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  1. added 2017-01-17
    Alexander Mebius (forthcoming). Assigning Functions to Medical Technologies. Philosophy and Technology:1-18.
    Modern health care relies extensively on the use of technologies for assessing and treating patients, so it is important to be certain that health care technologies perform their professed functions in an effective and safe manner. Philosophers of technology have developed methods to assign and evaluate the functions of technological products, the major elements of which are described in the ICE theory. This paper questions whether the standard of evidence advocated by the ICE theory is adequate for ascribing and assessing (...)
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  2. added 2017-01-17
    Feras Ali Mustafa (forthcoming). Notes on the Use of Randomised Controlled Trials to Evaluate Complex Interventions: Community Treatment Orders as an Illustrative Case. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.
    Over the past seven decades, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have revolutionised clinical research and achieved a gold standard status. However, extending their use to evaluate complex interventions is problematic. In this paper we will demonstrate that complex intervention RCTs violate the necessary premises that govern the RCTs logic and underpin their rigour. The lack of blinding, heterogeneity of participants, as well as poor treatment standardisation and difficulty of controlling for confounders, which characterise complex intervention RCTs, can potentially be profoundly detrimental (...)
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  3. added 2017-01-17
    Esther-Lee Marcus, Ofra Golan & David Goodman (2016). Ethical Issues Related to End of Life Treatment in Patients with Advanced Dementia – The Case of Artificial Nutrition and Hydration. Diametros 50:118-137.
    Patients with advanced dementia suffer from severe cognitive and functional impairment, including eating disorders. The focus of our research is on the issue of life-sustaining treatment, specifically on the social and ethical implications of tube feeding. The treatment decision, based on values of life and dignity, involves sustaining lives that many people consider not worth living. We explore the moral approach to caring for these patients and review the history of the debate on artificial nutrition and hydration showing the impact (...)
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  4. added 2017-01-17
    Alexander Mebius, Ashley Graham Kennedy & Jeremy Howick (2016). Research Gaps in the Philosophy of Evidence‐Based Medicine. Philosophy Compass 11 (11):757-771.
    Increasing philosophical attention is being directed to the rapidly growing discipline of evidence-based medicine. Philosophical discussions of EBM, however, remain narrowly focused on randomization, mechanisms, and the sociology of EBM. Other aspects of EBM have been all but ignored, including the nature of clinical reasoning and the question of whether it can be standardized; the application of EBM principles to the logic, value, and ethics of diagnosis and prognosis; evidence synthesis ; and the nature and ethics of placebo controls. Philosophical (...)
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  5. added 2017-01-17
    Lee Ya-Hsueh & Ma Min-Yuan (2016). Investigating the Parent-Child Interactive Behavior of Autistic Children by Using Composite Light-Emitting or Reflective Toys. Interaction Studies 17 (2):279-305.
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  6. added 2017-01-17
    Matteo Favaretti Camposampiero (2016). Christian Wolff’s Philosophy of Medicine: An Early Functional Analysis of Health and Disease. Quaestio 16:75-94.
    In the late 1720s and early 1730s, Christian Wolff writes a series of short treatises on general medical concepts such as health, disease, cause of disease, symptom, etc. The paper makes the claim that these texts should be considered as a pioneering attempt at developing a systematic philosophy of medicine based on metaphysical and epistemological investigations on medical concepts, doctrines, and practices. The main focus is on Wolff’s analysis of the concepts of health and disease in functional terms and its (...)
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  7. added 2017-01-17
    S. Myers Richard (2006). Reflections on the Terri Schindler-Schiavo Controversy. Catholic Social Science Review 11:65-86.
    This article first appeared in Life and Learning XIV: Proceedings of the Fourteenth University Faculty for Life Conference, and is reprinted here with the kind permission of the editor, Joseph W. Koterski, S.J..Despite the enormous attention it received, the Terri Schindler-Schiavo litigation is not legally significant. The litigation involved the application of a fairly well-settled legal framework. This framework permitted, however, an unjust result. The controversy over Terri’s fatehas, though, helped to focus attention on a consensus that is in need (...)
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  8. added 2017-01-17
    Will, de Silva & Sutherland (1997). Clinical Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Using a Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network Classifier. Journal of Intelligent Systems 7 (1-2):1-18.
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  9. added 2017-01-15
    Gabriel Vacariu, The UNBELIEVABLE Similar Ideas Between Theise and Menas’ Ideas (2016) and My Ideas (2002-2008) in Physics and Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy (the Mind-Brain Problem, Quantum Mechanics, Etc.).
