Philosophy of Psychology

Edited by Mitchell Herschbach (California State University, Northridge)
Assistant editor: Michelle Thomas (University of Western Ontario)
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  1. Macro Psychology.Johan Gamper - manuscript
    This is a conceptual attempt to integrate the major current psychotherapeutic methods via the introduction of Macro Psychology. The idea is fully philosophical, and the aim is to spur debate. Clinically, we land in the following picture: Scenarios with a maltreated dog, its owner, and a therapist. Conditioning: The therapist takes the dog to a safe environment. Behavioral therapy: The therapist instructs the owner to take regular long walks with the dog, to feed it regularly, to let it have access (...)
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  2. Reconciling truthfulness and relevance as epistemic and decision-theoretic utility.Theodore R. Sumers, Mark K. Ho, Thomas L. Griffiths & Robert D. Hawkins - 2024 - Psychological Review 131 (1):194-230.
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  3. مجلة كراسات تربوية.العدد(12).يناير.2024.مجموعة من المؤلفين - 2024 - maroc المغرب. Rabat الرباط: ROA PRINT مطبعة رؤى برينت. Edited by الصديق الصادقي العماري.
    إن وسم الأدب بالظاهرة الاجتماعية العامة ارتگز بالأساس على العلاقة الوثيقة التي تربط الأدب بالمجتمع في ظل الح قائق الاجتماعية التي تواجه المؤلِّف باعتباره كائناً اجتماعيا. وقد شكلت سوسيولوجيا والأدب والتواصل هماً معرفيا لدى النقاد والمؤلفين، وجعلت من حقلها مكاناً خصباً للبحث والتحليل خصوصا في عصرنا الحالي، فتعددت مقاربات الأدب، وتنوعت مناهج التواصل، فيما رسمت براديغمات رئي سة خطابات السوسيولوجيا، وحدت مواقعها وعلاقاتها بالمجتمع. وخضعت لمقاربات منهجية كثيرة غلب عليها الوصف والتصنيف على الرغم من تطورها واعتمادها على منظور تحلیل ی (...)
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  4. Introducción a la filosofía de la ciencia sistemática en psicología.Óscar Teixidó - 2023 - Córdoba: Psara Ediciones.
  5. The Priority of Intentional Action: From Developmental to Conceptual Priority.Yair Levy - forthcoming - The Philosophical Quarterly.
    Philosophical orthodoxy has it that intentional action consists in one’s intention appropriately causing a motion of one’s body, placing the latter as (conceptually and/or metaphysically) prior to the former. Here I argue that this standard schema should be reversed: acting intentionally is at least conceptually prior to intending. The argument is modelled on a Williamsonian argument for the priority of knowledge developed by Jenifer Nagel. She argues that children acquire the concept KNOWS before they acquire BELIEVES, building on this alleged (...)
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  6. Five contenders for the title “philosophy of psychology”.James M. Stedman - 2024 - Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 44 (1):30-41.
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  7. Reference in remembering: Towards a simulationist account.James Openshaw & Kourken Michaelian - forthcoming - Synthese.
    Recent theories of remembering and of reference (or singular thought) have de-emphasised the role that causation was thought to play in mid- to late-twentieth century theorising. According to postcausal theories of remembering, such as simulationism, instances of the psychofunctional kind remembering are not, in principle, dependent on appropriate causal chains running from some event(s) remembered to the occurrence of remembering. Instead they depend only on the reliability, or proper functioning, of the cognitive system responsible for their production. According to broadly (...)
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  8. نموذج الإينياجرام. تساعية أنماط الشخصية. وتوظيفه في التربية و تكوين الكفاءات وتأهيل القيادات.محمد الدريج - 2016 - Revue Brochures Educatives مجلة كراسات تربوية 1 (2):7-29.
    ينطلق نموذج/نظرية"تساعية أنماط الشخصية"(الإينياجرام)، من السعي نحو معرفة إلى أي فئة من الناس ينتمي كل واحد منا، ونوع التكوين الذي يحتاجه والأعمال والمهام والمناصب الأكثر ملاءمة لنمط شخصيته. وقد لاحظنا مؤخرا شيوع توظيفه في مجالات شتى في أمريكا الشمالية وخاصة في مجالات التواصل والتكوين والتدريب وتأهيل القيادات العاملة في مختلف القطاعات. وقبل تفصيل الحديث عن هذا النموذج وتوظيفه، سنعمل في بداية هذه الدراسة على رسم الإطار العام الذي ظهر فيه الإينياجرام Ennéagramme وانتشر، وبعدها سنفصل الحديث عن أهم أسسه ومكوناته وأوجه (...)
