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  1. Reverse Quantum Mechanics: Ontological Path.Michele Caponigro - manuscript
    This paper is essentially a quantum philosophical challenge: starting from simple assumptions, we argue about an ontological approach to quantum mechanics. In this paper, we will focus only on the assumptions. While these assumptions seems to solve the ontological aspect of theory many others epistemological problems arise. For these reasons, in order to prove these assumptions, we need to find a consistent mathematical context (i.e. time reverse problem, quantum entanglement, implications on quantum fields, Schr¨odinger cat states, the role of observer, (...)
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  2. The Language Essence of Rational Cognition, with Some Philosophical Consequences.Boris Culina - manuscript
    This article analyses the essential role of language in rational cognition. The approach is functional -- I only look at the effects of the connection between language, reality and thinking. I begin by analysing rational cognition in everyday situations. Then I show that the whole scientific language is an extension and improvement of everyday language. The result is a uniform view of language and rational cognition which solves many epistemological and ontological problems. I use some of them -- the nature (...)
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  3. A Regimented and Concise Exposition of Karl Popper’s Critical Rationalist Epistemology (Version 2).Danny Frederick - manuscript
    Criticisms of Karl Popper’s critical rationalist epistemology are often confused and misleading. In part that is due to Popper’s somewhat lax use of language, in which technical terms are used in more than one sense. I attempt to clarify Popper’s views by regimenting his terminology. The result is offered as a clear and concise exposition of the main points of Popper’s epistemology. This is an updated version of a paper that was published in Cosmos + Taxis 6 (6+7): 49-54 (2019).
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  4. Divination by Science.Dois Koh - manuscript
    This paper attempts to decipher what we really mean when we use the word "Science" by briefly exploring the criterion of "predictive power" with respect to the demarcation problem. It is essentially an articulation of Lakatos' view of Science and attempts to show that predictive power is quintessential to science.
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  5. Intelligible Gunk.Dan Kurth - manuscript
    -/- Abstract . In an earlier paper ‘The Topos of Emergence’ (‘TheTopos of Emrgence’, in: Boundaries - The Scientifc Aspects of ANPA 24, (ed. Keith G. Bowden), London 2003, pp 236 –250; cf.also:http://www.academia.edu/1549400/The_Topos_of_Emergence) I introduced a mathematical structure called the topos PrePhys consisting of an ever propagating emergent hierarchy made of a strict n-categorical unfolding of automorphic objects obAM .Later I came to the conclusion that this topos PrePhys perfectly matchs the concept of Gunk introduced under this name by DavidLewis. (...)
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  6. Philosophical Autobiography, Meaning and Self-Discovery.Tony Summer - manuscript
    A human life is meaningful to the extent that it connects with something greater than itself in a way that produces good for others and provides future challenges, past achievements, interpersonal connection and fulfilment for the person whose life it is. Self-fulfilment depends upon self-discovery. Adapting the logic of scientific discovery I suggest that a person can best discover who she is by employing an organised and critical process of conjecture and refutation, testing kinds of life by living them and (...)
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  7. The UNBELIEVABLE Similar Ideas Between Theise and Menas’ Ideas (2016) and My Ideas (2002-2008) in Physics and Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy (the Mind-Brain Problem, Quantum Mechanics, Etc.).Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    The UNBELIEVABLE similar ideas between Theise and Menas’ ideas (2016) and my ideas (2002-2008) in Physics and Cognitive Neuroscience and Philosophy (the mind-brain problem, quantum mechanics, etc.) -/- (2016) Theise D. Neil (Department of Pathology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA) and Kafatos C. Menas (bDepartment of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; cSchmid College of Science & Technology, Chapman University, Orange, CA, USA) (2016), REVIEW - Fundamental awareness: A (...)
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  8. What's Wrong with Zeno.Andrew Wutke - manuscript
    There was a time in my school years when I have learned about Achilles and Tortoise “paradox” originated from Zeno. It was then clear that the ancient Greeks were arguing about this problem but contemporary science has clarified the issue. Yet to my surprise the problem is still debated over and over, despite the fact there exist mathematical proofs. I feel like reminding myself why this is not a paradox beyond reasonable doubt. This is a draft to a section of (...)