    The UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas between Theise and Menas’ ideas (2016) and my ideas (2002-2008) in Physics and Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy (the mind-brain problem, quantum mechanics, etc.) -/- (2016) Theise D. Neil (Department of Pathology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA) and Kafatos C. Menas (bDepartment of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; cSchmid College of Science & Technology, Chapman University, Orange, CA, USA) (2016), REVIEW - Fundamental awareness: A (...)
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  10. added 2017-01-15
    Gabriel Vacariu, The UNBELIEVABLE Similar Ideas Between Theise and Menas’ Ideas (2016) and My Ideas (2002-2008) in Physics and Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy (the Mind-Brain Problem, Quantum Mechanics, Etc.).
    The UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas between Theise and Menas’ ideas (2016) and my ideas (2002-2008) in Physics and Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy (the mind-brain problem, quantum mechanics, etc.).
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  11. added 2017-01-11
    Ritchey Tom (2014). A Morphology of Theories of Emergence. Acta Morphologica Generalis.
    “Emergence” – the notion of novel, unpredictable and irreducible properties developing out of complex organisational entities – is itself a complex, multi-dimensional concept. To date there is no single, generally agreed upon “theory of emergence”, but instead a number of different approaches and perspectives. Neither is there a common conceptual or meta-theoretical framework by which to systematically identify, exemplify and compare different “theories”. Building upon earlier work done by sociologist Kenneth Bailey, this article presents a method for creating such a (...)
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  12. added 2017-01-06
    Dale Jacquette (2014). Algebra of Theoretical Term Reductions in the Sciences. Symposion. Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 1 (1): 51-67.
    An elementary algebra identifies conceptual and corresponding applicational limitations in John Kemeny and Paul Oppenheim’s (K-O) 1956 model of theoretical reduction in the sciences. The K-O model was once widely accepted, at least in spirit, but seems afterward to have been discredited, or in any event superceeded. Today, the K-O reduction model is seldom mentioned, except to clarify when a reduction in the Kemeny-Oppenheim sense is not intended. The present essay takes a fresh look at the basic mathematics of K-O (...)
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  13. added 2017-01-06
    Susan Haack (2012). Six Signs of Scientism. Logos and Episteme 3 (1):75-95.
    As the English word “scientism” is currently used, it is a trivial verbal truth that scientism—an inappropriately deferential attitude to science—should be avoided. But it is a substantial question when, and why, deference to the sciences is inappropriate or exaggerated. This paper tries to answer that question by articulating “six signs of scientism”: the honorific use of “science” and its cognates; using scientific trappings purely decoratively; preoccupation with demarcation; preoccupation with “scientific method”; looking to the sciences for answers beyond their (...)
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  14. added 2017-01-04
    Kidd Ian James (forthcoming). Other Histories, Other Histories. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science.
    An essay review of Léna Soler, Emiliano Trizio, and Andrew Pickering (eds.), Science As It Could Have Been: Discussing the Contingency/Inevitability Problem (Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press).
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  15. added 2016-12-20
    Justin Donhauser (2016). Theoretical Ecology as Etiological From the Start. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 60:67-76.
    The world’s leading environmental advisory institutions look to ecological theory and research as an objective guide for policy and resource management decision-making. In addition to various theoretical merits of doing so, it is therefore crucially important to clear up confusions about ecology’s conceptual foundations and to make plain the basic workings of inferential methods used in the science. Through discussion of key moments in the genesis of the theoretical branch of ecology, this essay elucidates a general heuristic role of teleological (...)
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  16. added 2016-12-20
    Justin Donhauser (2016). Making Ecological Values Make Sense: Toward More Operationalizable Ecological Legislation. Ethics and the Environment 21 (2):1-25.
    Value claims about ecological entities, their functionality, and properties take center stage in so-called “ecological” ethical and aesthetic theories. For example, the claim that the biodiversity in an old-growth forest imbues it with “value in and for itself” is an explicit value claim about an ecological property. And the claim that one can study “the aesthetics of nature, including natural objects...such as ecosystems” presupposes that natural instances of a type of ecological entity exist and can be regarded as more or (...)
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  17. added 2016-12-20
    Bich Leonardo (2016). Systems and Organizations: Theoretical Tools, Conceptual Distinctions and Epistemological Implications. In Gianfranco Minati, Eliano Pessa & Mario Abram (eds.), Towards a post-Bertalanffy systemics. New York: Springers. pp. 203-209.
