the importance of emotion as a tool of survival. This article presents an introduction to Affect Theory, an approach to understanding emotion based on ostensive definitions, which was developed by the American psychologist Silvan S. Tomkins. Affect theory subsumes the Objectivist theory of emotion while being true to all the complexities of our emotional lives. This theory provides an important supplement to Objectivist (...)
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  46. The Nathaniel Branden Annotated Bibliography. Bissell, Cox, Campbell, Long & Sciabarra - 2016 - Journal of Ayn Rand Studies 16 (1-2):260.