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  9. Experimentation on Analogue Models.Susan G. Sterrett - 2015
    Summary Analogue models are actual physical setups used to model something else. They are especially useful when what we wish to investigate is difficult to observe or experiment upon due to size or distance in space or time: for example, if the thing we wish to investigate is too large, too far away, takes place on a time scale that is too long, does not yet exist or has ceased to exist. The range and variety of analogue models is too (...)
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  10. Notes on the Reality of the Quantum State.Shan Gao - 2014
    Based on an analysis of protective measurements, we show that the quantum state represents the physical state of a single quantum system. This result is more definite than the PBR theorem [Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph, Nature Phys. 8, 475 (2012)].
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  11. The Wave Function and Its Evolution.Shan Gao - 2011
    The meaning of the wave function and its evolution are investigated. First, we argue that the wave function in quantum mechanics is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the probability density of the particles being in certain locations in space. Next, we show that the linear non-relativistic evolution of the wave function of an isolated system obeys the free Schrödinger equation due to the requirements of spacetime translation invariance and (...)
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  12. Comment on "How to Protect the Interpretation of the Wave Function Against Protective Measurements" by Jos Uffink.Shan Gao - 2011
    It is shown that Uffink's attempt to protect the interpretation of the wave function against protective measurements fails due to several errors in his arguments.
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  13. On The Poetry and Music of Science: Whose Poetry, Whose Music?Babette Babich - forthcoming - Interdisciplinary Science Reviews.
    Tom McLeish’s Music and Poetry of Science adds to along and complex literature looking at the creative powers of human genius. In addition to his own scientific field, McLeish draws on art, poetry, novels, music, and BBC television productions. Although positioned in the line of the ‘two cultures’ debate typically associated with C. P. Snow, McLeish reprises William Beveridge’s earlier contribution to that tradition, perhaps, to be aligned,although this McLeish does not do, with Peter Pesic’s Music and the Making of (...)
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  14. Why Logical Pluralism?Colin R. Caret - forthcoming - Synthese:1-22.
    This paper scrutinizes the debate over logical pluralism. I hope to make this debate more tractable by addressing the question of motivating data: what would count as strong evidence in favor of logical pluralism? Any research program should be able to answer this question, but when faced with this task, many logical pluralists fall back on brute intuitions. This sets logical pluralism on a weak foundation and makes it seem as if nothing pressing is at stake in the debate. The (...)
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  15. Brentano's Conception of Philosophy as Rigorous Science.Wolfgang Huemer - forthcoming - Brentano Studien 16 (1).
    Abstract: Brentano’s conception of scientific philosophy had a strong influence on his students and on the intellectual atmosphere of Vienna in the late nineteenth century. The aim of this article is to expose Brentano’s conception and to contrast his views with that of two traditions he is said to have considerably influenced: phenomenology and analytic philosophy. I will shed light on the question of how and to what extent Brentano’s conception of philosophy as a rigorous science has had an impact (...)
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  16. Conceptions of Philosophy and the Challenges of Scientism.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Scientism: For and Against. New York:
    I suspect many philosophers feel the deep reason the topic of scientism matters is that it wrongly questions or impugns the integrity and significance of the discipline of philosophy. Such metaphilosophical concerns may not always be at the forefront during debates about scientism. Sometimes, though, we should engage much broader metaphilosophical issues.
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  17. Is Truth the Gold Standard of Inquiry? A Comment on Elgin’s Argument Against Veritism.Moti Mizrahi - forthcoming - Foundations of Science:1-6.
    In True Enough, Catherine Elgin (2017) argues against veritism, which is the view that truth is the paramount epistemic objective. Elgin’s argument against veritism proceeds from considering the role that models, idealizations, and thought experiments play in science to the conclusion that veritism is unacceptable. In this commentary, I argue that Elgin’s argument fails as an argument against veritism. I sketch a refutation by logical analogy of Elgin’s argument. Just as one can aim at gold medals and still find approximations (...)