    The aim of this paper is to present some system-theoretical notions ─ such as constraint, closure, integration, coordination, etc. ─ which have recently raised a renovated interest and have undergone a deep development, especially in those branches of philosophy of biology characterized by a systemic approach. The im- plications of these notions for the analysis and characterization of self-maintaining organizations will be discussed with the aid of examples taken from models of minimal living systems, and some conceptual distinctions will be (...)
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  18. added 2016-12-20
    Leonardo Bich & Gianluca Bocchi (2012). Emergent Processes as Generation of Discontinuities. In Gianfranco Minati, Eliano Pessa & Mario Abram (eds.), Methods, models, simulations and approaches towards a general theory of change. Singapore: World Scientific. pp. 135-146.
    In this article we analyse the problem of emergence in its diachronic dimension. In other words, we intend to deal with the generation of novelties in natural processes. Our approach aims at integrating some insights coming from Whitehead’s Philosophy of the Process with the epistemological framework developed by the “autopoietic” tradition. Our thesis is that the emergence of new entities and rules of interaction (new “fields of relatedness”) requires the development of discontinuous models of change. From this standpoint natural evolution (...)
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  19. added 2016-12-15
    Michael Starks (2016). Review of Listening Into the Heart of Things-on MDMA and LSD by Samuel Widmer (1989). In Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization Articles and Reviews 2006-2016 by Michael Starks 662p (2016). Michael Starks. pp. 572-574.
    This is an early volume from a much respected psychedelic psychotherapist. He has written several other books since this one but until recently none of his books were on Amazon and still you can only find a German edition and a Spanish one (from 1993) but no English one (except a couple used copies). This is sad since these drugs have enormous therapeutic potential but afaik government suppression still prevents their use. The most interesting and readable parts are the case (...)
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  20. added 2016-12-13
    Julián A. Sánchez (2016). ¿Es relevante el debate sobre los contenidos conceptuales de estados de percepción para el debate sobre la carga teórica de la observación? In Olga Lucía Gómez & Jairo Isaac Racines (eds.), En los límites de la ciencia y la filosofía. Cali, Colombia: Universidad del Valle. pp. 127-142.
    Actualmente existe un debate sobre la naturaleza de los contenidos mentales de la percepción, si son de naturaleza conceptual o no. Si la experiencia perceptiva, el acto de experimentar algo, constituye un estado perceptivo consciente cuyo contenido es de naturaleza conceptual, o por el contrario el contenido de dicho estado está desligado de cualquier tipo organización a partir de conceptos que un sujeto perceptivo posee. Dicho debate se circunscribe en el campo de la filosofía de la mente y la epistemología, (...)
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  21. added 2016-12-12
    Paulo Vélez León (2016). Sobre el significado de la metafísica en Kant. Disputatio. Philosophical Research Bulletin 5 (6):267-281.
    In this propaedeutic work, through Kant’s own texts, I will try to offer a balanced description and a succinct reconstruction of Kant’s arguments about the possibility and impossibility of Metaphysics. In the first place I will present some criticisms of Metaphysics, then I will visualize the Kantian notion of Metaphysics, as well as its constitutive reasons and moments; and finally, I will analyze what kind of knowledge is Metaphysics and the characteristics and nature of it, so that this «science» is (...)
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  22. added 2016-12-12
    Wachowski Witold (2015). Płeć Kulturowa W Rozproszonych Systemach Poznawczych – Możliwości Konceptualizacji. Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 5 (1):135-150.
    Title - Gender in distributed cognitive systems: Possible conceptualizations. Abstract - There is a mismatch between social and biological approaches in the studies on sex and gender. Neurofeminist researchers critically examine gendered impacts of research in neuroscience and cognitive science, as well as develop more adequate and gender‑appropriate neuroscientific studies. However, they still seem to be focused on the brain and its relationship with the environment. Moreover, there are a little ‘science‑phobic’ feminist approaches based on actor‑network theory, and social science (...)
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  23. added 2016-12-09
    Alexander Gebharter (2017). Causal Nets, Interventionism, and Mechanisms. Cham: Springer.
    This monograph looks at causal nets from a philosophical point of view. The author shows that one can build a general philosophical theory of causation on the basis of the causal nets framework that can be fruitfully used to shed new light on philosophical issues. Coverage includes both a theoretical as well as application-oriented approach to the subject. The author first counters David Hume’s challenge about whether causation is something ontologically real. The idea behind this is that good metaphysical concepts (...)
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  24. added 2016-12-06
    L. A. Paul (2016). Experience, Metaphysics, and Cognitive Science. In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Wiley. pp. 419-433.