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  9. مجلة كراسات تربوية. العدد 09. دجنبر2022.Seddik Sadiki Amari & مجموعة من المؤلفين - 2022 - Maroc المغرب. Rabat الرباط: ROA PRINT مطبعة رؤى برينت. Edited by الصديق الصادقي العماري.
    تقديم: أضحى تعليم التفكير النقدي من أبرز أهداف التربية الحديثة في كثير من دول العالم، إذ يرى الباحثون أنه سبيل لتطوير البنية المعرفية للمتعلمين، من منطلق أنه في استطاعة كل فرد أن يتعلم كيف يفكر تفكيرا نقديا إذا ما أتيحت له فرص التدريب والممارسة الفعلية، ولن يتأتى ذلك إلا عبر استراتيجيات ومناهج منظمة وواضحة، تلائم مراحل نمو هذا الفرد، وقدرته على الاستيعاب وفق إيقاعه في التعلم. فلم يعد يُنظر إلى التعلم باعتباره حالة نهائية أو منتوجا لمعارف أو كفايات محددة فقط، (...)
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  10. مجلة كراسات تربوية. العدد03. يناير 2018.الصديق الصادقي العماري وآخرون & Seddik Sadiki Amari - 2018 - maroc المغرب .Errachidia الرشيدية: Imprimerie Belaf9ih مطبعة بنلفقيه. Edited by الصديق الصادقي العماري وآخرون.
    تقديم من دون شك، أن الرؤية الإستراتيجية شكلت أهم حدث بارز في إصلاح منظومة التربية والتكوينفي الآونة الأخيرة، غير أن المتتبع للحقل التربوي منذ بداية الإصلاحات سيقارن بين المنطلقات التي بني عليها الإصلاح منذ بداياته الأولى، وبين المحطات البارزة التي مر منها، وبين النتائج التي وصل إليها على رأس كل إصلاح، إضافة إلى انعكاسات جميع الإصلاحات على شخصية المتعلمين والمربين، وكذا على واقع المجتمع الذي عشناه والذي نعيشه الآن، وربما لكل واحد رؤية افتراضية لهذا الواقع ولو بشكل مبسط. هل فعلا (...)
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  11. The emotions behind character friendship: From other-oriented emotions to the ‘bonding feeling’.Consuelo Martínez-Priego & Ana Romero-Iribas - 2021 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 51 (3):468-488.
    This article aims to theoretically analyse so-called character friendship from the perspective of emotions. From this angle, our research enables us to distinguish different types of emotions, and we propose a conceptual model of the hierarchy of the emotions of character friendship and their influence on social behaviour. With this model in hand, the article discusses whether other-oriented emotions fully explain the emotional underpinnings of character friendship. We find other-oriented emotions to be ambiguous because they may or may not be (...)
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  12. Optimal nudging for cognitively bounded agents: A framework for modeling, predicting, and controlling the effects of choice architectures.Frederick Callaway, Mathew Hardy & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2023 - Psychological Review 130 (6):1457-1491.
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  13. Bayesians Commit the Gambler's Fallacy.Kevin Dorst - manuscript
    The gambler’s fallacy is the tendency to expect random processes to switch more often than they actually do—for example, to think that after a string of tails, a heads is more likely. It’s often taken to be evidence for irrationality. It isn’t. Rather, it’s to be expected from a group of Bayesians who begin with causal uncertainty, and then observe unbiased data from an (in fact) statistically independent process. Although they converge toward the truth, they do so in an asymmetric (...)
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  14. Order and Change in Art: Towards an Active Inference Account of Aesthetic Experience.Sander Van de Cruys, Jacopo Frascaroli & Karl Friston - 2024 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 379 (20220411).