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  18. Interdisciplinary Foundations for the Science of Emotion: Unification Without Consilience.Cecilea Mun - forthcoming - London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
    This monograph introduces a meta-framework for conducting interdisciplinary research in the science of emotion, as well as a framework for a particular kind of theory of emotion. It can also be understood as a “cross-over” book that introduces neophytes to some of the current discourse and major challenges for an interdisciplinary approach to the science of emotion, especially from a philosophical perspective. It also engages experts from across the disciplines who are interested in conducting an interdisciplinary approach to research and (...)
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  19. Cognition and Natural Disasters: Stimulating an Environmental Historical Debate.Niki Pfeifer - forthcoming - In E. Vaz, A. Melo & C. J. de Melo (eds.), Proceedings of the Second World Congress of Environmental History. Environmental History in the Making. Springer.
    Modern cognitive and clinical psychology offer insight into how people deal with natural disasters. In my methodological paper, I make a strong case for incorporating experimental findings and theoretical concepts of modern psychology into environmental historical disaster research. I show how psychological factors may influence the production and interpretation of historical sources with respect to perceptions of and responses to disasters. While previous psychological approaches to history mostly involve psychoanalysis, I focus on empirical psychology. Specifically, I review a number of (...)
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  20. Mechanistic Explanation in Psychology.Mark Povich - forthcoming - In Hank Stam & Huib Looren De Jong (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Theoretical Psychology. (Eds.) Hank Stam and Huib Looren de Jong. Sage.
    Philosophers of psychology debate, among other things, which psychological models, if any, are (or provide) mechanistic explanations. This should seem a little strange given that there is rough consensus on the following two claims: 1) a mechanism is an organized collection of entities and activities that produces, underlies, or maintains a phenomenon, and 2) a mechanistic explanation describes, represents, or provides information about the mechanism producing, underlying, or maintaining the phenomenon to be explained (i.e. the explanandum phenomenon) (Bechtel and Abrahamsen (...)
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  21. The Meaning of Hume's Necessary Connexions.Constantine Sandis - forthcoming - In Keith Allen & Tom Stoneham (eds.), Causation and Modern Philosophy.
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  22. What Cost Naturalism?Martin Stokhof & Michiel van Lambalgen - forthcoming - In Wiebke Petersen & Kata Balogh (eds.), BRIDGE 2014 Proceedings. University of Duesselfors Press.
    The paper traces some of the assumptions that have informed conservative naturalism in linguistic theory, critically examines their justification, and proposes a more liberal alternative.
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  23. The Importance of Pluralism for Psychiatry.Elly Vintiadis - forthcoming - In Maria Kanellopoulou-Botti & Fereniki Panagopoulou (eds.), Βιοηθικοί Προβληματισμοί ΙΙ (Bioethical Reflections II). Papazisis.
  24. Robert A. Millikan Meets the Credibility Revolution.Nathaniel T. Wilcox - forthcoming - Journal of Economic Methodology.
  25. Data models, representation and adequacy-for-purpose.Alisa Bokulich & Wendy Parker - 2021 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 11 (1):1-26.
    We critically engage two traditional views of scientific data and outline a novel philosophical view that we call the pragmatic-representational view of data. On the PR view, data are representations that are the product of a process of inquiry, and they should be evaluated in terms of their adequacy or fitness for particular purposes. Some important implications of the PR view for data assessment, related to misrepresentation, context-sensitivity, and complementary use, are highlighted. The PR view provides insight into the common (...)
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  26. How Scientific Instruments Speak: Postphenomenology and Technological Mediations in Neuroscientific Practice.Bas de Boer - 2021 - Lexington Books.
    Science is highly dependent on the technologies needed to observe scientific objects. In How Scientific Instruments Speak, Bas de Boer develops a philosophical account of instruments in scientific practice, focusing on the cognitive neurosciences. He argues for an understanding of scientific instruments as mediating technology.
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  27. Can Constructive Empiricists Believe in Exoplanets Too?Alessio Gava - 2021 - Dissertatio 51:167-182.
    Bas van Fraassen maintains that the actual function of optical instruments is producing images. Still, the output of a telescope is different from that of a microscope, for in the latter case it is not possible to empirically investigate the geometrical relations between the observer, the image and the detected entity, while in the former it is - at least in principle. In this paper I argue that this is a weak argument to support the belief in the existence of (...)