    This chapter presents an opinionated account of how to understand the contributions of experience, especially with respect to the role of cognitive science, in developing and assessing metaphysical theories of reality. I develop a methodological basis for the idea that, independently of work in experimental philosophy focused on explications of concepts, contemporary metaphysical theories with a role for experiential evidence can be fruitfully connected to empirical work in psychology, especially cognitive science. My argument is not that cognitive science should replace (...)
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  25. added 2016-11-18
    Kathy Behrendt (2017). Narrative Aversion: Challenges for the Illness Narrative Advocate. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (1):50-69.
    Engaging in self-narrative is often touted as a powerful antidote to the bad effects of illness. However, there are various examples of what may broadly be termed “aversion” to illness narrative. I group these into three kinds: aversion to certain types of illness narrative; aversion to illness narrative as a whole; and aversion to illness narrative as an essentially therapeutic endeavor. These aversions can throw into doubt the advantages claimed for the illness narrator, including the key benefits of repair to (...)
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  26. added 2016-11-16
    Christoph Baumberger & Georg Brun (2017). Dimensions of Objectual Understanding. In Stephen Grimm Christoph Baumberger & Sabine Ammon (eds.), Explaining Understanding: New Perspectives from Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. Routledge. pp. 165-189.
    In science and philosophy, a relatively demanding notion of understanding is of central interest: an epistemic subject understands a subject matter by means of a theory. This notion can be explicated in a way which resembles JTB analyses of knowledge. The explication requires that the theory answers to the facts, that the subject grasps the theory, that she is committed to the theory and that the theory is justified for her. In this paper, we focus on the justification condition and (...)
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  27. added 2016-11-15
    Edmund Henden & Olav Gjelsvik (2016). What is Wrong with the Brains of Addicts?". Neuroethics:1-8.
    In his target article and recent interesting book about addiction and the brain, Marc Lewis claims that the prevalent medical view of addiction as a brain disease or a disorder, is mistaken. In this commentary we critically examine his arguments for this claim. We find these arguments to rest on some problematical and largely undefended assumptions about notions of disease, disorder and the demarcation between them and good health. Even if addiction does seem to differ from some typical brain diseases, (...)
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  28. added 2016-11-10
    Robert Luk (forthcoming). On the Implications and Extensions of Luk’s Theory and Model of Scientific Study. Foundations of Science:1-16.
    Recently, Luk tried to establish a model and a theory of scientific studies. He focused on articulating the theory and the model, but he did not emphasize relating them to some issues in philosophy of science. In addition, they might explain some of the issues in philosophy of science, but such explanation is not articulated in his papers. This paper explores the implications and extensions of Luk’s work in philosophy of science or science in general.
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  29. added 2016-11-05
    Angus McCoss (2016). Quantum Deep Learning Triuniverse. Journal of Quantum Information Science 6 (4).
    An original quantum foundations concept of a deep learning computational Universe is introduced. The fundamental information of the Universe (or Triuniverse)is postulated to evolve about itself in a Red, Green and Blue (RGB) tricoloured stable self-mutuality in three information processing loops. The colour is a non-optical information label. The information processing loops form a feedback-reinforced deep learning macrocycle with trefoil knot topology. Fundamental information processing is driven by ψ-Epistemic Drive, the Natural appetite for information selected for advantageous knowledge. From its (...)
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  30. added 2016-10-28
    Alexander Gebharter (2016). Uncovering Constitutive Relevance Relations in Mechanisms. Philosophical Studies.
    In this paper I argue that constitutive relevance relations in mechanisms behave like a special kind of causal relation in at least one important respect: Under suitable circumstances constitutive relevance relations produce the Markov factorization. Based on this observation one may wonder whether standard methods for causal discovery could be fruitfully applied to uncover constitutive relevance relations. This paper is intended as a first step into this new area of philosophical research. I investigate to what extent the PC algorithm, originally (...)
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  31. added 2016-10-23
    Tanjimul Islam & Rubab Tarannum Islam (2016). In Vivo Analgesic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Helianthus Annuus Seeds. International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, 5 (4):34-38.
    The sunflower seed is the seed of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). The methanol extract of seeds of Helianthus annuus were screened for analgesic activity in mice model to systematically explore the medicinal values of the plant. Acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate methods were used to confirm the central and peripheral analgesic action. In case of acetic acid-induced writhing test the extract showed significant (P <0.05) analgesic potential at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (50.35 and 57.85% inhibition, (...)
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  32. added 2016-10-22
    Michael J. Deem (2017). Vulnerability in Genetic Counseling and the Ground of Nondirectiveness. In Straehle Christine (ed.), Vulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied Ethics. Routledge. pp. 138-156.