    How to account for the power that art holds over us? Why do artworks touch us deeply, consoling, transforming or invigorating us in the process? In this paper, we argue that an answer to this question might emerge from a fecund framework in cognitive science known as predictive processing (a.k.a. active inference). We unpack how this approach connects sense-making and aesthetic experiences through the idea of an ‘epistemic arc’, consisting of three parts (curiosity, epistemic action and aha experiences), which we (...)
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  15. Grundlagen der philosophischen Psychologie.Margret Kaiser-El-Safti - 2021 - Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann. Edited by Hans Werbik.
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  16. Ḥafrīyāt fī ʻulūm al-lāwaʻy al-jamʻī lil-dhāt al-ʻArabīyah: al-madrasah al-ʻArabīyah al-rāhinah fī al-taḥlīl al-nafsī wa-al-falsafah wa-ʻilm al-ijtimāʻ al-ʻiyādī wa-al-ināsī.ʻĀmir ʻAbd Zayd - 2023 - Bayrūt: Maktabat Ḥasan al-ʻAṣrīyah lil-Ṭibāʻah wa-al-Nashr wa-al-Tawzīʻ. Edited by ʻAlī Zayʻūr.
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  17. Essays on "The soul's logical life" in the work of Wolfgang Giegerich: psychology as the discipline of interiority.Jennifer M. Sandoval, Colleen El-Bejjani & Pamela J. Power (eds.) - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    Essays on The Soul's Logical Life in the Work of Wolfgang Giegerich: Psychology as the Discipline of Interiority is the second collection of essays dedicated to the study and application of Psychology as the Discipline of Interiority - a new 'wave' within Analytical Psychology which pushes off from the work of C. G. Jung and James Hillman. Reflecting upon the notion of psychology developed by German psychoanalyst Wolfgang Giegerich, whose Hegelian turn sheds light on the notion of soul, or the (...)
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  18. Realism and instrumentalism in Bayesian cognitive science.Danielle Williams & Zoe Drayson - 2024 - In Tony Cheng, Ryoji Sato & Jakob Hohwy (eds.), Expected Experiences: The Predictive Mind in an Uncertain World. Routledge.
    There are two distinct approaches to Bayesian modelling in cognitive science. Black-box approaches use Bayesian theory to model the relationship between the inputs and outputs of a cognitive system without reference to the mediating causal processes; while mechanistic approaches make claims about the neural mechanisms which generate the outputs from the inputs. This paper concerns the relationship between these two approaches. We argue that the dominant trend in the philosophical literature, which characterizes the relationship between black-box and mechanistic approaches to (...)
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  19. (In defence of) preservationism and the previous awareness condition: What is a theory of remembering, anyway?James Openshaw - 2023 - Philosophical Perspectives 37 (1):290-307.
    I suggest that the theories of remembering one finds in the philosophy of memory literature are best characterised as theories principally operating at three different levels of inquiry. Simulationist views are theories of the psychofunctional process type remembering. Causalist views are theories of referential remembering. Epistemic views are theories of successful remembering. Insofar as there is conflict between these theories, it is a conflict of integration rather than—as widely presented—head‐on disagreement. Viewed in this way, we can see the previous awareness (...)
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  20. Cognitive Metascience: A New Approach to the Study of Theories.Miłkowski Marcin - 2023 - Przeglad Psychologiczny 66 (1):185-207.
    In light of the recent credibility crisis in psychology, this paper argues for a greater emphasis on theorizing in scientific research. Although reliable experimental evidence, preregistration, methodological rigor, and new computational frameworks for modeling are important, scientific progress also relies on properly functioning theories. However, the current understanding of the role of theorizing in psychology is lacking, which may lead to future crises. Theories should not be viewed as mere speculations or simple inductive generalizations. To address this issue, the author (...)
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  21. The dual role of culture for reconstructing early sapiens cognition.Andrea Bender, Larissa Mendoza Straffon, John B. Gatewood & Sieghard Beller - forthcoming - Psychological Review.
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  22. Psychology's WEIRD Problems.Guilherme Sanches de Oliveira & Edward Baggs - 2023 - Cambridge University Press.
    Psychology has a WEIRD problem. It is overly reliant on participants from Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic societies. Over the last decade this problem has come to be widely acknowledged, yet there has been little progress toward making psychology more diverse. This Element proposes that the lack of progress can be explained by the fact that the original WEIRD critique was too narrow in scope. Rather than a single problem of a lack of diversity among research participants, there are (...)