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  28. Thoughts on the Scientific Study of Phenomenal Consciousness.Stan Klein - 2021 - Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice 8 (74-80).
    This Target paper is about the hard problem of phenomenal consciousness (i.e., how is subjective experience possible given the scientific presumption that everything from molecules to minerals to minds is wholly physical?). I first argue that one of the most valuable tools in the scientific arsenal (metaphor) cannot be recruited to address the hard problem due to the inability to forge connections between the stubborn fact of subjective experience and physically grounded models of scientific explanation. I then argue that adherence (...)
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  29. In Defense of Relative Realism: A Reply to Park.Moti Mizrahi - 2021 - Social Epistemology Review and Reply Collective 10 (1):1-6.
    In this paper, I reply to Seungbae Park’s (2020) critique of the view I defend in Chapter 6 of The Relativity of Theory: Key Positions and Arguments in the Contemporary Scientific Realism/Antirealism Debate (Cham: Springer, 2020), namely, Relative Realism. Relative Realism is the view that, of a set of competing scientific theories, the more predictively successful theory is comparatively true. Comparative truth is a relation between competing theories. So, to say that T1 is comparatively true is to say that T1 (...)
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  30. Prototypes, Poles, and Topological Tessellations of Conceptual Spaces.Thomas Mormann - 2021 - Synthese:1 - 36.
    Abstract. The aim of this paper is to present a topological method for constructing discretizations (tessellations) of conceptual spaces. The method works for a class of topological spaces that the Russian mathematician Pavel Alexandroff defined more than 80 years ago. Alexandroff spaces, as they are called today, have many interesting properties that distinguish them from other topological spaces. In particular, they exhibit a 1-1 correspondence between their specialization orders and their topological structures. Recently, a special type of Alexandroff spaces was (...)
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  31. Models in Engineering and Design: Modeling Relations and Directions of Fit.Michael Poznic - 2021 - In Diane Michelfelder & Neelke Doorn (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Engineering. Routledge. pp. 383-393.
    This chapter distinguishes two different modeling relations between vehicles and targets: design relation and representation relation. The relations are characterized by their different directions of fit. Three examples of modeling enterprises are discussed: a bioengineering model, called the “lung chip,” an architectural model, called the “weekend cottage,” and an engineering design model, called the “jet engine.” The two modeling relations with different directions of fit are analyzed in the three examples. The lung chip is standing in a representation relation to (...)
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  32. Evidence, Defeasibility, and Metaphors in Diagnosis and Diagnosis Communication.Pietro Salis & Francesca Ervas - 2021 - Topoi 40 (2):327–341.
    The paper investigates the epistemological and communicative competences the experts need to use and communicate evidence in the reasoning process leading to diagnosis. The diagnosis and diagnosis communication are presented as intertwined processes that should be jointly addressed in medical consultations, to empower patients’ compliance in illness management. The paper presents defeasible reasoning as specific to the diagnostic praxis, showing how this type of reasoning threatens effective diagnosis communication and entails that we should understand diagnostic evidence as defeasible as well. (...)
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  33. Logical Analysis of the Concept of Beauty.Fabio Maia Bertato & Gabriel San Martin - 2020 - Edukacja Filozoficzna 70:121-141.
  34. Understanding Scientific Types: Holotypes, Stratotypes, and Measurement Prototypes.Alisa Bokulich - 2020 - Biology and Philosophy 35 (5):1-28.
    At the intersection of taxonomy and nomenclature lies the scientific practice of typification. This practice occurs in biology with the use of holotypes (type specimens), in geology with the use of stratotypes, and in metrology with the use of measurement prototypes. In this paper I develop the first general definition of a scientific type and outline a new philosophical theory of types inspired by Pierre Duhem. I use this general framework to resolve the necessity-contingency debate about type specimens in philosophy (...)
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  35. Towards a Contextual Approach to Data Quality.Stefano Canali - 2020 - Data 4 (5):90.
    In this commentary, I propose a framework for thinking about data quality in the context of scientific research. I start by analyzing conceptualizations of quality as a property of information, evidence and data and reviewing research in the philosophy of information, the philosophy of science and the philosophy of biomedicine. I identify a push for purpose dependency as one of the main results of this review. On this basis, I present a contextual approach to data quality in scientific research, whereby (...)