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  23. When working memory may be just working, not memory.Andre Beukers, Maia Hamin, Kenneth A. Norman & Jonathan D. Cohen - forthcoming - Psychological Review.
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  24. Social Kind Generics and the Dichotomizing Perspective.Will Fraker - 2023 - Philosophical Psychology 37.
    Generics about social kinds (or GSKs) frequently propagate descriptions that carry normative force (e.g., 'women are emotional'). Some philosophers of language attribute this to GSKs’ tendency to transmit essentialist beliefs about social kinds. According to these accounts, utterances of GSKs implicate that there is something in the nature of social kinds that causes them to possess the properties described, and that individual members of these social kinds therefore ought to exhibit (or be expected to exhibit) these properties. Here, I draw (...)
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  25. Extended Implicit Bias: When the Metaphysics and Ethics of Implicit Bias Collide.Uwe Peters - 2022 - Erkenntnis 88 (8):3457-3478.
    It has recently been argued that to tackle social injustice, implicit biases and unjust social structures should be targeted equally because they sustain and ontologically overlap with each other. Here I develop this thought further by relating it to the hypothesis of extended cognition. I argue that if we accept common conditions for extended cognition then people’s implicit biases are often partly realized by and so extended into unjust social structures. This supports the view that we should counteract psychological and (...)
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  26. Accessing Self-Control.Polaris Koi - 2023 - Erkenntnis 88 (8):3239-3258.
    Self-control is that which is enacted to align our behaviour with intentions, motives, or better judgment in the face of conflicting impulses of motives. In this paper, I ask, what explains interpersonal differences in self-control? After defending a functionalist conception of self-control, I argue that differences in self-control are analogous to differences in mobility: they are modulated by inherent traits and environmental supports and constraints in interaction. This joint effect of individual (neuro)biology and environmental factors is best understood in terms (...)
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  27. Boredom and Cognitive Engagement: A Functional Theory of Boredom.Andreas Elpidorou - 2022 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 14 (3):959-988.
    The functional theory of boredom maintains that boredom ought to be defined in terms of its role in our mental and behavioral economy. Although the functional theory has recently received considerable attention, presentations of this theory have not specified with sufficient precision either its commitments or its consequences for the ontology of boredom. This essay offers an in-depth examination of the functional theory. It explains what boredom is according to the functional view; it shows how the functional theory can account (...)
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  28. On the Putative Epistemic Generativity of Memory and Imagination.Kengo Miyazono & Uku Tooming - 2022 - In Anja Berninger & Íngrid Vendrell Ferran (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Memory and Imagination. London: Routledge. pp. 127-145.
  29. Perceiving agency.Mason Westfall - 2023 - Mind and Language 38 (3):847-865.
    When we look around us, some things look “alive,” others do not. What is it to “look alive”—to perceive animacy? Empirical work supports the view that animacy is genuinely perceptual. We should construe perception of animacy as perception of agents and behavior. This proposal explains how static and dynamic animacy cues relate, and explains how animacy perception relates to social cognition more broadly. Animacy perception draws attention to objects that are apt to be well‐understood folk psychologically, enabling us to marshal (...)
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  30. Optimal metacognitive control of memory recall.Frederick Callaway, Thomas L. Griffiths, Kenneth A. Norman & Qiong Zhang - forthcoming - Psychological Review.
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  31. Information Reflection Theory Based on Information Theories, Analog Symbolism, and the Generalized Relativity Principle.Chenguang Lu - 2023 - Comput. Sci. Math. Forum 8 (1):45.
    Reflection Theory holds that our sensations reflect physical properties, whereas Empiricism believes that sense (data), presentations, and phenomena are the ultimate existence. Lenin adhered to Reflection Theory and criticized Helmholtz’s sensory symbolism for affirming the similarity between a sensation and a physical property. By using information and color vision theories, analyzing the ostensive definition with inverted qualia, and extending the relativity principle, this paper affirms the external world’s existence independent of personal sensations. Still, it denies the similarity between a sense (...)
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  32. Theoretische Psychologie: Denkformen und Sozialpraxen.Uwe Laucken - 2003 - Oldenburg: Bibliotheks- und Informationssystem der Univ..
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  33. Explaining individual differences.Zina B. Ward - 2023 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 101 (C):61-70.
    Most psychological research aims to uncover generalizations about the mind that hold across subjects. Philosophical discussions of scientific explanation have focused on such generalizations, but in doing so, have often overlooked an important phenomenon: variation. Variation is ubiquitous in psychology and many other domains, and an important target of explanation in its own right. Here I characterize explananda that concern individual differences and formulate an account of what it takes to explain them. I argue that the notion of actual difference (...)
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  34. How do people use and appraise concepts?James A. Hampton (ed.) - forthcoming - Switzerland: Springer Nature.
    To approach the many challenges involved in the notion of engineering concepts, it is important to have a clear idea of the starting point – the concepts that people use in their everyday lives, in conversations and in expressing beliefs, desires, intentions and so forth. The first Section of this chapter introduces evidence that I have accumulated over the last many years concerning the flexibility, context-dependence, and vagueness of such common concepts. The concept engineer needs to understand the structure of (...)
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  35. Epilogue: Will Biology Replace Psychology.Paul Young - 2010 - In Max Malikow (ed.), Being Human: Philosophical Reflections on Psychological Issues. Hamilton Books.
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  36. The Psychologist’s Green Thumb.Sophia Crüwell - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science.
    The ‘psychologist’s green thumb’ refers to the argument that an experimenter needs an indeterminate set of skills to successfully replicate an effect. This argument is sometimes invoked by psychological researchers to explain away failures of independent replication attempts of their work. In this paper, I assess the psychologist’s green thumb as a candidate explanation for individual replication failure and argue that it is potentially costly for psychology as a field. I also present other, more likely reasons for these replication failures. (...)
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  37. The paradox of social interaction : shared intentionality, we-reasoning and virtual bargaining.Nick Chater, Hossam Zeitoun & Tigran Melkonyan - 2022 - Psychological Review 129 (3):415-437.
    Social interaction is both ubiquitous and central to understanding human behavior. Such interactions depend, we argue, on shared intentionality: the parties must form a common understanding of an ambiguous interaction (e.g., one person giving a present to another requires that both parties appreciate that a voluntary transfer of ownership is intended). Yet how can shared intentionality arise? Many well-known accounts of social cognition, including those involving “mind-reading,” typically fall into circularity and/or regress. For example, A’s beliefs and behavior may depend (...)
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  38. Ouroboros: kush jam unë.Naim Telaku - 2015 - Prishtinë: Olymp.
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  39. Cajal beyond the brain: Don Santiago contemplates the mind and its education: 20 essays of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.Santiago Ramón Y. Cajal - 2015 - Indianapolis, IN: Corpus Callosum. Edited by Lazaros Constantinos Triarhou.
    This compilation brings together 20 essays of Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934), the neuroscientist par excellence and 1906 Nobel Laureate in Medicine, on topics beyond neuroanatomy, most appearing in English for the first time. The annotated collection makes available in one handy volume Cajal's ideas on psychology, art and education, still current and still relevant, derived from his books La Psicología de los Artistas, Charlas de Café, El Mundo Visto a los Ochenta Años, Pensamientos Pedagógicos and Escritos Inéditos. An acute (...)
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  40. Theoretische Psychologie: eine Systematik der Kontroversen.Jochen Fahrenberg - 2015 - Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers.
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  41. On Philomatics and Psychomatics for Combining Philosophy and Psychology with Mathematics.Benyamin Ghojogh & Morteza Babaie - manuscript
    We propose the concepts of philomatics and psychomatics as hybrid combinations of philosophy and psychology with mathematics. We explain four motivations for this combination which are fulfilling the desire of analytical philosophy, proposing science of philosophy, justifying mathematical algorithms by philosophy, and abstraction in both philosophy and mathematics. We enumerate various examples for philomatics and psychomatics, some of which are explained in more depth. The first example is the analysis of relation between the context principle, semantic holism, and the usage (...)