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  36. Emily Herring, Kevin Matthew Jones, Konstantin S. Kiprijanov, and Laura M. Sellers, Eds. The Past, Present, and Future of Integrated History and Philosophy of Science. London: Routledge, 2019. Pp. Xii+255. $155.00 (Cloth). ISBN 978-0-815-37985-0. [REVIEW]Kate Dorsch - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (2):598-601.
  37. Falsificationism and the Pragmatic Problem of Induction.Danny Frederick - 2020 - Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 27 (4):494-503.
    I explain how Karl Popper resolved the problem of induction but not the pragmatic problem of induction. I show that Popper’s solution to the pragmatic problem of induction is inconsistent with his solution to the problem of induction. I explain how Popper’s falsificationist epistemology can solve the pragmatic problem of induction in the same negative way that it solves the problem of induction.
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  38. How Thin Rational Choice Theory Explains Choices.Roberto Fumagalli - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 83:63-74.
    The critics of rational choice theory (RCT) frequently build on the contrast between so-called thick and thin applications of RCT to argue that thin RCT lacks the potential to explain the choices of real-world agents. In this paper, I draw on often-cited RCT applications in several decision sciences to demonstrate that despite this prominent critique there are at least two different senses in which thin RCT can explain real-world agents’ choices. I then defend this thesis against the most influential objections (...)
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  39. When Ecology Needs Economics and Economics Needs Ecology: Interdisciplinary Exchange During the Anthropocene.S. Andrew Inkpen & C. Tyler DesRoches - 2020 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 23 (2):203-221.
    ABSTRACT Evidence that humans play a dominant role in most ecosystems forces scientists to confront systems that contain factors transgressing traditional disciplinary boundaries. However, it is an open question whether this state of affairs should encourage interdisciplinary exchange or integration. With two case studies, we show that exchange between ecologists and economists is preferable, for epistemological and policy-oriented reasons, to their acting independently. We call this “exchange gain.” Our case studies show that theoretical exchanges can be less disruptive to current (...)
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  40. Multi-Model Ensembles in Climate Science: Mathematical Structures and Expert Judgements.Julie Jebeile & Michel Crucifix - 2020 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 83:44-52.
    Projections of future climate change cannot rely on a single model. It has become common to rely on multiple simulations generated by Multi-Model Ensembles (MMEs), especially to quantify the uncertainty about what would constitute an adequate model structure. But, as Parker points out (2018), one of the remaining philosophically interesting questions is: “How can ensemble studies be designed so that they probe uncertainty in desired ways?” This paper offers two interpretations of what General Circulation Models (GCMs) are and how MMEs (...)
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  41. Powers, Dispositions and Laws of Nature.Max Kistler - 2020 - In Meincke (ed.), Dispositionalism: Perspectives from Metaphysics and the Philosophy of Science (Synthese Library). Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 171-188.
    Metaphysics should follow science in postulating laws alongside properties. I defend this claim against the claim that natural properties conceived as powers make laws of nature redundant. Natural properties can be construed in a “thin” or a “thick” way. If one attributes a property in the thin sense to an object, this attribution does not conceptually determine which other properties the object possesses. The thin construal is underlying the scientific strategy for understanding nature piecemeal. Science explains phenomena by cutting reality (...)
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  42. The Reference Class Problem for Credit Valuation in Science.Carole J. Lee - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87:1026-36.
    Scholars belong to multiple communities of credit simultaneously. When these commu- nities disagree about a scholarly achievement’s credit assignment, this raises a puzzle for decision and game theoretic models of credit seeking in science. The reference class prob- lem for credit valuation in science is the problem of determining to which of an agent’s communities—which reference class—credit determinations should be indexed for an act under some state of nature. Solving this problem requires developing rich, mutually informed theories of community and (...)
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  43. Models and Fictions: Not So Similar After All?Arnon Levy - 2020 - Philosophy of Science 87 (5):819-828.
    A number of philosophers draw a close analogy between scientific modeling and fiction, often appealing to Kendall Walton’s make-believe view. I assess the models-fictions analogy from a cognitive a...