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  42. Psychology and formalisation: phenomenology, ethnomethodology, and statistics.Anita Williams - 2017 - Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    This book revisits psychology's appropriation of natural scientific methods. The author argues that, in order to overcome ongoing methodological debates in psychology, it is necessary to confront the problem of formalisation contained in the appropriation of methods of natural science. By doing so, the subject matter of psychology - the human being - and questions about the meaning of human existence can be brought to the centre of the discipline. Drawing on Garfinkel, Sacks, Edwards and Potter, the author sees ethnomethodologically (...)
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  43. Wittgenstein's philosophy in psychology: interpretations and applications in historical context.Gavin Brent Sullivan - 2017 - London, United Kingdom: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This book highlights the importance of Ludwig Wittgenstein’s writings on psychology and psychological phenomena for the historical development of contemporary psychology. It presents an insightful assessment of the philosopher’s work, particularly his later writings, which draws on key interpretations that have informed our understanding of metapsychological and psychological issues. Wittgenstein’s Philosophy in Psychology engages with both critics and followers of the philosopher’s work to demonstrate its enduring relevance to psychology today. Sullivan presents a novel examination of Wittgenstein’s later writings by (...)
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  44. I fondamenti della psicologia scientifica: da Kant ai neokantiani.Alessandro Risi - 2017 - Perugia: Morlacchi editore University Press.
  45. A social inference model of idealization and devaluation.Giles W. Story, Ryan Smith, Michael Moutoussis, Isabel M. Berwian, Tobias Nolte, Edda Bilek, Jenifer Z. Siegel & Raymond J. Dolan - forthcoming - Psychological Review.
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  46. The history and evolution of psychology: a philosophical and biological perspective.Brian D. Cox - 2019 - Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
    The History of Psychology course occupies an unusual but critical place in the psychology curriculum at most universities. As the field has become ever more specialized, with the various subdisciplines branching off, The History of Psychology is often the one course where the common roots of all of these areas are explored. Asking not only "What is psychology?" but also "What is science?" "Why is psychology a science?" and "How did it become one?" this book examines how the paradigm of (...)
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  47. The Ecological Brain: Unifying the Sciences of Brain, Body, and Environment.Favela Luis H. - 2024 - Routledge.
    The Ecological Brain is the first book of its kind, using complexity science to integrate the seemingly disparate fields of ecological psychology and neuroscience. The book develops a unique framework for unifying investigations and explanations of mind that span brain, body, and environment: the NeuroEcological Nexus Theory (NExT). Beginning with an introduction to the history of the fields, the author provides an assessment of why ecological psychology and neuroscience are commonly viewed as irreconcilable methods for investigating and explaining cognition, intelligent (...)
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  48. Levinas for psychologists.Leswin Laubscher - 2024 - New York, NY: Routledge.
    Levinas for Psychologists provides a rigorous, yet accessible, examination of Emmanuel Levinas's philosophy, and its implications for Psychology and the Human and Social Sciences. Comprehensive in scope, this book traces Levinas's thought across the arc of his oeuvre, from the earliest works to the last interviews and essays. Laubscher provides numerous examples of how Levinas's thought challenges current clinical and psychotherapeutic work, psychological theory, social science research and social theory, but also offers promising alternatives. Such alternative ways to think and (...)
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  49. The imaginary inner inside the cognitive science of religion.Christopher Hoyt - 2023 - In Robert Vinten (ed.), Wittgenstein and the Cognitive Science of Religion. London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 73-91.
    Scientists working on the cognitive science of religion (CSR) are eager to have us believe that they have recently uncovered the unconscious origins of religious beliefs and practices. Though their theories differ in detail, CSR researchers generally agree that religion is the product of faculties of mind that evolved to serve our adaptive needs, but which sometimes produce the false beliefs and incoherent practices of religious life. Pascal Boyer, a leading figure and a reasonable representative of the mode of thinking (...)
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  50. Instrumental Rationality in the Social Sciences.Katharina Nieswandt - 2023 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences (1):46-68.
    This paper draws some bold conclusions from modest premises. My topic is an old one, the Neohumean view of practical rationality. First, I show that this view consists of two independent claims, instrumentalism and subjectivism. Most critics run these together. Instrumentalism is entailed by many theories beyond Neohumeanism, viz. by any theory that says rational actions maximize something. Second, I give a new argument against instrumentalism, using simple counterexamples. This argument systematically undermines consequentialism and rational choice theory, I show, using (...)
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