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  44. Scientific Elite Revisited: Patterns of Productivity, Collaboration, Authorship and Impact.Jichao Li, Yian Yin, Santo Fortunato & Dashun Wang - 2020 - arXiv 2020 (3):1-54.
    Throughout history, a relatively small number of individuals have made a profound and lasting impact on science and society. Despite long-standing, multi-disciplinary interests in understanding careers of elite scientists, there have been limited attempts for a quantitative, career-level analysis. Here, we leverage a comprehensive dataset we assembled, allowing us to trace the entire career histories of nearly all Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine over the past century. We find that, although Nobel laureates were energetic producers from (...)
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  45. The Case Study Method in Philosophy of Science: An Empirical Study.Moti Mizrahi - 2020 - Perspectives on Science 28 (1):63-88.
    There is an ongoing methodological debate in philosophy of science concerning the use of case studies as evidence for and/or against theories about science. In this paper, I aim to make a contribution to this debate by taking an empirical approach. I present the results of a systematic survey of the PhilSci-Archive, which suggest that a sizeable proportion of papers in philosophy of science contain appeals to case studies, as indicated by the occurrence of the indicator words “case study” and/or (...)
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  46. What Did Hecker Say About Laughter? Funny You Should Ask.Karl Pfeifer - 2020 - Israeli Journal of Humor Research 9 (2):44-48.
    The Darwin-Hecker hypothesis, viz. that laughter induced by tickling and humor share common underlying mechanisms, is so-called in part because of a quotation attributed to Ewald Hecker. However, a German counterpart of the quotation does not appear in the location cited. Some textual sleuthing is undertaken to find out what Hecker actually wrote and where he wrote it.
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  47. Rút bài, hành vi anh hùng và cơ chế tự hiệu chỉnh trong khoa học.Lương Anh Phương - 2020 - Khoa Học and Phát Triển 2020 (1):1-4.
    Trên thực tế, sự hoàn hảo của các kết quả học thuật luôn được tạo nên bởi các sai lầm và thất bại. Cơ chế tự hiệu chỉnh chính là một nét đẹp tự nhiên của khoa học, và việc rút bài cũng góp phần tạo nên vẻ đẹp ấy.
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  48. The Distribution of Ethical Labor in the Scientific Community.Vincenzo Politi & Alexei Grinbaum - 2020 - Journal of Responsible Innovation 7:263-279.
    To believe that every single scientist ought to be individually engaged in ethical thinking in order for science to be responsible at a collective level may be too demanding, if not plainly unrealistic. In fact, ethical labor is typically distributed across different kinds of scientists within the scientific community. Based on the empirical data collected within the Horizon 2020 ‘RRI-Practice’ project, we propose a classification of the members of the scientific community depending on their engagement in this collective activity. Our (...)
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  49. New Perspective for the Philosophy of Religion: New Era Theory, Religion and Science.Refet Ramiz - 2020 - Philosophy Study 10 (12):818-873.
    In this article, author expressed the meaning of “belief”, possible effective factors in human life, and how these factors can be effective on person and/or communities. With this respect, the meaning of religion, the possible interaction and relation between religion and science evaluated. 42 past/present theories of religion and evaluation of the past/present works of the 87 philosophers of religion are explained. Author considered new synthesis (R-Synthesis), and also new era philosophy, new and re-constructed branches of philosophy, and some systems/constructions (...)
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  50. Warburg Und Die Natur(-Wissenschaft): Affektpsychologische Fundierung von Kultur Im Hamburger Kreis Um Warburg, Cassirer Und Werner Und Deren Nachwirkungen.Martina Sauer - 2020 - Visual Past, 5/2018, Special Issue: Image Senses.
    What distinguishes humans form animals? Acknowledging that humans are part of nature, that can process psychologically their affective-vital reactions to nature, and thus be held responsible for cultural processes, is the result of art historical, cultural-philosophical and life science research over the past two centuries. This line of argumentation led to the consideration that there must also be a connection between affective-psychological reactions and formal, a-historical mechanisms that are usually used by the arts. However, influenced by classical aesthetic theory, no (...)
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